Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the

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					                                                                                              Final Report
                                                                Assessment of Capacity and
                                                          Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                       Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors




Submitted to:
       Project Director
       The Urban Unit
       P&D Department
       4-B, Lytton Road
       Lahore




                                                        People with simple Solutions



                                                 SEMIOTICS
                             Semiotics Consultants (Pvt.) Limited
                          Flat 6-7, 2nd Floor, Pearl Centre, Block 13, Super Market, Islamabad, Pakistan.
                                      Phone: (051) 287 7266, 227 1248 - Fax : (051) 227 1606
                                   Email: semiotic@apollo.net.pk - semiotic@isb.comsats.net.pk
                                                      www.semiotics.com.pk
                                                                                                                                                              Semiotics
                                                                                                                                Final Report
                                                                             Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                                                   Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                                                                         People with simple solutions


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACRONYMS ......................................................................................................................................... III
ACKNOW LEDGMENTS ........................................................................................................................... V
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................... VII

1.      ABOUT THIS REPORT ................................................................................................................... 1
     1.1    PURPOSE ........................................................................................................................... 1
     1.2    OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................................... 2
     1.3    METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................. 2

2.      SITUATION ANALYSIS OF URBAN SERVICE PROVISION (CITY-WISE) .................................................. 3
     2.1      LAHORE ............................................................................................................................. 3
        2.1.1      URBAN PLANNING ....................................................................................................... 3
        2.1.2      MUNICIPAL FINANCES .................................................................................................. 4
        2.1.3      WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION................................................................................. 4
        2.1.4      SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................... 4
        2.1.5      TRANSPORT ............................................................................................................... 5
     2.2      GUJRANWALA ..................................................................................................................... 5
        2.2.1      URBAN PLANNING ....................................................................................................... 5
        2.2.2      MUNICIPAL FINANCES .................................................................................................. 5
        2.2.3      WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION................................................................................. 6
        2.2.4      SOLID WASTE ............................................................................................................ 6
        2.2.5      TRANSPORT ............................................................................................................... 6
     2.3      MULTAN ............................................................................................................................. 7
        2.3.1      URBAN PLANNING ....................................................................................................... 7
        2.3.2      MUNICIPAL FINANCES .................................................................................................. 7
        2.3.3      WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION................................................................................. 7
        2.3.4      SOLID WASTE ............................................................................................................ 8
        2.3.5      TRANSPORT ............................................................................................................... 8
     2.4      FAISALABAD ....................................................................................................................... 8
        2.4.1      URBAN PLANNING ....................................................................................................... 8
        2.4.2      MUNICIPAL FINANCES .................................................................................................. 8
        2.4.3      WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION................................................................................. 9
        2.4.4      SOLID WASTE ............................................................................................................ 9
        2.4.5      TRANSPORT ............................................................................................................... 9
     2.5      RAWALPINDI ....................................................................................................................... 9
        2.5.1      URBAN PLANNING ....................................................................................................... 9
        2.5.2      MUNICIPAL FINANCES ................................................................................................ 10
        2.5.3      WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION............................................................................... 10
        2.5.4      SOLID WASTE .......................................................................................................... 10
        2.5.5      TRANSPORT ............................................................................................................. 10

3.      DEMAND SIDE CAPACITY ANALYSIS OF AGENCIES INVOLVED IN THE PROVISION OF URBAN SERVICES
         ............................................................................................................................................... 11
     3.1         CAPACITY BUILDING IN PERSPECTIVE .................................................................................. 11
     3.2         COMMON ISSUES .............................................................................................................. 11
     3.3         SECTOR WISE ANALYSIS ................................................................................................... 12
        3.3.1            INSTITUTIONAL MANDATES COMPATIBILITY OF URBAN MANAGEMENT AGENCIES AND OTHER
        RELATED ISSUES ....................................................................................................................... 12
        3.3.2            SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................... 13
        3.3.3            MUNICIPAL FINANCE ................................................................................................. 14
        3.3.4            WATER AND SANITATION ........................................................................................... 14
        3.3.5            LAND USE AND SPATIAL PLANNING............................................................................. 15
        3.3.6            URBAN TRANSPORT .................................................................................................. 18
        3.3.7            CANTONMENT BOARDS ............................................................................................. 19




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     Semiotics
                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                     4.           FINDINGS FROM SEMI STRUCTURED INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP INTERVIEWS AND FOCUS GROUP
                                  DISCUSSIONS HELD WITH URBAN MANAGERS IN THE FIVE CITIES .................................................. 21
                               4.1     KEY CHALLENGES FACED BY URBAN MANAGERS OF TODAY. ................................................ 21
                               4.2     GENERIC KEY CAPACITIES AND CAPABILITIES WHICH URBAN MANAGEMENT AGENCIES MUST
                                       HAVE TO BE ABLE TO PERFORM EFFECTIVELY AND EFFICIENTLY. ......................................... 22

                     5.           CAPACITY GAPS ANALYSIS OF URBAN MANAGEMENT AGENCIES .................................................... 22

                     6.           SUPPLY SIDE ANALYSIS OF CAPACITY BUILDING ........................................................................... 27
                               6.1      CAPACITY BUILDING INSTITUTIONS (CBIS)............................................................................ 27
                                  6.1.1     LOCAL CBIS ............................................................................................................. 27
                                  6.1.2     INTERNATIONAL CBIS AND PROGRAMMES .................................................................... 55
                               6.2      PROJECTS AND P ROGRAMMES ........................................................................................... 70
                                  6.2.1     FAISALABAD AREA UPGRADING PROJECT .................................................................... 70
                                  6.2.2     PROJECT IMPROVEMENT TO FINANCIAL REPORTING AND AUDITING PROJECT ................. 71
                                  6.2.3     PROJECT IMPROVEMENT IN FINANCIAL REPORTING AND AUDITING PROJECT-II................ 72
                                  6.2.4     DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE PROGRAM ....................................................................... 72
                                  6.2.5     PUNJAB MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT FUND COMPANY .................................................... 75
                                  6.2.6     PUNJAB MUNICIPAL SERVICES IMPROVEMENT PROJECT................................................ 77
                                  6.2.7     DECENTRALIZATION SUPPORT PROGRAM .................................................................... 78
                                  6.2.8     PUNJAB DEVOLVED SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAM ........................................................ 79
                                  6.2.9     PUNJAB RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME ......................................................... 80
                                  6.2.10    RAWALPINDI ENVIRONMENT IMPROVEMENT PROJECT ................................................... 82
                                  6.2.11    SOUTHERN PUNJAB BASIC URBAN SERVICES PROJECT ................................................ 83
                                  6.2.12    STRENGTHENING DECENTRALIZED LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN PUNJAB- FAISALABAD DISTRICT
                                            PROJECT ................................................................................................................. 84
                                  6.2.13    JICA DEVOLUTION SUPPORT PROJECT ........................................................................ 85

                     7.           CAPACITY BUILDING IN DPL SECTORS: DEMAND – SUPPLY ANALYSIS ............................................. 92

                     8.           CAPACITY BUILDING PLAN/RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................................ 93
                               8.1      TOWARDS BUILDING THE CAPACITIES OF URBAN MANAGEMENT AGENCIES ............................ 93
                                  8.1.1     ADDRESSING CAPACITY BUILDING NEEDS ON IMMEDIATE BASIS .................................... 94
                                  8.1.2     ADDRESSING CAPACITY BUILDING NEEDS IN THE LONG RUN AND INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF
                                            CAPACITY BUILDING .................................................................................................. 99
                                  8.1.3     OPTIONS FOR INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF CAPACITY BUILDING ..................................... 100

                     9.           CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................................... 105

                     ANNEXURES:
                     ANNEX I: INDICATIVE LIST OF CAPACITY BUILDING INSTITUTIONS/PROJECTS .......................................... 107
                     ANNEX II: LIST OF PEOPLE CONSULTED ............................................................................................. 109
                     ANNEX III: TERMS OF REFERENCE .................................................................................................... 113
                     ANNEX-IV: ORGANOGRAMS .............................................................................................................. 117




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                                                                                                     Semiotics
                                                                                     Final Report
                                  Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                        Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                People with simple solutions




ACRONYMS
AATI      Audit and Accounts Training Institute
ADB       Asian Development Bank
AfDB      African Development Bank
AIT       Asian Institute of Technology
CBI       Capacity Building Institutions
CCB       Citizen Community Boards
CDB       Caribbean Development Bank
CDG       City District Government
CDGL      City District Government Lahore
CDSP      CIDA Devolution Support Project
CIDA      Canadian International Development Agency
CSA       Civil Service Academy
CSCI      Civil Services College International
DANIDA    Danish International Development Assistance
DCO       District Coordination Officer
DDO       Deputy District Officer
DFID      Department for International Development
DGP       Democratic Governance Programme
DMG       District Management Group
DO        District Officer
DSP       Devolution Support Program
DTW       District That Work
EDO       Executive District Officer
FAUP      Faisalabad Area Upgrading Project
FDA       Faisalabad Development Authority
GDA       Gujranwala Development Authority
GEA       Government Engineering Academy
GIS       Geographic Information Systems
HAS       Health Services Academy
HRM       Human Resource Management
HTV       Heavy Transport Vehicle
IADB      Inter-American Development Bank
IBA       Institute of Business Administration
IBRD      International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
IMF       International Monetary Fund
INTAN     National Institute of Public Administration, Malaysia
IP3 PPP   Institute for Public Private Partnership
IPR       Institute of Public Relation
ISD       Instructional System Design
JICA      Japan International Cooperation Agency
LDA       Lahore Development Authority
LG        Local Government
LGO       local Government Ordinance
LTV       Light Transport Vehicle
LUMS      Lahore University of Management Sciences
MDA       Multan Development Authority
METU      Middle East Technical University
MPDD      Management and Professional Development Department
MS        Management System
MTBF      Medium Term Budgetary Framework


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                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                     NED UET                   NED University of Engineering and Technology
                     NESPAK                    National Engineering Services Pakistan
                     NGO                       Non Governmental Organization
                     NIPA                      National Institute of Public Administration
                     NIUA                      National Institute of Urban Affairs
                     NMC                       National Management Collage
                     NSPP                      National School of Public Policy
                     OSR                       Own Source Revenue
                     PCS                       Provincial Civil Services
                     PDSSP                     Punjab Devolved Social Services Program
                     PHED                      Public Health Engineering Department
                     PIF                       Punjab Initiatives Fund
                     PIFRA                     Project for Improvement in Reporting and Auditing
                     PIFRA                     Project Improvement to Financial Reporting and Auditing Project
                     PIM                       Pakistan Institute of Management
                     PIPFA                     Pakistan Institute of Public Finance Accountants
                     PLGO                      Punjab Local Government Ordinance
                     PMDFC                     Municipal Development Fund Company
                     PMSIP                     Punjab Municipal Services Improvement Project
                     PMU                       Project Management Unit
                     PRMP                      Punjab Resource Management Programme
                     RAI                       Regional Anchor Institute
                     RDA                       Rawalpindi Development Authority
                     REIP                      Rawalpindi Environment Improvement Project
                     RRMTI                     Road Research and Material Testing Institute
                     S&GAD                     Services and General Administration Department
                     SEDP                      Social Enterprise Development Programme
                     SP                        Spatial Planning
                     SPBUS                     Southern Punjab Basic Urban Services Project
                     TA                        Technical Assistance
                     TEVTA                     Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority
                     TMA                       Tehsil Municipal Administration
                     ToR                       Term of Reference
                     UEM                       Urban Environmental Management
                     UI                        The Urban Institute
                     UMP                       United Nations Urban Management Program
                     UNDP                      United Nations Development Program
                     UNICEF                    United Nations international Children’s emergency Fund
                     UNOPS                     United Nations Office for Project Services
                     USAID                     United States Agency for International Development
                     USTDA                     United States Trade and Development Agency
                     WASA                      Water and Sanitation Agency
                     WATSAN                    Water and Sanitation




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                                                                    Final Report
                 Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                       Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                               People with simple solutions


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The team would like to thank City Government Officials in
Lahore, Faisalabad, Multan, Rawalpindi and Gujranwala for
their cooperation and assistance. Executive District Officers,
District Officers, Town Nazims, Town Municipal Officers and
Town Officers were extremely cooperative and flexible and
took the time to assist the team in assessing the present
capacity situation and raising key issues and challenges faced
by them today.

The team would also like to acknowledge the efforts made by
all five Development Authorities and WASAs in the five City
District Governments. The information provided by them
played a vital role in the completion of this report. Additionally,
Cantonment Board Officials were eager and helpful and
cooperative given the confidentiality of their activities.

The team would also like to extend their thanks to the faculty
and administration of the various Universities and Institutes
visited. In cases where a visit was not possible we would like
to thank concerned officials for their cooperation and the
provision of the required information.

Lastly, we would like to thank the staff at the Urban Unit for
their cooperation, support and hard work. Their assistance has
played a vital role throughout the project.




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                                                                                                               Semiotics
                                                                                               Final Report
                                            Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                  Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                          People with simple solutions


                        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report sets out the findings of a study aimed at assessing the capacity and capacity
building of urban services agencies in five cities of Punjab namely Lahore, Multan,
Faisalabad, Gujranwala and Rawalpindi. Purpose of the study was to identify the
capacity building needs of local government officials and propose a plan and a roadmap
to fulfill the identified needs on a sustainable basis.
After the inception stage, the study assumed two parallel tracks. The first track focused
on the demand side of capacity building and thus involved study of all urban
management agencies responsible for spatial planning, municipal finance and provision
of urban services like transport, water supply, solid waste management and sanitation.
The second track pursued the supply side of capacity building. The focus was on
studying and analyzing all relevant institutions and programmes which had been involved
in the capacity building of urban agencies or have the potential to play such role in
future.
During field visits, the consulting team conducted individual and group interviews and
focus group discussions with as many of the urban managers as possible. To cover a
satisfactory sample of urban management officials, the team had to make repeated visits
to all the five cities. All in all the team covered nearly all the agencies involved in urban
management and met with more than 300 individuals (Please see annexure for a partial
list of individuals consulted). In order to collect accurate and relevant information in a
time efficient manner, a combination of semi-structured interviews, group interviews,
briefings from urban managers and focus group discussions were used. The data,
information and insights thus gathered were compiled and analyzed on completion of the
implementation phase. Synthesis of the findings revealed a number of similarities in the
type of challenges being faced by urban agencies in different cities as well as a number
of commonalities among their capacity building needs.
Urban management agencies in Pakistan like in other developing and transitional
countries of the world are facing unprecedented challenges in the delivery of urban
services due to a constellation of economic, political, social and cultural factors. These
include rapid and consistent urbanization, increasing automobile penetration, dwindling
water resources, increasing consumerism and commercialism and increasing awareness
in the citizens about the desired quality of urban services and their growing
dissatisfaction with what they are getting.
Among important constraints which impede the delivery of quality municipal services,
weak capacity of urban services agencies to handle urban issues stands out.
Substantive improvement in the efficiency and management culture of the government is
required if large cities are to accelerate economic growth, reduce poverty and improve
service delivery. Therefore equipping urban managers with requisite technical and
managerial capacities needed to cope with the challenges of modern urban management
has become imperative.
However, many of the urban managers consulted in the study did not consider lack of
capacity as their key challenge. Rather they mentioned a number of systemic factors
related to the ‘enabling environment’, as major contributors to the poor performance in
the delivery of urban services. These include;
     i.    Provincial governments use their influence over staff to direct them towards
           their priorities. Vertical programs continue to direct substantial resources in
           traditional ways under the central control of service delivery mechanisms.
           Together, these factors create a disincentive for local politicians to exert their



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                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                                       authority over service delivery. As a consequence, local planning and
                                       budgeting have not emerged as strong substitutes for central direction.
                                 ii.   Devolution has not been able to fully win the trust of urban mangers as many
                                       are still skeptical about the fate of this system. This affects their commitment
                                       and sense of belonging to the district set up.
                                 iii. Often elected representatives are seen as influencing public servants to gain
                                       private goods rather than working towards improving public goods.
                                 iv. Appointment, Posting and Transfer (APT) issues: Most urban managers
                                       belong to one or another federal or provincial cadre. Given that their postings
                                       and transfers are not controlled by the district authorities creates many
                                       complications. These include not filling vacant vacancies in time and or
                                       posting of unsuitable officials in the district or transfer of well-performing
                                       officials out of the district.
                                 v.    Vertical programs follow different lines of reporting and accountability, usually
                                       directly to the provincial or even federal government, thereby undermining
                                       local government’s autonomy and control in service delivery.
                                 vi. The local government financing system, specifically the combination of recent
                                       Provincial Finance Commission (PFC) awards and vertical programs, does
                                       not induce improvements in the efficiency of budget allocations. Firstly, it
                                       reinforces the imbalance between salary and non-salary expenditure. The
                                       largest current components of the PFC tend to be negotiated on the basis of
                                       staff establishment size. The larger the establishment in a local government,
                                       the larger its current PFC allocation. There is little incentive to reduce the
                                       number of staff members in local government employment during the fiscal
                                       year, and divert the savings to operational budgets. Second, there is no
                                       comprehensive picture of total funding for local government social sectors
                                       before, during, or after the budget process, which prevents local governments
                                       from making effective spending decisions.
                                 vii. The public has become used to poor quality of urban services. Most people
                                       are generally unaware of their rights in terms of service delivery, and of how
                                       to complain when services are not delivered. The lack of transparency among
                                       service providers, local government administrations, and the political
                                       leadership weakens the public’s ability to hold government to account.
                                 viii. The incentive, reward and promotion system in the public sector does not
                                       support performance. Managers seldom have the discretion to reward high
                                       performers. Promotions are based on seniority instead of potential to perform
                                       and salaries are fixed as per grades. Moreover, low salaries of officers and
                                       staff as compared to market induce inefficiency, lack of motivation and
                                       corruption.
                                 ix. Very few officials involved in urban management have received urban
                                       management education or in-service training with sharp focus on modern
                                       urban management. The management acumen they possess now is almost
                                       solely attributable to on-the-job learning from convention, common sense and
                                       trial and error.
                                 x.    Urban management, despite its daunting challenges and complexities, has
                                       not emerged as a distinct profession as yet. Hence almost any and every
                                       public servant belonging to a wide range of federal, provincial and district
                                       departments can be posted in a CDG. Salary structure, transferability of staff
                                       from and to urban agencies and tenure procedures need to be changed to
                                       strengthen the human resource base of these agencies.
                                 xi. Political interference by poorly trained and insufficiently experienced elected
                                       representatives, who are often pursuing the politics of patronage, is seriously
                                       undermining district functionaries’ ability to prioritize, plan and manage




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                                              Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                    Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                            People with simple solutions
        xii.  Weakness in implementation create a disincentive for planning which in turn
              leads to weak planning and thus the quality of both planning and
              implementation keep deteriorating, trapped in a vicious cycle.
        xiii. Further clarity is needed in job descriptions and institutional mandates. The
              PLGO 2001 tries to clarify institutional mandates but there is still a lot of
              confusion regarding the allocation of functions between TMAs and CDGs.
              Moreover, Job descriptions given in the PLGO stop at the DO level and most
              of the urban agencies’ staff below this level do not know their job descriptions.
        xiv. Integrated urban planning is missing. For instance, cantonment board areas
              and housing societies must be taken into account while the CDG is making its
              development plans. Piecemeal and fragmented development without
              integrated development visions for these cities is perpetuating the creation of
              islands of prosperity among expanding oceans of poverty. The option of a
              metropolitan planning committee is a viable one to reduce the confusion
              created by the large number of agencies involved in development planning.
        xv. Excessive financial dependence of CDGs on the provincial government is a
              major issue. For example the OSR of most of the CDGs accounts for less
              than 10% of their total budget. Most of the taxes collected by the CDG are
              deposited with the provincial government. This causes a disincentive for
              increasing revenues. Financial independence will also lead to independence
              in planning and service delivery. However whether existing urban managers
              in the CDGs have the capacity to deal with this increased autonomy is also an
              issue.

Capacity gap analysis of urban managers led to the identification of the following generic
capacities needed by urban managers across the various sectors. These include;
       a. Capacity to understand the linkages between all sectors of urban service
           delivery and the broader idea of integrated urban development.
       b. Capacity to actively engage and consult all stakeholders and to raise public
           awareness where needed.
       c. Capacity to adopt modern Human Resource and Financial Management
           systems and practices.
       d. Capacity to develop strategic plans, vision, mission and set and achieve key
           objectives.
       e. Capacity to use, and benefit from, developments in modern Information
           Technology.
       f. Capacity to develop and implement a performance management system with
           required policies and practices.
The capacity gaps analysis also helped in the identification of specific capacity gaps with
regard to various sectors covered in the study. Suitable recommendations to fill these
gaps are given in section 9 of this report.
In addition, one of the important thrusts of this report is on the need to view ‘capacity
building’ in its holistic perspective. While enhanced capacity does contribute towards
organizations’ ability to improve their performance, this ability alone will not lead to
improved performance levels unless it is complemented by an enabling environment that
supports performance. The environment is made up of policies, regulation, service
structure including APT issues, incentive and reward systems, political interference,
accountability and transparency. Keeping this in view, following important management
steps are being recommended to improve the overall environment and working culture of
urban management agencies;
   i.     Begin with Business Process Reengineering (BPR) in urban agencies. This will
          involve study, documentation and analysis of all the processes with a view to
          eliminating value deficient processes and increasing value efficient processes.


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                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
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                                 ii.   Conduct a thorough job analysis to develop clear job descriptions (JDs) and
                                       performance standards at all levels, in line with the new processes. (Work in this
                                       area is under way in Faisalabad CDG. However other urban agencies in
                                       Faisalabad like WASA and FDA and almost all the agencies in the remaining four
                                       cities are seriously lagging in this area).
                                 iii. Develop job specifications (JSs) which cover key competencies required to
                                       perform a certain job (Job specifications do not exist in any urban agency except
                                       for those positions which have been recently opened for recruitment from the
                                       market like MDs WASA.)
                                 iv. Conduct Salary Survey to benchmark market competitive compensation
                                       packages for each position. Abolish the existing grade system and develop new
                                       job groups and their corresponding compensation packages based on JDs, JSs
                                       and salary survey.
                                  v. Conduct Resource Analysis to determine what resources are needed to perform
                                       a certain job effectively. The resources would include human resources, physical
                                       infrastructure, equipments, machinery, and financial resources. Make necessary
                                       arrangements for provision of the identified resources to the respective agencies.
                                 vi. Introduce a performance monitoring systems which collects information against
                                       pre determined targets and performance standards.
                                 vii. Develop performance (Service) standards at organizational level for every urban
                                       agency.
                                 viii. Develop and implement incentive and reward system which is closely linked with
                                       performance. At present, people are mostly being paid for presence rather than
                                       performance.
                                 ix. Link promotion with past performance and future potential rather than
                                       chronological seniority.
                                  x. Develop a responsibility-authority matrix for each job and ensure that every
                                       official is given sufficient authority to fulfill his/her responsibilities. Despite
                                       devolution the authority is still concentrated at the top. With maximum at the
                                       Nazim and DCO level, it diminishes rapidly from DCO to EDO and DO levels and
                                       almost disappears completely below the ADO level.
                                 xi. Make urban management a separate cadre with transferability from one CDG to
                                       the other but no transferability to provincial and federal departments.
                     For capacity building of managers and staff of urban management agencies, this report lists
                     two sets of recommendations; one for immediate implementation and the other for
                     institutionalization of capacity building. Steps are needed to build the capacity of urban
                     management agencies in short to medium term include;

                               1. Immediately start the process to have EDOs, DOs and ADOs trained through short
                                  term courses as identified in matrix given in section 7.
                               2. Start introducing BPR and service structure reforms to ensure that the newly trained
                                  managers find it sufficiently rewarding to return and serve.
                               3. Bring in highly competent urban managers and faculty of urban management
                                  institutes from countries like Singapore, Malaysia, Turkey, on secondement for up to
                                  a year to implement reform agenda.
                               With regard to institutionalization of capacity building, four different options discussed in
                               this report are i) Establish CB function within each urban management agency, ii)
                               Establish CB function within each CDG at the CDG level, iii) Establish a centralized
                               capacity building center in one city to serve all the cities of Punjab and iv) Outsource
                               capacity building of urban management agencies to private sector. Based on the
                               advantages and disadvantages of each option explained in section 9, this report
                               recommends establishment of a centralized CB Institute, preferably in Lahore in
                               collaboration with private sector. An additional recommendation in this regard involves


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                                               Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                             People with simple solutions
   establishing small satellite CB units in each city which are linked to the main CB institute.
   Broad contours of the proposed institute are as follows.

The proposed institute may be named Punjab Institute of Urban Affairs (PIUA), Punjab
Institute of Urban Research and Training (PIURT) or any other suitable name. While
establishment of such institute will have to be preceded by a more detailed design phase
with the involvement of relevant experts, its broad contours can be summarized as below;

Mandate of the Institute

Possible institutional mandates of the said institute could be,
   • To become a state of the art research and training institution, serving as a catalyst for
       continuously enhancing economic prosperity and social development within urban
       areas of Punjab province.
   • Develop high quality urban managers who are committed to the pursuit of excellence,
       and are endowed with vision, managerial and technical competence and dedication.
   • Improve urban management practices in Punjab through creation and dissemination
       of knowledge.
   • Serve as an intellectual resource base in the field of urban management.

Where it may be located

The institute should preferably be located in Lahore for the following reasons;
   • Being capital of the province, it will be easier to coordinate with relevant provincial
       line departments, provincial ministries and other government departments.
   • Head offices of many large business groups and prominent corporate sector
       companies are located in Lahore. This will make it convenient to engage corporate
       leadership in the governance as well as in resource generation for the institute.
   • Lahore, itself being the largest CDG of the province, can offer rich and diverse
       opportunities for study, research, and practical exercises in the field of urban
       management for prospective participants of capacity building programs.
   • Lahore has greater chances of finding and retaining suitable human resources for the
       institute than other cities.
   • The Urban Unit, which is fast developing into a repository of knowledge and expertise
       in urban management, is located in Lahore. Locating the proposed institute in the
       same city will make it more convenient for the UU to play its due role in the
       establishment of this institute.

Governance
 The proposed institute must have a fully autonomous status and should be governed by a
Board of Directors. The BoD should have a balanced representation from the urban
management agencies, provincial line departments, corporate sector, academia
(Engineering University, LUMS etc) and civil society.

Funding
Conceivable sources of initial funding for the proposed institute may include grant from one
or more multilateral or bilateral donors, government’s own funds and donations from
corporate sector. It would be best to create an endowment fund in the start up phase of an
amount which is ensures a steady stream of income to meet the basic operational expenses
of the institute. As the institute grows, it will obviously need more resources. However,
having autonomous status, the institute should generate its own resources from its services
to top up the income from endowment.




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                     Some Functional and Operational Features of the Institute

                               •   There is a yawning vacuum in the availability of reliable data and information about
                                   for instance demand, access, usage and quality of urban services in the cities of
                                   Punjab. Designing quality interventions by the institute would be contingent upon a
                                   strong capacity to fill this information gap through conducting focussed and
                                   meaningful research. Therefore the proposed institute must have a robust research
                                   component. Similarly the proposed institute will need to have strong ICT capacity to
                                   handle process and analyze huge amounts of data.
                               •   Since there are hardly any experts available in Pakistan who could teach modern
                                   urban management, faculty for the proposed institute will have to be brought from
                                   outside the country. Moreover suitable technical expertise will be needed to design,
                                   establish and launch this institute. This can be best achieved through entering into a
                                   strategic partnership with a suitable and relevant oversees institution. ATRIUM -
                                   Singapore, NIUA - India, AIT - Thailand, Civil Services College International –
                                   Singapore, Middle East Technical University – Turkey and INTAN – Malaysia may be
                                   explored for such collaboration.
                               •   The institute may design and conduct basic courses in integrated urban planning and
                                   advance courses in various urban management sectors like SWM, Urban Transport,
                                   and Water Supply etc.
                               •   There should be a general management unit within the institute which develops and
                                   conducts general management courses contextualized within the ambit of urban
                                   management such as strategic planning, human resource management, operational
                                   management, information and communication management, comparative studies of
                                   rapidly developing and developed cities of Asia and the world, management in
                                   service industries etc
                               •   The institute may first start short term certificate courses and then gradually move
                                   into offering longer term diploma and degree awarding programs like a two years
                                   masters program in urban management.




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                                                Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
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                                                                                                              People with simple solutions



1. ABOUT THIS REPORT
Urban managers in Pakistan like those of many other developing and transitional countries
of the world are facing unprecedented challenges in the delivery of urban services due to a
constellation of economic, political, social and cultural factors. These include rapid and
consistent urbanization, increasing automobile penetration – rising number of automobiles
per capita, dwindling water resources, increasing commercialism in all walks of life and
increasing awareness in the citizens about the desired quality of urban services and their
growing dissatisfaction with what they get.

Among important constraints which impede the delivery of quality municipal services, weak
capacity of urban services agencies to handle urban issues stands out. In Punjab much like
other provinces of the country, agencies responsible for the management of urban services
in general and those working in big cities in particular, are also facing similar issues and
challenges. Substantive improvement in the efficiency and management culture of the
government is required if large cities are to accelerate economic growth, reduce poverty and
improve service delivery. Therefore equipping urban managers with requisite technical and
managerial capacities needed to cope with the challenges of modern urban management
has become imperative.

To address these short-comings and to enhance economic growth, the government of
Punjab in collaboration with the World Bank, has initiated an urban sector reform program in
five large cities of the province. Thematically the program addresses the key sectors of
urban planning, land management, poverty, housing, urban services and municipal finance.

Among other important initiatives, the Urban Unit commissioned Semiotics Consultants (Pvt)
Limited to carry out this study which focuses on ‘capacity’ as the central issue. The study
identifies capacity gaps in selected urban management agencies and proposes a plan and a
roadmap to fulfill the identified needs on a sustainable basis. Effort has been made to paint a
holistic picture of the existing and required capacities in all of key capacity areas. This report
canvases both the demand side as well as the supply side of capacity building and proposes
various short term and long measures to fulfill the capacity building needs of these agencies

To address these short-comings and to enhance economic growth, the government of
Punjab in collaboration with the World Bank, has initiated an urban sector reform program in
five large cities of the province. Thematically the program addresses the key sectors of
urban planning, land management, poverty, housing, urban services and municipal finance.

Among other important initiatives, the Urban Unit commissioned Semiotics Consultants (Pvt)
Limited to carry out this study which focuses on ‘capacity’ as the central issue. The study
identifies capacity gaps in selected urban management agencies and proposes a plan and a
roadmap to fulfill the identified needs on a sustainable basis. Effort has been made to paint a
holistic picture of the existing and required capacities in all of key capacity areas. This report
canvases both the demand side as well as the supply side of capacity building and proposes
various short term and long measures to fulfill the capacity building needs of these agencies

This report sets out the findings of a study aimed at assessing the capacity and capacity
building of urban services agencies in five cities of Punjab namely Lahore, Multan,
Faisalabad, Gujranwala and Rawalpindi.

1.1 Purpose
To identify the capacity building needs of local government officials and propose a plan and
a roadmap to fulfill the identified needs on a sustainable basis.




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                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                     1.2 Objectives
                         • Identify learning needs of local government officials;
                         • Analyze the form, substance, relevance and impact of capacity building programmes
                            and interventions availed by local government officials in past;
                         • Inventorize and assess capacity building programmes and opportunities available for
                            local government officials at present;
                         • Develop a comprehensive plan for capacity building of public institutions on a
                            sustainable basis, that delineates which capacities need to be built, from where, by
                            whom, when and how?

                     1.3 Methodology
                     Inception stage of the study was facilitated by meetings with the Urban Unit and a micro
                     study of Lahore which involved discussion and interviews with a representative sample of
                     urban mangers. After the inception stage the study assumed two parallel tracks. The first
                     track focused on the demand side of capacity building and thus involved study of all urban
                     management agencies responsible for spatial planning, municipal finance and provision of
                     urban services like transport, water supply, solid waste management and sanitation.

                     The second track pursued the supply side of capacity building. The focus was on studying
                     and analyzing all relevant institutions and programmes which had been involved in the
                     capacity building of urban agencies or have the potential to play such role in future.

                     Both the demand side and supply side tracks followed systematic processes of investigation
                     and analysis. The demand side investigation began with collection and review of relevant
                     documents from the urban management agencies. These included

                               •   Organizational charter
                               •   Relevant act, ordinance, bill or any other legal documents which describes the
                                   purpose and objectives of the agency like LDA Act of 1976, LGO 2001 etc;
                               •   Operational manuals
                               •   Budget documents
                               •   Job descriptions
                               •   Records of capacity building interventions conducted in past
                               •   Other relevant reports and documents which the agencies agreed to share
                               •   Reports of relevant studies conducted by the World Bank, Asian Development Bank
                                   and other international agencies
                               •   Relevant Reports published by Government departments

                     Although efforts were made to complete as much portion of the desk review as possible
                     before field work, however in most cases both activities ran parallel to each other and more
                     documents kept coming in throughout the methodology phase. During field visits, the
                     consulting team conducted individual and group interviews and focus group discussion with
                     as many of the urban managers as possible. To cover a satisfactory sample of urban
                     management officials, the team had to make repeated visits to all the five cities. All in all the
                     team covered nearly all the agencies involved in urban management and met with more than
                     300 individuals (Please see annexure for a partial list of individuals consulted). The field
                     visits were used to validate the information gathered from secondary sources as well as to
                     collect new information, perspectives, views and ideas from those closer to the ground.

                     In order to collect accurate and relevant information in a time efficient manner, a combination
                     of semi-structured interviews, group interviews, briefings from urban managers and focus
                     group discussions were used. The data, information and insights thus gathered were
                     compiled and analyzed on completion of the investigation phase. Synthesis of the findings



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                                                                                                    Final Report
                                                 Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                       Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                               People with simple solutions
revealed a number of similarities in the type of challenges being faced by urban agencies in
different cities as well as a number of commonalities among their capacity building needs.

2. SITUATION ANALYSIS OF URBAN SERVICE PROVISION (CITY-WISE)
Punjab is the largest province population wise having an estimated population of 72.6 million
as per 1998 census which is about 56% of the country total population. Out of the Punjab
31% population, around 23 million people (31%) are residing in urban areas and an
estimated 50 million people (69%) living in rural areas1. The shares of five big cities come to
around 22 million (30%) of the population of Punjab. The influx of people from rural to urban
centers specially the five big cities keeps on increasing for a variety of reasons such as
better living standard, education and health facilities and above all employment
opportunities.

As a result of rapid urbanization and declining access and quality of municipal services, most
cities of the Punjab are experiencing a substantial increase in the number of people living in
a depressing state of municipal services. Majority of the people in the urban areas of Punjab
are living in unplanned settlements with limited access to affordable and reliable municipal
services.

The following sections contain a brief city-wise overview of the sectors included in this study
providing a glance at the situation with regards to urban service delivery.

2.1 Lahore
Lahore is hub of commercial activities with an expanded economy, education institutions,
invaluable cultural assets, energetic business community and a dedicated leadership well
aware of its significant role in the overall development of the Punjab province with a
population of 7 million. Lahore’s share in the total urban population of Punjab is 22%. Lahore
is the capital city of Punjab and one of the largest metropolitan areas in Pakistan. Lahore
consists of 9 towns and 150 Union Councils. It has a large number of industrial units and
growing tertiary sectors contributing one third of the manufacturing gross value added but is
faced by many challenging and teething urban problems such as high influx ratio,
inadequate infrastructure and in hospitable regulatory framework for private investment and
limited fiscal capacity.

2.1.1 Urban Planning
As evident that without proper urban planning
mechanism improvement would be a far cry in true           Government Offices and Other Agencies
sense. Migration of people to Lahore in search of job,     Involved in Urban Planning:
education and health facilities are a continuous strain    • District Officer Spatial Planning
on the limited resources vis-à-vis allocation of           • Town Officer Planning
material and human resources at the disposal of the        • Development Authorities
                                                           • Cantonment Boards
city Managers for maintenance and up-gradation of
                                                           • Defense and Private Housing Authorities
facilities. On the one hand there is a mushroom
growth of un-planned buildings in and around Lahore
with issues like lack of proper parking, rush on roads, lack of access to potable water and
decent sanitary provisions resulting in an un-friendly environment.

While on the other hand there are many agencies involved in the urban planning without any
clear role and Terms of Reference resulting in confusion and sheer wastage of resources
with out any visible effect to the common people.




1
    Pakistan Population Census, 1998


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                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                     Qualified town planners are presently working at LDA, but have not benefited from any new
                     training or refresher courses. The lack of new skills and institutional confusion is causing a
                     major hindrance to successful and sustainable urban and development planning.

                     2.1.2 Municipal Finances
                     Devolution of power to grass root was essentially important but without corresponding
                     financial power is not going to serve any purpose. Currently there is a tremendous mismatch
                     in the revenue and expenditures responsibilities both for the CDGL and Towns in spite of the
                     fact that CDGs is entirely dependent on the Provincial Government funding for meeting all its
                     liabilities and development works. Own Source of Revenue (OSR) of the CDG Lahore is
                     merely 7%2 of its total revenue. TMAs of Lahore are comparatively better off as it is about
                     37% of its total revenue. Responsibility-wise CDG Lahore has a larger share in the provision
                     of basic services than TMAs. Revenue mobilization efforts are needed to enable CDG
                     Lahore to stand on its own feet and meet its responsibilities in an effective manner. It had
                     been pointed out to the team on various occasions that a key factor behind low OSR is the
                     fact that CDGs do not retain most of the income they generate (transferred to provincial
                     governments) which reduces the incentives to increase OSR.

                     2.1.3 Water Supply and Sanitation
                     Water supply and sanitation is a basic human right and needs to be provided to all and
                     sundry within a reasonable cost on a sustainable basis. In Lahore alone there are three to
                     four agencies responsible for this important task without any coordination. WASA Lahore,
                     DHA, Cantonment Board and private housing authorities are providing WatSan services in
                     their own areas.

                     WASA serves around 88%3 of the urban population as described by the old boundaries of
                     the city (the urban population has increased due to a shifting of boundaries after Lahore was
                     declared a City District.), a proportion, which has not changed for the last several years even
                     though population keeps on increasing in a steady manner resulting in a yawning gap
                     between demand and supply. WASA main source of water supply is through sinking of tube
                     wells due to which water table is lowering rapidly on yearly basis and is a cause for concern.
                     There are around 500000 4 households connections bringing the number of people served to
                     about 3500000 (7 person per household) in Lahore by WASA. The remaining population
                     meets their water and sanitation needs either on their own or through Cantt Board, DHA and
                     other housing authorities.

                     Sanitation situation is further deteriorated as most of the sewers are choked and need a lot
                     of rehabilitation to shoulder heavy demand. There is a lack of proper connection to main
                     sewers and most of the open drains are also not functioning resulting in stagnated water
                     ponds, a breeding ground for mosquitoes and other insects that are a main cause of water
                     born diseases.

                     2.1.4 Solid waste Management
                     Presently around 53500 tons of solid waste is generated on daily basis in Lahore, which will
                     triple over the next 20 years. Disposal of solid waste is the mandated responsibility of CDG
                     Lahore. CDG Lahore is mostly starved for financial resources to effectively dispose off solid
                     waste generated in the city. There are no proper filth depots resulting in heaps of garbage all
                     around streets and roads. Transportation of solid waste to far away depots is another gray
                     area causing too much cost in addition to delay in timely disposal. The DO Solid Waste is

                     2
                       Aide-Memoire Pakistan Lahore Review Mission
                       (October 10-16th, 2004)
                     3
                       WASA Lahore
                     4
                       WASA Lahore
                     5
                       DO Solid Waste CDG Lahore


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                                                   Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                         Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                                 People with simple solutions
further constrained by lack of any state of the art machinery or qualified human resources for
scientific disposal of waste to avoid pollution of environment. Only staffs available are
Sweepers who manually manage cleaning of street and lifting of solid waste. The situation is
further compounded by lack of coordination between WASA and CDG Lahore.

2.1.5 Transport
The ever-growing city of Lahore has witnessed a number of transport problems due to rapid
motorization. Intercity traffic along roads is growing at 7.9% 6% per annum ----- which will
double by 2014 at this rate. Roughly there are 735000 rishkaws with addition of 5000 on
yearly basis. The increase in pressure of traffic result in congestion and travel delays making
Lahore less competitive.

Road safety is declining resulting in increase in number of fatalities per year from 8100 in
1990 to over 300.Vulnerable road users are more exposed to traffic fatalities, including 30%
pedestrian, 10% cyclist and 8% motorcyclists due to inadequate walkways and cycle routes.

All these problems are mainly due to institutional overlapping in role and responsibilities
warranting a mechanism for integration and effective coordination.

2.2 Gujranwala
Gujranwala is an agricultural marketing center (grains, melons, sugarcane), it is also a
commercial and industrial center, manufacturing ceramics, iron safes, copper, brass, and
aluminum utensils. Gujranwala, on the Grand Trunk Road from Rawalpindi to Lahore, now
the third largest city in the Punjab, is of little centrality, even in the provincial context, due to
its proximity to Lahore; like a number of secondary cities, it has been dealing with the
spillovers of the capital of Punjab The total population of Gujranwala is 1.5 million having an
area of 3198 sq. m9. The City District consists of 7 Towns and 188 Union Councils

2.2.1 Urban Planning
GDA, CB and TMAs are responsible for urban planning in Gujranwala. Things are in
shambles and need to be streamlined for better living condition. Even the existing
infrastructure is inadequate to meet the demand and a sizeable gap exists between demand
and supply.

Some of the staff concerned with urban and town planning, including the EDO Municipal
Services are qualified town planners but face three main problems. There have been no
recent trainings with regards to town planning and spatial planning which would refresh their
knowledge and increase their capacity to deal with challenges of urbanization faced in
Gujranwala today. Secondly, cooperation and coordination between the various involved
agencies, GDA, TMAs, and CDG is non existent. Lastly in cases where capacity to develop
and implement plans is present, the officials are hampered by the fact that they are restricted
to small projects which are negligible in the bigger picture.

2.2.2 Municipal Finances
Devolution of power without complete fiscal decentralization has greatly impacted the
performances of LG .None of the LG are independent in imposition of taxes to raise their
OSR .Ironically there is no incentives for CDG to impose taxes as whatever increase is
generated locally goes to Provincial Government without any control or share in the revenue
raised during the distribution of resources by PFC.TMAs are comparably better off on this
account as they are allowed to use their own OSR. It is of note here that the District Officer

6
  Aide-Memoire Pakistan Lahore Review Mission (October 10-16th, 2004)
7
  Aide-Memoire Pakistan Lahore Review Mission (October 10-16th, 2004)
8
  Aide-Memoire Pakistan Lahore Review Mission (October 10-16th, 2004)
9
  www.gujranwalacity.com


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                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                     (Budget and Finance) in Gujranwala has not received any sort of trainings, In-service or
                     alternatively arranged, in the last ten years. Other officers at the Executive District Office for
                     Finance and Planning have received various trainings but no concentrated effort has been
                     made to train the whole staff as a unit and in an on-going basis. In-service trainings at the
                     Management and Professional Development Department and trainings on Project Cycle
                     Management by JICA were informative and helpful but such initiatives need to be made on
                     an on-going basis for the situation to improve.

                     2.2.3 Water Supply and Sanitation
                     Water supply and sanitation are important services which are not currently being provided to
                     a large majority of the population. Out of the total population of 1.5 million only 30%
                     numbering 0.45 million people have access to water and rest of the 70% are deprived of this
                     basic facility. A number of agencies like WASA, CB, TMA and PHED are involved in the
                     provision of WatSan services without any coordination. The present system is plagued by
                     rusting and aging pipes and tubewells that have gone dry. Water quality is another area of
                     concern for the policy maker due to lack of basic facilities for carrying out necessary testing.

                     On the sanitation side people are confused about the basic definition what to include in it or
                     exclude from its ambit. As per WASA figures 60% of the people are served and 40% are un-
                     served. Issues like filling of vacant posts, creation of additional posts corresponding to
                     increase in population coupled with skilled manpower are reasons hampering improvement
                     in the system.

                     2.2.4 Solid Waste
                     Around 850-100010 tons of solid waste is generated on daily basis in Gujranwala .Out of this
                     CDG has the capacity to lift only 400 tons per day and remaining solid waste is lying
                     indisposed in street ,open drain due to lack of equipment, personnel, dumping site and
                     proper landfill site.

                     As per standard one sanitary worker is needed for every 500 persons. However current
                     strength of District Office SWM is 1135 which is short of 589 sanitary workers. Lack of public
                     awareness on sanitary living and adoption of better hygiene practices are main causes of the
                     deplorable sanitary conditions in the city.

                     The District Officer for Solid Waste Management has received five trainings in the last ten
                     years, none of which were technical based that would have helped increase his knowledge
                     base and update him with respect to new waste management techniques.

                     2.2.5 Transport
                     Urban transport is the most neglected sector without any proper office where transport
                     related issues can be resolved? Secretary RTA exist but more focused toward other duties
                     assigned by Provincial Government and DCO. There is no proper transport policy to be
                     followed for effecting improvement in the transport system. Roads are completely
                     dilapidated condition and require full rehabilitation. Besides condition of roads, its capacity
                     cannot shoulder the ever increasing flow of transport without any regulatory mechanism in
                     place; commuters and transporter have no traffic sense resulting in a chaos like situation.

                     None of the officers involved in urban transport issues has received any training in the last
                     10 years. Town officers in Khiali Town and Aroop Town have conducted extensive research
                     on the urban transport problems in Gujranwala and come up with a list of recommendations
                     on their own initiative, but due to lack of coordination and various other reasons these have
                     failed to materialize.


                     10
                          Presentation by District Officer SWM Gujranwala


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                                                Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
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                                                                                                              People with simple solutions
2.3 Multan
Multan is one of the oldest cities of Pakistan with a total population 3.866 million. Urban
Population is 1.896 and rural 1.97 million. There are six towns and 129 union council in the
CDG. Total area of Multan is 380 sq.Km with population density of 5855 person/Km2.
Literacy rate in the district is 61%, with 68% and 53% for male and female respectively.

2.3.1 Urban Planning
Currently MDA, TMA and CB are involved in the urban planning with no clear demarcation or
role and responsibilities resulting in un-planned settlement. The pressure on the limited city
infrastructure is multiplying for many reasons as people from adjoining areas are coming to
Multan for employment, education and health facilities. Most of the areas developed are
short of basic civic facilities which need a lot of efforts to streamline. Duplication in role and
responsibilities is an area of concern to policy makers for making any meaningful headway
to provide better and planned urban facilities to the people of Multan.

Staff at the Multan Development Authority’s Urban and Town planning wing has not received
any trainings in the past 10 years. Given the crucial role played by these officers in
coordination, design, and implementation of development plans, their expertise and
knowledge level needs to be continuously refreshed in order to successfully handle urban
development.

2.3.2 Municipal Finances
Most of the agencies involved in the provision of municipal services are short of funds
hampering implementation of planned activities. None of the agencies could impose taxes
due to limited financial power and a lot more political interferences from the elected people.
Effecting of recoveries to help improve financial health of these agencies are week areas
which are short of legal power and will on the part of employees due to lack of any reward or
fine mechanism in place.

In the Executive District Officer for Finance and Planning, the EDO is the only person who
has benefited from trainings in the last 10 years. The rest of the staff has not been given any
training in the last decade to increase their knowledge and help them perform their jobs
more efficiently. The EDO has received trainings on financial management organized by the
NRB, and trainings on Budget rules and NAM through DSP and the Auditor Generals office
respectively. These trainings were quite helpful and such initiatives should be extended to all
members of the staff.

2.3.3 Water Supply and Sanitation
Multan CDG is fortunate enough to have abundant fresh water, constantly recharged with
chain of Canals and rivers on its boundaries. Out of the total area of Multan, 60% has
access to piped water supply and remaining 40% is still uncovered. There are 88 tubewells
with total installed capacity of 295 cusecs. Sanitation situation is not that encouraging as a
wide gap exists between demand and supply due to increase in population. Sanitation
coverage is 55% of the city population while 35% of population is deprived of sewerage
facilities. The sewer system laid in the city need renovation to help eliminate choking and
flooding of waste especially during rainy season.

A ban on recruitment has crippled Multan WASAs efforts to increase revenue as they do not
have the human resource capacity to manage the revenue cell effectively. The engineering
staff at WASA has not received any training in the last decade except for a workshop
conducted by the Urban Unit. This workshop was quite effective in increasing the capacity of
the participants with respect to water and sanitation, but more initiatives like it need to be
taken.




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                     2.3.4 Solid Waste
                     In Multan around 761 tons solid waste is generated on daily basis. Out of this 94.41%
                     ismunicipal waste, 3.94% industrial waste, 5.25% animal waste and a small percentage of
                     0.39% as hospital waste.

                     In the total waste generated 608 tons (79.8%) are lifted on daily basis and 153 tons
                     (20.11%) are left over. In maximum urban areas of Multan, solid waste management
                     services are provided on two shift basis. On the human resource side huge gap exists
                     between the sanitary workers vis-à-vis city population resulting in low service level. It is
                     worth mentioning that as per criteria for each 500 person there should be one sanitary
                     worker but in Multan for 912 persons there is one sanitary worker. In addition to human
                     resources, CDG is short of equipments and other facilities such as recycling, incineration
                     plants, proper disposal of dead animals and land fill site.

                     CDG officials dealing with SWM have received some trainings in the past, including two
                     trainings organized by JICA in Japan, but a concentrated capacity building effort is needed.

                     2.3.5 Transport
                     Due to lack of proper transport policy things are in quite shambles with many problems faced
                     both by transporters as well commuters. No coordination between DO (Transport) Secretary
                     RTA and Police exist for streamlining traffic related issues. The stakeholders are
                     independently doing whatever they can do with no liaison to build on each other strengths
                     leaving much room for improvement.

                     2.4 Faisalabad
                     Faisalabad is the 3rd largest city of Pakistan with a population of 5.429 million people as per
                     1998 Census Report. There are 8 TMAs and 289 Union councils. Old name of Faisalabad
                     was Lyallpur and in common parlance people call it Manchester of Pakistan because of
                     concentrated textiles industry.

                     2.4.1 Urban Planning
                     Being 3 rd largest city of Pakistan and an industrial centre with relatively,better education and
                     health facilities, Faisalabad has seen population influx from the adjoining rural areas in
                     search of employment and other better civic facilities. FDA had developed a Master Plan in
                     1986-87 which was valid up to 2000 for the provision of proper housing colonies,
                     strengthening of roads network and other urban amenities. However the situation after
                     devolution got changed due to resource constraint and shifting of responsibility to LG .Fall in
                     the service level has been noticed due to lack of technical know-how and management
                     capability at LG for running urban affairs as most of their expertise remain confine to tertiary
                     level resulting in un-planned and unsystematic growth of city.

                     2.4.2 Municipal Finances
                     The situation of Municipal Finance in Faisalabad District has been improving of late. A total
                     of 900 DDOs and clerks were trained on budgeting and planning and a new Financial
                     Management Information System has been established and is now operational. The new
                     budgets are being prepared using the NAM and other budgeting and planning models have
                     been developed. However dire issues remain in the shape of very low local revenue
                     collection (2%), integrated planning and lack of timely reconciliation. It is also felt that the
                     funds awarded by the PFC are insufficient to meet the developmental and non
                     developmental needs of the City District Government.

                     Even though some steps have been taken towards sound financial management, including
                     the introduction of FMIS and trainings of staff, a large number of employees still require
                     further capacity building and trainings.



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2.4.3 Water Supply and Sanitation
In urban area of Faisalabad, WASA is the service provider whereas in rural areas PHED and
TMA are providing WatSan services to majority of people as per saying of these
departments. Due to a lack of accurate statistics on account of WatSan services it is difficult
to determine exact number of people having access to WatSan services and number of
providers. As per WASA it is providing WatSan services to 6 million people with total
connection of 110000 and sewerage connections number around 2 million

WASA and the TMAs involved in the water and sanitation sector in Faisalabad face multiple
problems that cripple the efficiency and reliability of service delivery. An extreme shortage of
financial resources, political interference, and limited water sources to name just a few.
Capacity issues in these two bodies revolve around lack of planning skills, there is no long
term planning of any sort being undertaken presently. There is also an absence of any
coordination or monitoring and quality control. Public awareness about water conservation
and sanitation issues is very low and the staff at WASA and TMAs does not possess the
capacity to raise this issue amongst the community.

2.4.4 Solid Waste
Faisalabad generates 1250 tons of solid waste on daily basis. Out of this DO (SW) has the
capacity of lifting 590 tons daily which is only 47.2% of total waste. Rest of the waste around
660 tons (52.8%) remains un- attended. Solid waste is collected from 8 constructed
collection points and 48 un-constructed collection points where chances of spill over to
roads, drains and streets are much higher as compared to properly constructed collection
points. There are two landfill site both on 16-19 Km distance from the city on main bypasses
between Satiana and Samundari Road.

Major problems of SWM are shortage of sanitary workers and collection points in addition to
low lifting capacity, old and depilated vehicles, lack of qualified personnel and no
arrangement for the disposal of hospital waste. If SW management is to be improved
equipment like handcarts, mechanical sweepers, waste sprinklers, excavators, front loaders
and chain bulldozers must be provided urgently.

2.4.5 Transport
Transport is a function resting with EDO (MS) mainly responsible for ensuring traffic
management, proper signaling and observance of traffic rules and fining the violators. But
due to absence of proper transport policy a lot of confusion exist in role and responsibilities
of various agencies involved e.g. RTA, DO (Transport), Police, transporters, and TMAs
which are responsible for the maintenance of Adda and parking lot. Public awareness needs
to be raised with regards to traffic sense both in drivers and commuters for better safety and
to avoid losses in traffic accidents.

2.5 Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi is a city in the Potwar Plateau having an area of 5285 Sq.KM.Total population of
Rawalpindi is around 3.36 million people. CDG comprises of 8 towns and 175 Union
councils.

2.5.1 Urban Planning
Urban Development management and spatial planning is almost non-existent in Rawalpindi.
The Rawalpindi Development Authority has not designed/implemented a new housing
scheme for almost a decade now. Capacity, as well as a general will to do so is limited. The
TMAs in Rawalpindi are comparatively stronger than TMAs in the other CDGs due to various
political reasons. These indulge in some limited planning but nothing that can meet the
challenges brought on by rapid urbanization and growth. None of the RDA employees have
received any training in the last ten years and rely solely on the qualifications they brought
with them to the job.


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                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions



                     2.5.2 Municipal Finances
                     As with the other 4 CDGs, municipal finances in Rawalpindi are plagued by problems of very
                     low Own Source Revenue, heavy reliance on funds coming through vertical programmes
                     and lack of coordination between the various departments. The staff at the EDO Finance
                     and Planning office is limited and overworked. The TMAs in Rawalpindi have asserted
                     control over most of the districts assets while the CDG are still responsible for the liabilities
                     and this stretches the districts minimal resources even further.

                     2.5.3 Water Supply and Sanitation
                     Rawalpindi WASA took control over water and sanitation issues from Rawalpindi Municipal
                     Corporation in 1996. However, control over the old corporation’s assets is still under dispute
                     with the TMAs. Its major water sources are Rawal and Khanpur damns and coverage is at
                     around 65%11 presently.

                     WASA is facing a growing number of problems and does not have the capacity at present to
                     deal with these in an effective manner. Its water resources are depleting and can not keep
                     up with the rapid pace of urbanization. The number of housing societies is growing rapidly
                     and most do not have any facilities for water provision. Large pieces of revenue are lost due
                     to leakages, unauthorized connections and unsuitable materials used in the supply pipes.
                     The situation for sewage and sanitation is similar, with no planning of sewage lines and low
                     quality materials being used. In some cases sewage lines are interfering with water supply
                     and resulting in contaminated water.

                     Engineering staff at WASA lacks capacity for planning and implementing new projects as
                     well as monitoring, evaluating, operating, and maintaining present networks. The few people
                     that do have the capacity to deal with these issues are overburdened with excessive
                     amounts of work, so much so that they do not even have the time to attend any training that
                     might be arranged. Capacity is also seriously hampered by engineering departments being
                     headed by non-engineers.

                     2.5.4 Solid Waste
                     The total solid waste is 650-800 tons per day. There is no distinction between domestic,
                     commercial, hospitals and industrial. A total of 65 different type vehicles collect garbage from
                     various points in the city for dumping to the landfill site for burying with the help of
                     excavators and bulldozers. The management of solid waste is fragmented due to the
                     distances between various towns. Integrated approach can only be applied in Rawal Town
                     and Potohar Town, which are geographically adjacent.

                     Break up of the staff deployed are Chief Sanitary Inspector (CSI), SI and Sanitary workers
                     with no technical backstopping or support for timely disposal of garbage collection on
                     scientific basis.

                     2.5.5 Transport
                     Unlike TEPA in Lahore, there is no agency dealing with urban transport and traffic in
                     Rawalpindi. The Metropolitan Planning and Traffic Engineering Wing of the RDA handles
                     some of the urban transport issues but is severely understaffed and there is a lack of human
                     resources. The projects designed and implemented by this Wing fall into decay once handed
                     over to the concerned agencies (TMAs, CDG etc). The staff dealing with transport has the
                     right credentials and qualifications for the job at hand but as with the rest of the RDA, no in-
                     service trainings have been imparted to refresh their knowledge and update them with
                     regards to new concepts and technologies.


                     11
                          Interview with Director Engineering WASA Rawalpindi


                                                                                  10
                                                                                                                        Semiotics
                                                                                                        Final Report
                                                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                           Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                                   People with simple solutions
3. DEMAND SIDE CAPACITY ANALYSIS OF AGENCIES INVOLVED IN THE
     PROVISION OF URBAN SERVICES
The following findings of the demand side study are based on interviews with the concerned
officials in all five cities, focus group discussions held in various cities, and a thorough review
of documents and mandates related to the agencies and officers involved.

3.1 Capacity Building in perspective
In the efforts to improve the quality of life in urban areas and transform these cities into
engines of economic growth, undoubtedly the urban agencies will have to improve their
performance. However any serious effort aimed at improving performance of urban agencies
will have to view ‘capacity building’ in its holistic perspective. In the simplest of explanations,
performance is a function of ability to perform (capacity), willingness to perform (motivation)
and an enabling environment that supports performance (policies, regulation, service
structure including APT issues, incentive and reward systems, political interference,
accountability and transparency.

Capacity is mostly related with the ability to perform. However, ability alone will not lead to
improved performance levels unless it is complemented by improvements in the remaining
two equally important components of the performance equation.

3.2 Common Issues
Many of the urban managers consulted in the study did not consider lack of capacity as their
key challenge. Rather they mentioned a number of systemic factors related to the ‘enabling
environment’ component mentioned above, as major contributors to the poor performance in
the delivery of urban services. Before dwelling upon the capacity issues, it is pertinent to list
down these issues, which include12

     1. Provincial governments use their influence over staff to direct them towards their
        priorities. Vertical programs continue to direct substantial resources in traditional
        ways under the central control of service delivery mechanisms Together; these
        factors create a disincentive for local politicians to exert their authority over service
        delivery. As a consequence, local planning and budgeting have not emerged as
        strong substitutes for central direction.
     2. Devolution has not been able to fully win the trust of urban mangers as many are still
        skeptical about the fate of this system. This affects their commitment and sense of
        belonging to the district set up.
     3. Often elected representatives are seen as influencing public servants to gain private
        goods rather than working towards improving public goods.
     4. Appointment, Posting and Transfer issues: Most urban managers belong to one or
        other federal or provincial cadre. Given that their postings and transfers are not
        controlled by the district authorities creates many complications. These include not
        filling vacant vacancies in time and or posting of unsuitable officials in the district or
        transfer of well-performing officials out of the district.
     5. Vertical programs follow different lines of reporting and accountability, usually directly
        to the provincial or even federal government, thereby undermining local government
        accountability in service delivery.
     6. Managerial autonomy is weakened by provincial line departments as they try to exert
        influence over local government managers at an operational level, often by issuing
        directives rather than delegating managerial authority or monitoring performance.
     7. The local government financing system, specifically the combination of recent
        Provincial Finance Commission (PFC) awards and vertical programs, does not

12
  Some of the issues mentioned here have been taken form the Report on Devolved Social Services Delivery in
NWFP and Punjab by ADB, 2005. However, most of the people interviewed during this study reconfirmed
these.


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     Semiotics
                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                                   induce improvements in the efficiency of budget allocations. Firstly, it reinforces the
                                   imbalance between salary and non-salary expenditure. The largest current
                                   components of the PFC tend to be negotiated on the basis of staff establishment
                                   size. The larger the establishment in a local government, the larger its current PFC
                                   allocation. There is little incentive to reduce the number of staff members in local
                                   government employment during the fiscal year, and divert the savings to operational
                                   budgets. Second, there is no comprehensive picture of total funding for local
                                   government social sectors before, during, or after the budget process, which
                                   prevents local governments from making effective spending decisions.
                               8. The public has become used to poor quality of urban services. Most people are
                                   generally unaware of their rights in terms of service delivery, and of how to complain
                                   when services are not delivered. The lack of transparency among service providers,
                                   local government administrations, and the political leadership weakens the public’s
                                   ability to hold government to account.
                               9. The incentive rewards and promotion system in the public sector does not support
                                   performance. Managers seldom have the discretion to reward high performers.
                                   Promotions are based on seniority and salaries and increments are fixed as per
                                   grades.
                               10. Transferability of officers from CDGs to provincial or federal line departments and
                                   vice versa undermines capacity building inputs.
                               11. Solid Waste Management and Sanitation are            Overlap in SWM and WATSAN Sectors
                                   interrelated. But these two services are being       An SWM worker sweeps the garbage and
                                   managed by two different agencies – sanitation      disposes it off into the nearest manhole.
                                   by WASA and SWM by the EDO MS is                    After some time a sewer man enters the
                                   resulting in efficiency losses and poor quality of  scene, he collects the garbage out of the
                                   service. A typical scenario shared by a WASA        sewer and promptly restores it back to its
                                                                                       previous location and the cycle goes
                                   official in Lahore can help explain the point. An   on..... .
                                   SWM worker sweeps the garbage and
                                   disposes it off into the nearest manhole. After some time a sewer man enters the
                                   scene, he collects the garbage out of the sewer and promptly restores it back to its
                                   previous location and the cycle goes on..... .
                               12. Recentralization: revival of Housing Urban Development and Public Health
                                   Engineering Departments.
                               13. Low salaries of officers and staff as compared to the rest of the market induce
                                   inefficiency, lack of motivation and corruption.

                     Despite these issues and challenges, a constellation of push and pull factors are driving the
                     urban services agencies to deliver more and at least some of the officials are genuinely
                     trying to do their best. A remarkable spirit to struggle against all odds was observed in many
                     urban mangers and staff met during the study. They were doing whatever was possible
                     within their means. Often these officials were constrained by lack of supporting policies and
                     rules or shortage of resources like vehicles, staff and funds or lack of proper training. But
                     there were examples where such crippling constraints were being overcome with innovation,
                     ingenuity and sheer will.

                     3.3 Sector Wise Analysis

                     3.3.1  Institutional Mandates Compatibility of Urban Management Agencies and other
                            related Issues
                     Following are a series of matrices analyzing the mandates of institutions and officers
                     involved in urban service delivery and some key mandate and capacity issues and
                     recommended actions.




                                                                                  12
                                                                                                                                 Semiotics
                                                                                                               Final Report
                                                            Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                                  Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                                            People with simple solutions
3.3.2    Solid Waste Management
     Name of         Existing Mandate            Source               Issues                  Recommendations
    Institution
1. Executive       Solid waste                 PLGO 2001       • SWM and              • Both solid and liquid waste
District Office    management, spatial                         Sanitation are              management should be
Municipal          planning, environment                       interrelated.               given to one agency,
Services           and transport                               Sanitation by WASA          preferably WASA.
                                                               and SWM by EDO         • In Punjab, the only agency with
                                                               MS results in               some capacity for urban
                                                               efficiency losses and       transport management is
                                                               poor quality of             TEPA Lahore. TEPA needs
                                                               services.                   to be further strengthened,
                                                                                           converted into an
                                                                                           autonomous transport
                                                                                           management authority and
                                                                                           given the mandate to
                                                                                           develop urban transport
                                                                                           policy for cities of Punjab as
                                                                                           well as implementation of the
                                                                                           policy.
                                                                                      • In addition TEPA offices
                                                                                           should be created in other
                                                                                           cities and given the same
                                                                                           mandate.
                                                                                      • DO Environment Office to be
                                                                                           strengthened with properly
                                                                                           qualified staff and
                                                                                           equipment.
                                                                                      • Secondary legislation to
                                                                                           support DO environment
                                                                                           with necessary rules and
                                                                                           authorities needed to
                                                                                           enforce environment control
                                                                                           regulations.
                                                                                      • Other recommendations as
                                                                                           given in the capacity building
                                                                                           plan
District Officer   • Solid waste               Punjab          • Very low ratio of    • Bring in qualified solid waste
SWM                management, treatment       District        officers to sanitary   managers and engineers
                   and disposal, including     Government      workers                • Create partnerships with
                   land fill sites and         Rules of        • No capacity to       private sector including informal
                   recycling plants            Business        raise public           recycling industry
                   • Industrial and hospital   2001            awareness on issues • Involve and educate
                   hazardous and toxic                         like recycling and re- community to improve primary
                   waste treatment and                         using and hygiene      collection through awareness,
                   disposal                                    education              incentives and penalties
                                                               • No proper mapping • Develop infrastructure for
                                                               of drains and sewers secondary collection and final
                                                               • No engineering       disposal
                                                               staff available        • Other recommendations as
                                                               • Lack of landfill     given in the capacity building
                                                               sites                  plan
                                                               • In some Districts,
                                                               TMAs are
                                                               responsible for their
                                                               own SWM creating
                                                               role confusion
Town Municipal     • Provision,                Punjab          • Devolution of        • Accelerate the speed of
Administration     management, operation       Local           responsibility         transition



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     Semiotics
                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                          Name of            Existing Mandate            Source                Issues                    Recommendations
                         Institution
                     (Town Officer         maintenance and             Government       regarding SWM             • Increase technical and
                     Infrastructure and    improvement of the          Rules            duties varies from        managerial capacities of TMAs
                     Services)             municipal infrastructure                     Town to Town. Some
                                           and services, including ;                    TMAs have taken
                                           • Sanitary disposal of                       over this function
                                           solid waste collection                       while others have not
                                           and sanitary disposal of                     • TO I&S do not
                                           solid, liquid, industrial                    have the technical
                                           and hospital wastes                          capacity to employ
                                                                                        modern techniques
                                                                                        of waste collection,
                                                                                        removal and
                                                                                        management.

                     3.3.3     Municipal Finance

                           Name of           Existing Mandate           Source               Issues                     Recommendations
                         Institution
                     Executive             Finance and budgeting,      PLGO         • There        is      no    • Increase commitment towards
                     District Officer      planning and                2001         coordination of funds        complete fiscal decentralization at
                     Finance and           development                              coming to District           the federal and provincial level.
                     Planning                                                       through           vertical   • Channel all development
                     (Including District                                            programs.                    resources through existing
                     Officer Finance                                                • OSR is a negligible        agencies instead of creating
                     and Budgeting,                                                 part of budget               parallel structures
                     District Officer                                               • Lack of integrated         • Create incentives for CDGs to
                     Planning and                                                   planning                     increase OSR
                     District Officer                                               • Political will for         • Enhance technical and
                     Accounts)                                                      Budget rules is              managerial capacities of EDO F&P
                                                                                    missing which need           office.
                                                                                    to be implemented to         • Other recommendations as given
                                                                                    enhance efficiency           in the capacity building plan.
                                                                                    • Confusion created
                                                                                    by most of the funds
                                                                                    coming through
                                                                                    vertical programmes
                                                                                    • Lack of human
                                                                                    resources, majority of
                                                                                    the work in all 5 City
                                                                                    Districts is being
                                                                                    carried out by a
                                                                                    handful of employees


                     3.3.4     Water and Sanitation

                         Name of             Existing Mandate            Source                Issues                    Recommendations
                        Institution
                     Water and             • The agency                LDA Act          • Ban on hiring and       Recommendations as given in the
                     Sanitation            established shall                            firing of workers,        capacity building plan
                     Agency (WASA)         perform all functions                        leads to inefficient
                                           and exercise all powers                      utilization of human
                                           of the authority with                        resources.
                                           regards to water supply,                     • Abolition of urban
                                           sewerage and drainage                        rural divide has
                                           with power to collect                        expanded the
                                           rates, fees and charges                      jurisdiction of WASA


                                                                                  14
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                                                                                                                 Final Report
                                                              Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                                    Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                                              People with simple solutions
    Name of            Existing Mandate            Source               Issues                  Recommendations
   Institution
                     for water supply,                           putting a severe
                     sewerage and drainage.                      strain on its
                     • Prepare schemes for                       resources.
                     the area or any part                        • Public private
                     thereof                                     partnership is
                                                                 operational but no
                                                                 punitive steps have
                                                                 been taken
                                                                 • Lack of incentive
                                                                 based system to
                                                                 increase
                                                                 performance
                                                                 • No routine
                                                                 development budget
                                                                 allocated to WASA
Town Municipal       • Provision,                Punjab          • Overlap of            • Clarify demarcation of TO
Administration       management, operation       Local           responsibilities with   responsibilities
(Town Officer        maintenance and             Government      WASA except in rural    • Enhance institutional,
Infrastructure and   improvement of the          Rules           towns.                  managerial and technical
Services)            municipal infrastructure                    • Lack of capacity to   capacities of TO offices in line
                     and services, including ;                   plan, implement and     with the guiding framework given
                     • Water supply and                          operate water supply    in the capacity building plan.
                     control and                                 networks and
                     development of water                        sewage systems.
                     resources, other than                       • Lack of human and
                     systems maintained by                       physical resources to
                     the union and village                       properly maintain
                     councils                                    present systems
                     • Sewage and sewage
                     treatment and disposal
                     • Storm water drainage

3.3.5     Land Use and Spatial Planning

    Name of            Existing Mandate            Source               Issues                  Recommendations
   Institution
Development          • Initiate and maintain a   LDA Act         • Lack of technical     • Role of development
Authorities (FDA     continuous process of                       knowledge               authorities needs to be revisited.
LDA RDA GDA          comprehensive                               • No in-service or      Under the given situation,
MDA)                 development planning                        pre-service training    development authorities need to
                     for the area with the                       programmes              be mandated to focus only on
                     objective of preparing a                    • Strength of human     spatial and development of new
                     Metropolitan                                resources does not      schemes.
                     Development Plan                            correspond to rapidly   • All services and matters
                     • Periodically update                       increasing              pertaining to the already
                     such Metropolitan                           populations             developed areas should be dealt
                     Development Plan and                        • Building              by CDG. But huge capacity
                     coordinate its                              regulations and         building input would be needed
                     implementation by the                       spatial planning not    to enable CDG handle these
                     authority and other                         consolidated in one     issues.
                     government agencies                         agency/authority.       • Clearly demarcate jurisdictions
                     within the area                             Numerous                of various agencies like
                     • Prepare Annual                            organizations           development authorities, Punjab
                     Development                                 involved in this        Housing Department, DO Spatial
                     Programme for the                           creates confusion       Planning etc.
                     area, ensure                                • Issue of Patwaris     • Legislation and process
                     compliance of the                           misusing land is a      improvement needed to


                                                            15
     Semiotics
                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                                Name of        Existing Mandate           Source               Issues                    Recommendations
                               Institution
                                             Annual Development                         nuisance                  streamline and simplify land
                                             Programme with                             • Lack of legislation     titling, transfer and conversion of
                                             priorities established in                  dealing with              land status e.g. from agricultural
                                             the Metropolitan                           Industrialization         to residential or from residential
                                             Development Plan after                     within city limits.       to commercial etc.
                                             its preparation, and                       • Political               • Enhance managerial and
                                             evaluate performance                       interference in           technical capacities of CDG to
                                             under the Annual                           dealing with              look after enforcement of building
                                             Development                                encroachments             regulations and spatial plans.
                                             Programme at the end                       • Lack of vertical
                                             of each year                               mobility leading to
                                             • Establish, maintain                      career stagnation
                                             and periodically revise
                                             as necessary, planning
                                             controls and building
                                             regulations for the area
                                             to (a) provide
                                             appropriate urban
                                             design and protect
                                             public safety (b) ensure
                                             compliance with the
                                             Metropolitan
                                             Development Plan after
                                             its preparation
                                             • Take all steps and
                                             measures necessary for
                                             the implementation and
                                             enforcement of the
                                             provisions above.
                                             • Issue interim
                                             development orders for
                                             areas for which a
                                             scheme is under
                                             preparation and restrict
                                             or regulate by general
                                             or special order any
                                             change in the use of
                                             land and alteration in
                                             building structures and
                                             installations
                                             • The authority shall
                                             establish, by special
                                             order, an Agency,
                                             hereinafter called the
                                             Water and Sanitation
                                             Agency.

                     Executive District      • Master planning, land     Punjab         • In all five CDGs,       • DO Spatial Planning should be
                     Office Municipal        use, zoning and             District       DO Spatial                renamed as DO Land Use and
                     Services (District      classification,             Government     Planning s activities     Building Control whose
                     Officer Spatial         reclassification            Rules of       are limited only to the   responsibilities should include
                     Planning)               • Urban design and          Business       commercialization of      development and enforcement of
                                             urban renewal               2001           property and the          building regulations and spatial
                                             programme;                                 allotment of              plans.
                                             promulgation of building                   advertisement             • Development of spatial plans
                                             rules and planning                         billboards. In most       should be the responsibility of
                                             standards                                  cases these officers      development authorities.
                                             • Landscape,                               do not have the           Other recommendations as given


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                                                                                                                            Semiotics
                                                                                                            Final Report
                                                         Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                               Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                                       People with simple solutions
    Name of        Existing Mandate          Source                Issues                   Recommendations
   Institution
                 monuments, and                            capacity to develop,      in the capacity building plan.
                 municipal                                 implement and
                 ornamentation                             enforce spatial plans.
                 • Urban and housing
                 development, including
                 urban improvement and
                 upgrading, and urban
                 renewal and
                 redevelopment, with
                 care being taken to
                 preserve historical and
                 cultural monuments
Town Municipal   • Prepare spatial plans    Punjab         • Although the            Institutional arrangements need
Administration   for the town in            Local          mandate exists for        to be made in order to allow
(Town Officer    collaboration with union   Government     TMAs to develop           TMAs to develop and enforce
Planning)        administrations            Rules          their spatial plans,      spatial plans as well as
                 including plans for land                  this mandate is not       regulations with regard to land
                 use, zoning and                           being followed. Town      use and building controls
                 functions for which town                  officers for planning
                 administration is                         are highly qualified in
                 responsible                               most areas and do
                 • Exercise control over                   possess the capacity
                 land use, land sub-                       for developing such
                 division, land                            plans but institutional
                 development and                           arrangements need
                 zoning by public and                      to be made in order
                 private sectors for any                   to allow them to do
                 purposes, including for                   so and to coordinate
                 agriculture, industry,                    their activities with
                 commerce, markets,                        other involved
                 shopping and other                        agencies.
                 employment centers,
                 residential, recreation,
                 parks, entertainment,
                 passenger and
                 transport freight and
                 transit stations
                 • Building control
                 • Execute and manage
                 development plans
                 • Develop and manage
                 scheme, including site
                 development in
                 collaboration with
                 district government and
                 union administration.
                 • Compile information
                 provided by union and
                 village councils of
                 prioritized projects in
                 the town
                 • Maintain municipal
                 records and archives




                                                      17
     Semiotics
                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions




                     3.3.6     Urban Transport

                          Name of             Existing Mandate             Source               Issues                   Recommendations
                         Institution
                     1.3 Executive         • Chapter VII and VIII         Punjab         • In the cities           Recommendations as given in
                     District Office       of Motor Vehicles Act,         District       studied, Secretary        the capacity building plan.
                     Municipal             1939.                          Government     RTA is responsible
                     Services (District    • Compliance of                Rules of       for urban transport
                     Officer Transport)    provisions contained in        Business       but his role is limited
                                           West Pakistan Motor            2001           to issuing route
                                           Vehicles Ordinance                            permits and bus
                                           1965 and Motor                                stands etc. The
                                           Vehicles Rules, 1969.                         Secretary RTA office
                                           • Exercise of powers                          does not have the
                                           and functions as                              capacity for urban
                                           provided in Motor                             transport planning
                                           Vehicles Rules, 1969                          and management.
                                           within the                                    • Serious lack of
                                           Region/Districts.                             capacity for transport
                                           • The Budget would be                         planning and
                                           prepared by RTA and                           management at the
                                           after preparation would                       provincial level. The
                                           be forwarded to P.T.A.                        Provincial Secretary
                                           • Notification of C-                          office is busy with
                                           Class and D-Class                             issuing permits to
                                           Stand and strict                              public transport
                                           compliance of Motor                           vehicles like
                                           Vehicles Rules, 1969.                         rickshaws instead of
                                           • District R.T.A. would                       developing transport
                                           exercise the whole                            policy and necessary
                                           process of payment of                         regulatory framework
                                           compensation in
                                           accident cases of
                                           Private/Public Sectors
                                           and allied matters within
                                           its jurisdiction i.e. entire
                                           district.
                                           • Purchase and
                                           maintenance of stores
                                           and capital goods for
                                           the District R.T.A
                                           •
                     Executive             • District Roads and           PLGO 2001      • Lack of funds and       • Make award of civil works
                     District Office       Buildings                                     increasing demands        contracts more transparent.
                     Works and                                                           for the maintenance       • Annual maintenance plan
                     Services (District                                                  of huge city              developed by the EDO office
                     Officer Building                                                    infrastructure.           should be approved by the city
                     District Officer                                                    • Under severe            council.
                     Roads)                                                              pressure from all         • Priorities fixed in the annual
                                                                                         stakeholders              plan must be adhered to.
                                                                                         especially elected        • Restore balance between
                                                                                         representatives and       development of new
                                                                                         DCOs.                     infrastructure and maintenance
                                                                                         • Mostly firefighting     of the old. In most cases
                                                                                         instead of systematic     maintenance is being ignored for
                                                                                         planning and              making more funds available for


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                                                                                                                                      Semiotics
                                                                                                                     Final Report
                                                                  Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                                        Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                                                 People with simple solutions
    Name of               Existing Mandate            Source                 Issues                  Recommendations
   Institution
                                                                       implementation         development.
                                                                       • Engineers were       Drastic increase needed in
                                                                       perhaps the most       operational and maintenance
                                                                       demoralized and        funds of EDO W&S office.
                                                                       depressed
                                                                       community among all
                                                                       urban managers met.
                                                                       due to lack of
                                                                       promising career and
                                                                       status under
                                                                       devolved system.
Town Muncipal          • Provision,                 Punjab             • Lack of capacity     • Same as above.
Administration         management, operation        Local              regarding traffic      • Other recommendations as
(Town Officer          maintenance and              Government         planning,              given in the capacity building
Infrastructure and     improvement of the           Rules              engineering, and       plan
Services)              municipal infrastructure                        management. No
                       and services, including ;                       activities being
                       • Roads and streets                             conducted in this
                       other than roads falling                        regard
                       under the jurisdiction of,
                       and maintained by the
                       union administration of
                       village council
                       • Traffic planning,
                       engineering and
                       management including
                       traffic signaling
                       systems, signs on road,
                       street markings, parking
                       places, transport
                       stations, stops and
                       stands and terminals

3.3.7 Cantonment Boards
Cantonment Boards are primarily responsible for providing all municipal services within the
area of their jurisdiction. These include urban transport, water, sanitation, and solid waste
management as well as land use and spatial planning. Coordination and cooperation with
other agencies involved in service delivery is rare and inhabitants of cantonment areas are
served solely by the municipal facilities provided by the Boards. Following is an analysis of
Cantonment Boards:

   Name of               Existing Mandate            Source                  Issues                 Recommendations
  Institution
Cantonment           • Prepare spatial plans for    Cantonmen      • No permanent             • Create institutional mechanism
Boards               the cantonment in              t Ordinance    system of staff            for ensuring coordination among
                     collaboration with union       2002           trainings, specially of    CDGs, CBs and housing
                     administration, including                     lower staff                authorities like DHA.
                     plans for land use, zoning                    • Jurisdiction conflict    Managerial and technical
                     and related functions for                     and lack of                capacities of CBs need to be
                     which the cantonment                          coordination with          enhanced following the
                     administration is                             other bodies involved      recommendations given in the
                     responsible                                   with service delivery      capacity building plan.
                     • Execute and manage                          • Tax payments are
                     development plans of the                      a big issue and
                     cantonment                                    collection rates are
                     • Exercise control over                       very low
                     land-use, land sub-                           • Problem of


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                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                           Name of          Existing Mandate            Source                Issues          Recommendations
                          Institution
                                        divisions, land                                 community
                                        development and zoning                          awareness and
                                        by public and private                           participation with
                                        sectors for any purpose.                        regards to SWM and
                                        • Exercise building control                     sanitation issues.
                                        • Enforce all municipal                         Lack of capacity to
                                        laws, rules and bye-laws                        deal with these
                                        governing its functioning                       problems.
                                        • Prevent and remove
                                        encroachments
                                        • Provide, manage,
                                        operate, maintain and
                                        improve the municipal
                                        infrastructure and services
                                        including;
                                        • Water supply and
                                        control and development
                                        of water sources, other
                                        than system maintained
                                        by the union
                                        administration
                                        • sewage and sewage
                                        treatment and disposal
                                        • storm water drainage
                                        • sanitation and solid
                                        waste collection and
                                        sanitary disposal of solid,
                                        liquid, industrial and
                                        hospital wastes
                                        • roads and streets, other
                                        than roads falling under
                                        the jurisdiction of, and
                                        maintained by, the
                                        government, provincial
                                        government, district
                                        government or the
                                        agencies controlled by
                                        them and streets
                                        maintained by the union
                                        administration
                                        • traffic planning,
                                        engineering and
                                        management including
                                        traffic signaling system etc
                                        • prepare budget,
                                        including annual financial
                                        requirements of union
                                        administration, long term
                                        and annual municipal
                                        development programmes
                                        in collaboration with the
                                        union administration
                                        • Manage properties,
                                        assets and funds vested in
                                        the cantonment
                                        administration
                                        • Develop and manage



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                                                  Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                        Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                                People with simple solutions
  Name of         Existing Mandate       Source            Issues                   Recommendations
 Institution
               schemes, including site
               development schemes in
               collaboration with the
               union administration

4. FINDINGS FROM SEMI STRUCTURED INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP INTERVIEWS AND
   FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS HELD WITH URBAN MANAGERS IN THE FIVE
   CITIES

4.1 Key challenges faced by urban managers of today.

   •    Very few officials involved in urban management have received urban management
        education or in-service training with sharp focus on modern urban management. The
        management acumen they possess now is almost solely attributable to on the job
        learning from convention, common sense and trial and error.
   •    Urban management, despite its daunting challenges and complexities, has not
        emerged as a distinct profession as yet. Hence almost any and every public servant
        belonging to a wide range of federal, provincial and district departments can be
        posted in a CDG.
   •    Political interference by poorly trained and insufficiently experienced elected
        representatives, who are often pursuing the politics of patronage, is seriously
        undermining district functionaries’ ability to prioritize, plan and manage.
   •    .Lack of coordination, especially after devolution is resulting in confusion, gaps and
        duplication. The number of agencies involved in urban services has increased and
        there are not enough linkages between them.
   •    Lack of planning throughout the past has led to problems in the present. In cases
        where previous planning was correct, the implementation was weak and those plans
        are now being violated e.g. the development of Gulberg area in Lahore was planned
        correctly but now developments in the area are contrary to the original plan.
   •    Weakness in implementation create a disincentive for planning which in turn leads to
        weak planning and thus the quality of both planning and implementation keep
        deteriorating, trapped in a vicious cycle.
   •    Urban management agencies are too weak to take on contemporary challenges.
        Salary structure, transferability of staff from and to urban agencies and tenure
        procedures need to be changed to strengthen the human resource base of these
        agencies.
   •    New master plans are not in harmony with ground realities. Participation of
        stakeholders is negligible at planning stage which leads to poor implementation.
   •    Further clarity is needed in job descriptions and institutional mandates. The PLGO
        2001 tries to clarify institutional mandates but there is still a lot of confusion regarding
        the allocation of functions between TMAs and CDGs. Moreover, Job descriptions
        given in the PLGO stop at the DO level and most of the urban agencies’ staff below
        this level does not know their job descriptions except in Faisalabad where these have
        been developed with the support of Faisalabad Area Upgrading and Strengthening
        Decentralized Local Government Faisalabad District projects.
   •    Integrated development planning is missing. For example cantonment board areas
        must be taken into account while the CDG is making its development plans. Different
        development plans being implemented by different agencies (LDA, Cantonment
        Boards, DHA, CDG, and TMA) without an integrated plan can only lead to further
        complications for the citizen. Piecemeal and fragmented development without
        integrated development visions for these cities is perpetuating the creation of islands
        of prosperity among expanding oceans of poverty. The option of a metropolitan
        planning committee is a viable one to reduce the confusion created by the large

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                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
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                                   number of agencies involved in planning. This will also ensure consultation in
                                   planning. However the danger of the strongest institution taking over the committee’s
                                   agenda is ever present.
                               •   Excessive financial dependence of CDGs on the provincial government is a major
                                   issue. For example the OSR of most of the CDGs accounts for less than 10% of its
                                   total budget. Most of the taxes collected by the CDG are deposited with the provincial
                                   government. This causes a disincentive to increase revenues as the CDG will not
                                   maintain possession of the increased funds. Financial independence will also lead to
                                   independence in planning and service delivery. However whether existing urban
                                   managers in the CDGs have the capacity to deal with this increased autonomy is
                                   also an issue.
                               •   Emphasis also needs to be placed on the development of rural areas to reduce some
                                   of the pressure on big cities.

                     4.2 Generic Key Capacities and Capabilities Which Urban Management Agencies must
                         have to be able to Perform Effectively and Efficiently.
                     The previous sections assist not only in identifying the key challenges faced by Urban
                     Managers of today, but also point towards a list of key capacities needed to face these
                     challenges. The capacities in question here are not sector specific, and play a vital role in
                     ensuring efficient and successful urban development and urban service delivery. Majority of
                     the urban managers lack these capacities, regardless of whether they are involved in water
                     supply or urban transport.

                     The box below presents an outline of the required capacities that all officials involved in
                     urban service delivery must possess. Town planners, engineers, officials involved in finance
                     and solid waste management all need to have these capacities which provide a solid base.
                     These have been identified after in-depth consultation with relevant officials (CDG,
                     Development Authorities, and Cantonment Boards) through one on one interviews and
                     Focus Group Discussions. Sector specific capacities will only be useful if this base is
                     present.

                                     GENERIC CAPACITIES REQUIRED BY URBAN MANAGEMENT AGENCIES
                     Understanding the linkages between all sectors of Capacity to develop strategic plans, vision, mission and
                     urban service delivery and the broader idea of    set and achieve key objectives
                     integrated urban development
                     Capacity to actively engage and consult all       Capacity to use, and benefit from, developments in
                     stakeholders and to raise public awareness where  modern Information Technology.
                     needed.
                     Capacity to adopt modern Human Resource and       Capacity to develop and implement a performance
                     Financial Management Systems                      management system with required policies and
                                                                       practices.

                     5. CAPACITY GAPS ANALYSIS OF URBAN MANAGEMENT AGENCIES
                     Capacity Gaps Analysis of urban agencies is being presented in a matrix. As the challenges
                     and issues with regard to existing and required capacities were found to be mostly similar
                     across the five cities, the analysis follows a sector wise approach. Column headings are
                     explained below.

                     A = Existing Capacity Level
                     B = Capacity Gap
                     C = Importance
                     D = Priority




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                                                          Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
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                                                                                                                        People with simple solutions
Existing Capacity Level:            Overall rating given by the team on the basis of documents
                                    review, interviews, focus group discussions, field visits, and
                                    observation. The rating scale used in this case is from 0 to 3
                                    where;

                                    0 = No capacity to handle the task
                                    1 = Very little or negligible capacity
                                    2 = Some capacity but insufficient to manage the task
                                    3 = Existing capacity is sufficient to manage the task


Capacity Gap:                       Capacity Gap = Required Capacity Level i.e., 3 minus existing
                                    Capacity Level. Therefore if the existing capacity in an area is
                                    1 then the capacity gap would be 3-1 = 2

Importance:                         Importance of a certain capacity in the overall context of a
                                    particular urban service. For example how understanding cost
                                    structures or financial forecasting is more important for the
                                    municipal finance manager. Similarly implementing a robust
                                    performance management system is more important in SWM
                                    where the involved agency needs to implement a system to
                                    manage thousands of employees spread across the streets of
                                    a city.

                                    3 = indispensable
                                    2 = very important
                                    1 = important

Priority:                           Priority is the outcome of multiplying capacity gap with
                                    importance. The priority number gives us an indication as to
                                    how important it is to fill a certain capacity. The numbers in the
                                    last column translate into very high, high, medium and low
                                    priorities as follows;

                                    9         = Very High (VH)
                                    5 to 8    = High (H)
                                    2 to 4    = Medium (M)
                                    0 or 1    = Low (L)

1.       Urban Sector: Solid Waste Management
  Required mandate of the         Required organizational capacities to fulfill the           A        B        C       D
      13agency involved                             mandate
Regularly collect 100% solid
from the given area and        General Management and Leadership Capacities
dispose it off in an           • Capacity to engage stakeholders, especially              0        3        3        9 (VH)
environment friendly way.          citizens, civil society and other relevant
                                   organizations.
                               • Capacity to develop strategic plan which includes        0        3        3        9 (VH)
                                   vision, mission, targets, strategies and values.
                               • Capacity to prepare yearly operational plans in line     1        2        3        6 (H)
                                   with the strategic plan.
                               • Capacity to computerize and automate support

13
  A comprehensive picture of required mandates of Urban Service Delivery agencies was gained after in-depth
discussions with sector specialists from the Urban Unit, and from the views and concerns of officials currently
employed in the field. Additionaly, International best practices were also looked at and incorporated,


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                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
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                         Required mandate of the         Required organizational capacities to fulfill the             A       B       C       D
                            13agency involved                                 mandate
                                                          functions like payroll, record keeping, accounting       1       2       2       4 (M)
                                                          etc.
                                                       • Capacity to develop and Implement a performance
                                                          management system which clearly defines                  0       3       3       9
                                                          performance for each section and individual,
                                                          measures it, supports it and rewards it.
                                                       • Capacity to recruit, develop and maintain high
                                                            performance teams                                      1       2       3       6

                                                       Technical Capacities
                                                       • Capacity to develop and manage land fill sites
                                                       • Capacity to manage, maintain and utilize                  1       2       3       6
                                                           machinery, equipment and vehicles efficiently.          2       1       3       3
                                                       • Capacity to develop and implement a costing
                                                           system which identifies fixed, variable, direct and     0       3       2       6
                                                           indirect costs and provides correct information
                                                           about various costs like cost of primary solid waste
                                                           collection per ton, secondary collection per ton,
                                                           disposal per ton etc.
                                                       • Engage the existing informal recycling community
                                                                                                                   0       3       1       3
                                                           to improve and professionalize solid waste
                                                           segregation and recycling



                     2.        Urban Sector: Water Supply and Sanitation
                      Required mandate of the             Required organizational capacities to fulfill the            A       B       C       D
                           agency involved                                  mandate
                     • To arrange adequate
                        supply of clean drinking       General Management and Leadership Capacities
                        water to all the residents     • Capacity to analyze the existing situation in the
                        living within the                  WSS sector with regard to coverage, reliability,        0       3       3       9
                        boundaries of a CDG                quality and affordability and develop a future vision
                     • To develop, manage and              for this sector.
                        maintain a sewerage and        • Capacity to forecast the year wise domestic,
                        drainage system which              commercial and agricultural demand for water and        0       3       3       9
                        collects all liquid waste          sanitation in the next ten years
                        within the CDG                 • Capacity to develop strategic plan which includes         1       2       3       6
                        boundaries and disposes            vision, mission, targets, strategies and values.
                        it off after proper            • Advocate with relevant stakeholders to mobilize
                        treatment                          resources and political will required to improve the    1       2       2       4
                     • To develop and                      WSS situation in Lahore
                        implement a suitable           • Capacity to engage stakeholders, especially
                        user charges regime and            citizens, civil society and other relevant              0       3       3       9
                        collect 100% user                  organizations on issues like water conservation,
                        charges                            metered billing etc.
                     • To engage private               • Capacity to prepare yearly operational plans in line
                        sector, communities and            with the strategic plan.                                1       2       3       6
                        civil society in managing      • Capacity to develop and Implement a performance
                        various components of              management system which clearly defines                 0       3       3       9
                        WATSAN services                    performance for each section and individual,
                                                           measures it, supports it and rewards it.
                     Relevant Agency: WASA             • Capacity to recruit, develop and maintain high
                                                                                                                   1       2       3       6
                                                           performance teams
                                                       • Capacity to computerize and automate support
                                                                                                                   1       2       2       4
                                                           functions like payroll, record keeping, accounting
                                                           etc.



                                                                                  24
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                                                                                Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                                         People with simple solutions
 Required mandate of the        Required organizational capacities to fulfill the             A        B       C         D
    agency involved                                  mandate
                              Technical Capacities
                              • Capacity to develop and implement quality control
                                  system to ensure that the quality of water supplied     1       2        3        6
                                  is fit for human consumption
                              • Capacity to meter all water connections and collect
                                  water bills                                             1       2        3        6
                              • Capacity to collect reliable data about water
                                  supply, wastage, consumption etc.                       1       2        3        6
                              • Capacity to manage, maintain and utilize
                                  machinery, equipment and vehicles efficiently.
                              • Capacity to develop and implement a costing               1       2        2        4
                                  system which identifies fixed, variable, direct and
                                  indirect costs and provides correct information         0       3        2        6
                                  about various costs like cost per gallon of water
                                  pumped, cleaned and distributed.




3.       Urban Sector: Urban Transport
 Required mandate of the         Required organizational capacities to fulfill the            A        B        C        D
     agency involved                               mandate
• Develop and implement
   transport policy at the    General Management and Leadership Capacities
   provincial level           • Capacity to engage stakeholders, especially               0        3        3        9
• To conduct accurate             citizens, transporters and transporters associations,
   traffic research and           civil society and other relevant organizations to
   collect data on demand         enhance responsible driving, road safety and
   at the CDG level               control vehicular emissions.
• Develop and enforce         • Capacity to develop strategic plan which includes         0        3        3        9
   legislation to control         vision, mission, targets, strategies and values.
   automobile emissions       • Capacity to prepare yearly operational plans in line
   and negative impact of         with the strategic plan.                                1        2        3        6
   traffic on environment     • Capacity to develop and Implement a performance
• Ensure that Urban               management system which clearly defines                 1        2        2        4
   Transport is convenient,       performance for each section and individual,
   comfortable, affordable,       measures it, supports it and rewards it.
   speedy and safe
                              Technical Capacities
                              • Capacity to develop a suitable urban transport            0        3        3        9
                                  policy
                              • Capacity to forecast the volume, pattern and trends       1        2        3        6
                                  of urban traffic.
                              • Capacity to collect credible data and conduct             1        2        3        6
                                  research on numbers, types and transportation
                                  needs of urban population and undertake transport
                                  planning on the basis of this information.
                              • Capacity to develop and enforce standards for
                                                                                          0        3        2        6
                                  vehicular emissions
                              • Capacity to work with different stakeholders to
                                                                                          1        2        2        4
                                  improve the quality of public transport and reduce
                                  road congestion in cities. For instance working with
                                  schools and private investors to develop a system
                                  of schools buses which are safe and efficient. Or
                                  developing suitable incentives and disincentives to
                                  check vehicles entry in congested areas like
                                  parking meters, down town entrance fee etc



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                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
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                     4.        Urban Sector: Spatial Planning
                       Required mandate of the            Required organizational capacities to fulfill the        A       B       C       D
                            agency involved                                 mandate
                     Develop and implement long-
                     term spatial plans and            General Management and Leadership Capacities
                     building controls in              • Capacity to engage stakeholders especially citizen    0       3       3       9
                     consultation with all relevant        groups, other urban management agencies, private
                     stakeholders.                         sector, women, special people and professionals
                                                           like town planners, engineers and architects etc.
                                                       • Capacity to develop and Implement a performance       0       3       3       9
                                                           management system which clearly defines
                                                           performance for each section and individual,
                                                           measures it, supports it and rewards it.

                                                       Technical Capacities
                                                       • Capacity to forecast land use needs for housing,      0       3       3       9
                                                           business, government departments, education, and
                                                           health services etc
                                                       • Capacity to develop integrated spatial plans          0       3       3       9
                                                           including land use, zoning, classification and
                                                           reclassification
                                                       • Capacity to develop, promulgate and enforce           1       2       3       6
                                                           building rules and planning standards
                                                       • Capacity to preserve and promote cultural heritage
                                                           of cities through conservation of historical and    1       2       2       4
                                                           cultural monuments and municipal ornamentation
                                                       • Capacity to enforce implementation of spatial plans   0       3       3       9


                     5.        Urban Sector: Municipal Finance14
                      Required mandate of the             Required organizational capacities to fulfill the        A       B       C       D
                          agency involved                                   mandate
                     • To develop long term
                        and annual development         General Management and Leadership Capacities
                        plans and budgets              • Capacity to develop strategic plan which includes     1       2       2       4
                     • To conduct resource                 vision, mission, targets, strategies and values.
                        analysis of the CDG and        • Capacity to develop and Implement a performance       0       3       2       6
                        prepare Performa                   management system which clearly defines
                        income and expense                 performance for each section and individual,
                        statements                         measures it, supports it and rewards it.
                     • To develop and
                        implement suitable             Technical Capacities
                        financial information          • Capacity to undertake multiyear forecasting of CDG    1       2       3       6
                        management system                  revenues and expenditures
                        aimed at ensuring              • Capacity to prepare annual budgets which have
                        accuracy, timeliness,              inputs from relevant stakeholders and which         1       3       3       6
                        transparency and                   correctly reflect development priorities of the
                        accessibility of record            district.
                        keeping, accounting and        • Capacity to monitor spending and prepare and
                        financial management of            share variance analysis, regularly and timely.      1       2       3       6
                        the CDG                        • Capacity to accelerate growth in revenues through
                     • To propose suitable                 the use of financial instruments like municipal     0       3       3       9
                        taxes, rents, fees, user-          bonds.

                     14
                       The capacity of EDO Finance and Planning Office of the CDG Faisalabad was found to be advanced as
                     compared to other CDGs. Similarly capacity of Faisalabad CGD in other areas such as planning, monitoring and
                     HRM were also better than those of other CDGs. This difference is primarily attributable to Faisalabad Area Up
                     gradation Project being implemented with the support of DfID.


                                                                                  26
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                                                        Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                              Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                                      People with simple solutions
 Required mandate of the        Required organizational capacities to fulfill the         A        B        C         D
     agency involved                              mandate
   charges, tolls, levies,
   fines and penalties to
   increase OSR of the
   CDG
• To work with relevant
   agencies and individuals
   in public and private
   sectors to tap other
   sources of raising funds
   for development like
   municipal bonds

Relevant Agency: EDO
Finance & Planning

6. SUPPLY SIDE ANALYSIS OF CAPACITY BUILDING
This section attempts to present a comprehensive picture of capacity building institutions
and programmes at local, regional and international levels which are either currently building
the capacity of urban mangers and local government officials or which have the potential to
play this role in future. First part deals with institutions and the second with programmes and
projects.

6.1 Capacity Building Institutions (CBIs)
This sub-section provides relevant information about CBIs belonging to both public and
private sectors. Public sector CBIs include those being run by government departments
themselves such as Audit and Accounts Training Institute as well as specialized CBIs like
Civil Services Academy and NIPA etc. Under International CBIs, relevant regional and
international capacity building institutions and models have been included.

The information compiled and presented here focuses on key features of CBIs like the
overall standing and image of the institution, size and quality of human resource pool,
physical infrastructure and facilities and quality and relevance of training programmes
offered.

6.1.1 Local CBIs
Followings are the Public Sector CBIs in Pakistan:

         a.       Audit and Accounts Training Institute (AATI): AATI was created by the
                  HRM Wing of the Department of the Auditor-General of Pakistan in the wake
                  of PIFRA reforms15. AATI and its regional training institutes have been
                  involved in the implementation of Training Component under PIFRA-I in
                  addition to implementation of its regular training plan. The AATI has been
                  trying to improve the quality of its training since 2004 through introducing
                  learner centered approaches and a sharper focus on specific skill building.
                  AATI has Field Office Training Centers (FOTCs) where the office specific
                  training is imparted in a cost effective manner. The Institute is presently
                  providing long courses training to the two batches of Probationers of PA & AS



15
  Project for Improvement of Financial Reporting and Auditing in Government of Pakistan. Phase I of the
project called PIFRA-I has been completed and now phase II is being implemented. The project is supported by
the World Bank and implemented by the Pakistan Audit Department comprising Auditor General of Pakistan
and Controller General of Accounts. For more information please see, http://www.pifra.gov.pk/



                                                       27
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                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
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                                         (Pakistan Audit and Accounts Service)16, who are being trained on the newly
                                         revised syllabus. The new syllabus aims to equip young officers with the
                                         necessary knowledge and skills required to implement the changes
                                         envisaged under the PIFRA.

                                         The AATI has also developed “Help Desks” at various important offices where
                                         the trainers at given times visit and provide assistance to the staff. Another
                                         strategy adopted by AATI is “Training –at-doorsteps” where the trainers from
                                         AATI visit the far flung areas and impart training.

                                         Presently, AATI offers different training courses for a wide range of
                                         government officials spanning from grade 5 to grade 20.

                                         Some of the subjects the trainings deal with are;
                                         • Information Technology
                                         • Computer Assisted Audit Techniques (CAATs)
                                         • Devolution Plan
                                         • Managing Data & Information
                                         • Managing People
                                         • Planning
                                         • Controlling
                                         • SAP R3 for Managers
                                         • Fraud Awareness
                                         • Government Accounting Principles
                                         • Government Rules & Regulations
                                         • Negotiation Skills
                                         • Financial Accounting-Review
                                         • Analytical Procedures
                                         • Internal Control Structure & Compliance Audit
                                         • Sampling techniques (Audit)
                                         • Reporting & Follow up
                                         • IT-Basic and Intermediate Computer Training

                                         Other than these courses, the institute encourages other government
                                         departments to have their officials trained from the AATI. For this the institute
                                         requests government departments to convey the training needs of their
                                         officials and develops customized training programmes.

                                         The institute has branches in Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Quetta, and
                                         Peshawar and a total of 245 training faculty.

                                         Strengths: Country wide offices and training facilities, a very big pool of
                                         permanent faculty, years of experience in accounts and audit training, has
                                         already branched out into other training areas, innovative as has tried other
                                         training option like training on the doorstep and help desks, efforts to
                                         gradually improve the quality of training underway.

                                         Weaknesses: Trainings have been traditionally more focused on fresh
                                         entrants therefore limited experience of training senior level in-service
                                         officials, very limited training experience in areas not related to finance.



                     16
                          PA & AS is one of the occupational groups of Central Superior Services of Pakistan.


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     Potential: Possibility of developing a specialized training program in municipal
     finance for district officers.

b.   Management and Professional Development Department: The
     Management and Professional Development Department (MPDD), formerly
     Punjab Institute of Human Resource Development-PIHRD, was established in
     1997 through merger of the following Government institutions;

     •   Staff Training Institute
     •   Provincial Civil Services (PCS) Academy
     •   Punjab Revenue Academy
     •   Project Training Institute

     Some of the key objectives of MPDD are to;

     •   Identify training needs and design and conduct training programs for the
         employees of the Punjab Government.
     •   Create a vibrant culture of competitiveness, continuous learning,
         innovation and professionalism in the work force of the province.
     •   Assist the government to develop a human resource development policy
         for the province.
     •   Act as focal point for all internal and external training activities for civil
         servants and employees of provincial departments.
     •   Create effective linkages with the private sector so as to help government
         departments learn from the private sector and adapt best business
         practices.
     •   Train the probationers of the Provincial Civil Service or its successor
         service cadres.
     •   Provide training and consulting services to other organizations both in
         public and private sectors.

     In persuasion of the above cited objectives, MPDD offers training in following
     areas;
     • Islam and Ethics
     • General Management
     • Financial Management
     • Planning & Development
     • Computer Literacy
     • Personality Development
     • Time Management And Motivation
     • Management and Leadership Development
     • Human Resource Management
     • Communication Skills

     The training methodology used by MPDD employs the use of Lectures, Panel
     Discussions, Presentations, Study Tours, Syndicates and Group activities.
     MPDD has a 10 member permanent faculty and a roster of nearly 50 visiting
     faculty members. The department owns following physical resources and
     facilities;

     •   Four air-conditioned class rooms quipped with modern training facilities.
     •   An air conditioned Seminar Hall




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                                         •    An air-conditioned faculty lounge for prior and post session meetings of
                                              the faculty and participants with the guest speakers
                                         •    Hostel accommodation
                                         •    A Mess to cater for food and refreshment for the participants. The dinning
                                              hall of MPDD can accommodate eighty to hundred persons at a time
                                         •    Transport for the local visits and study tours of the participants
                                         •    Computer lab and library.

                                         Strengths: Expansive history of training civil servants. ample physical
                                         infrastructure and additional facilities needed for a quality residential training
                                         center. diversified experience and fields of training. have the mandate to
                                         develop Human Resources of the provincial government. part of Planning and
                                         Development Division which makes collaboration between Urban Unit and
                                         MPDD easier.

                                         Weakness: Lack of Instructional System Design expertise. Limited to Lahore.
                                         No specific experience in urban management training. The trainings
                                         conducted so far have only been one off activities with little or no follow up.

                                         Potential: Collaboration would be ideal due to physical infrastructure and
                                         association with Planning and Development Division, however, sector specific
                                         material and expertise regarding urban management must be brought in from
                                         an external source.

                               c.        Pakistan Institute of Management (PIM): The Pakistan Institute of
                                         Management (PIM), has the mission to enhance the managerial skills in
                                         public and private sectors through training, consultancy and research.

                                         PIM functions under the Ministry of Industries & Production with an
                                         autonomous Board of Governors appointed by the Federal Government. The
                                         Secretary, Ministry of Industries & Production, is the Chairman of the Board.
                                         The operating head of PIM is the Director, who is responsible for
                                         administrative and academic affairs and is also a member of the Board of
                                         Governors.

                                         Core training areas at PIM are:

                                         •    General Management
                                         •    Quality Management
                                         •    Financial Management
                                         •    Human Resource Management
                                         •    Information Technology
                                         •    Improving Personal Effectiveness
                                         •    First Line Supervision

                                         PIM also offers consulting services in the following areas:
                                         • Strategic Plan Development & Implementation
                                         • Organization Development
                                         • Marketing Management & Research
                                         • Financial Management & Restructuring
                                         • Human Resource Management & Systems Development
                                         • Production Operations Management
                                         • Quality Systems
                                         • Information & Data Management


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     PIM operates out of two purpose-built training centers. All training rooms are
     air-conditioned and capacity ranges from 20-60 persons. PIM also offers four
     computer labs and three libraries and multimedia devices in each training
     room. Audio visual aids are present in each room and a canteen caters food
     for both evening and day courses.

     PIM's faculty consists of a multidisciplinary group of counselors having a
     blend of academic and industrial experience. They are experts in their field of
     specialization, many of whom hold advanced foreign qualifications. The full
     time faculty is supported by a group of visiting faculty drawn from business
     and industry.

     Strengths: Pioneers in executive development. Bring in best practices from all
     three sectors; public sector, private for profit and not for profit sectors. They
     are pushed to perform because of lack of grants which gives rise to real
     incentives to avail new opportunities. Physical infrastructure is sufficient
     however PIMs presence is only in Lahore and Karachi. Many officers have
     attended PIM training programmes and hold them in high regard. Widest
     range of training modules in Pakistan. Sizeable amount of permanent faculty

     Weakness: No experience regarding Urban Management. Operations only in
     Lahore and Karachi. Has not been able to develop specialization despite its
     long history due to broad nature of topics covered.

     Potential: Given complete dependence on course fees, PIM would be eager
     into a long term partnership which guarantees a long-term source of income.
     If they are approached by Urban Unit with a grant to develop urban
     management training capacity, they are likely to undertake the assignment.

d.   National School of Public Policy (NSPP): National School of Public Policy
     has been established through merger and restructuring of National Institute of
     Public Administration (NIPA), Civil Services Academy (CSA) and Pakistan
     Administrative Staff College (PASC). The objective is to conduct various
     related public sector capacity building programmes, research and
     development together under one umbrella to enhance the quality and
     effectiveness of these functions. Once fully established and functional, the
     NSPP aspires to get the status of a university. The concept paper or any
     other document which could furnish details about NSPP was not available
     and therefore the team had to do with the information collected from
     interviews with officers at NIPA and CSA. As reported by officers involved in
     the NSPP reforms, the NIPA, the CSA, the PASC have been made part of the
     NSPP. Moreover a new institution called National Institute of Public Policy
     (NIPP) will be created and made part of NSPP. NIPP will be undertake
     research and development functions and will serve as the first think tank in
     the public sector.

     It was reported that the Government has acquired sufficient land near
     Islamabad to build a state of the art building for NSPP with all modern
     research and training facilities. The new building of NSPP will have the
     capacity to accommodate nearly 150 participants. Under the same reforms,
     the NIPA Lahore has been renamed as National Management College.

     New setup still in the making so strengths and weaknesses are still to be
     seen, However NSPP being an umbrella organization is not likely to


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                                         implement training courses which are more likely to be carried out by its many
                                         wings like NIPA and CSA.

                               e.        National Management College (NMC), Lahore: The NMC, formerly NIPA
                                         Lahore, has been conducting a three months training course which the
                                         officers of grade 19 were obliged to attend before they could be promoted to
                                         the next grade. In addition to NIPA Lahore, there are four other NIPA
                                         campuses in the remaining four provincial capitals which have also been
                                         conducting the same course.

                                         The NMC has fully furnished and well equipped training halls and class rooms
                                         and a hostel for participants. Latest audio visual aids and multimedia devices
                                         are used in all programs. The residential facilities can accommodate nearly
                                         50 participants at the moment.

                                         With a lean core faculty comprising CSS officers, the college relies heavily on
                                         visiting faculty drawn from senior bureaucracy, academia and private sector.
                                         At present the NMC is conducting its first improved version of the senior
                                         management course with substantive changes in contents, training
                                         methodologies and evaluation. The new course has contemporary
                                         management topics like
                                         • Strategic management
                                         • Strategic planning
                                         • Leadership
                                         • Negotiation skills
                                         • Problem solving and decision making
                                         • Team building
                                         • Creating a service culture, and
                                         • Professionalism in public service management

                                         These are all relevant skills which almost all the urban managers need to
                                         learn urgently.

                                         The challenge for the NMC is to find sufficiently qualified trainers both as
                                         permanent faculty as well as in visiting faculty.

                                         Under the reforms mentioned above, the NMC will continue focusing on the
                                         same training with considerable improvement in the content and delivery of
                                         the course. However the other four NIPAs will start training officers in grade
                                         18 before their promotion to grade 19.

                                         Strengths: Long history of training civil servants. Restructuring and reforms
                                         underway aimed at improving the quality of training.

                                         Weaknesses: Physical infrastructure and human resources are overwhelmed
                                         with present weight of activities and pressure for further improvement and
                                         changes. Weak ISD capacity. Only operating in Lahore.

                                         Potential: Present strain on resources rules out any potential for collaboration
                                         in the near future.

                               f.        NIPAs (Other than NMC): As mentioned earlier, the other NIPAs have been
                                         mandated to training mid level public sector managers who would be obliged
                                         to attend this training to earn their eligibility for promotion from grade 18 to


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     grade 19. The challenge for these institutions is to develop such training
     programmes which have the same rigor as being injected in the NMC
     courses.

     Given that most urban managers especially those working in CDGs like DOs
     fall in this category, there is a possibility of involving provincial NIPAs in the
     development and delivery of specialized training courses for urban managers.

     Strengths: Same history, experience, and resources as NMC.

     Weakness: All are situated outside Punjab.

     Potential: Potential to collaborate is present; however the fact that these
     institutes are based outside Punjab makes it inconvenient. Given that NIPAs
     already possess the mandate to train ex-cadre officers (non CSS officers), it
     would make sense to add a dimension of Urban Management to the trainings
     offered. However expertise in this field must be procured from elsewhere.

g.   Road Research & Material Testing Institute: To provide technical support
     to the then Public Works Department during the pre-independence days, a
     small laboratory under the name of Soil Stabilization Sub Division was
     established in 1944. This laboratory was later on upgraded as Building and
     Road Research Laboratory after independence. In year 1962, the
     Communication & Works Department was re-organized and separate Building
     Research Station and Road Research Institute were created.

     The Road Research Institute was modernized under an aided program in
     1971 and renamed as Road Research and Material Testing Institute and
     shifted to its present premises on Canal Bank Lahore. The Road Research
     and Material Testing Institute has provided very valuable technical support in
     the shape of pavement design, testing and analysis of road construction
     materials, evaluation of existing pavements and providing solutions to various
     problems facing the field engineers of the Department in road sector.

     The Institute is working under the supervision of a Director in the Punjab
     Highways Department (North zone). The following technical staff assists the
     Director:

         S. No.   Designation                                                       No. of Posts
            i)    Deputy Directors (BPS-18).                                              2
           ii)    Senior Research Officers (BPS-18).                                      2
           iii)   Junior Research Officers / Assistant Director (BPS-17)                  4
           iv)    Research Assistants                                                     7
           v)     Laboratory Assistants                                                  19

     In addition, technical and non-technical support staff also assists in carrying
     out various testing and research assignments. Staff of the allied units is in
     addition. The total present strength of staff is 106.

     The institute has the following Functional Units:

     •     Soil Section
     •     Aggregate Section
     •     Physical Section (Cement /Concrete /Bricks)
     •     Chemical Section


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                                         •    Bituminous Material Section
                                         •    Concrete Section

                                         The RRMTI also conducts training for the staff and officers of works and
                                         services department.

                                         Strengths: Physical infrastructure is present. Experience of training in-service
                                         engineers

                                         Weakness: No residential facilities. Do not have reputable track record in
                                         imparting quality trainings. No permanent faculty.

                                         Potential: No potential.

                               h.        University of Engineering and Technology Lahore: The University’s
                                         mission is to provide undergraduate and graduate engineering education,
                                         research, scholarly leadership, innovation, industrial collaboration, and
                                         professional development.

                                         The University offers a wide range of undergraduate, graduate, and PhD
                                         courses. The faculties offering courses under the University can be
                                         summarized as follows:
                                         • Electrical Engineering
                                         • Mechanical Engineering
                                         • Civil Engineering
                                         • Chemical, Mineral & Metallurgical Engineering
                                         • Architecture & Planning
                                         • Natural Sciences, Humanities & Islamic Studies

                                         The Department of City and Regional Planning, falling under the faculty of
                                         Architecture & Planning, offers a sound knowledge base for aspiring Urban
                                         and City planners. Established in 1962 the department has the distinction of
                                         being one of its kind in the country offering higher degree programs in City &
                                         Regional Planning and Urban Environment & Transportation Engineering.
                                         These disciplines are of crucial importance to developing countries like
                                         Pakistan. Currently, its student enrollment is about 150. The curriculum of the
                                         City & Regional Planning degree program embraces all the components of
                                         the built environment ranging from Housing, Transportation, Planning and
                                         Engineering, City Planning, Environmental Planning, Rural & Regional
                                         Planning, Master/Structure Planning and Community Development Planning
                                         along with participatory approaches etc. ensuring the production of technically
                                         strong and well-equipped City and Regional Planners.

                                         The Lahore campus has ample physical resources in the shape of lecture
                                         halls, research centers and state of the art laboratories and residence hostels.
                                         Other than Lahore, the University has fully established branches in
                                         Faisalabad, Taxila, Rachna, and Kalashah Kaku.

                                         The University has about 440 teachers of which 92 are Ph.D. degree holders,
                                         62 are doing Ph.D. abroad and 45 are going through indigenous PhD
                                         programme.

                                         Strengths: Long established city and regional planning department.
                                         Experience of graduate studies, qualified and experienced permanent faculty,


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     and some research facilities. Has an image of a successful and quality
     institution.

     Weakness: Limited experience of in-service training

     Potential: Given proper financial incentives, UET can start an evening
     program for in-service Urban Managers.

i.   NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi: Established in
     1977, the NED University of Engineering and Technology began teaching
     post-graduate degrees in Urban and Regional Planning from 2003. Taught by
     the faculty of civil engineering and architecture, the course offers a sound
     background to urban development and planning while simultaneously
     focusing on urban planning issues faced in Pakistan. The program includes
     courses on Land Use and Infrastructure Planning, Urban transportation
     planning and urban economics. Two modules of interest as far as being an
     aid in enhancing the capacity of local government officials and institutes in
     Pakistan are as follows:

     Seminar in Urban Management in Pakistan: The course is designed as a
     seminar focused on the selected contemporary topics in urban management.
     The objective of this course is to concentrate the student’s understanding on
     different urban management issues in Pakistan. Current urban management
     problems of Pakistani cities are examined and evaluated by employing the
     framework developed by various theories. Relevance and validity of different
     paradigms are tested in this context. Politics of urban spatial structures,
     service provision, land ownership, social movements and planning are dealt
     with in the proceedings of the course.

     The degree varies in length from one and a half to two and a half years
     depending on whether enrollment is in evening or day classes and on the
     semester load. The tuition fee requirements are moderate and 25 seats are
     offered each year. Strict English proficiency requirements and the fact that the
     classes are offered only in Karachi raises some concerns as to how this
     course can assist in the capacity building of local government officials in
     Pakistan. However, the course covers all the basics of Urban Management
     while touching on key urban planning issues in Pakistan while being more
     affordable than similar courses offered by International institutions and
     universities.

     NED has also started offering a Masters degree course on Urban Planning
     since 2000 under the Architecture and Planning Department. The degree
     offers the following courses:
     • Introduction to Urban Design and Sociology
     • Methods in Physical Planning
     • Introduction to Transportation and Infrastructure
     • Land-use Planning and Analysis
     • Economic Development and Regional Planning
     • Urban Transportation Planning
     • Urban Management and Administration
     • Planning for Sustainable Development

     Strengths: Long established city and regional planning department.
     Experience of graduate studies, qualified and experienced permanent faculty,


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                                         and some research facilities. Has an image of a successful and quality
                                         institution.

                                         Weakness: Limited experience of in-service training. Only in Karachi.

                                         Potential: Given proper financial incentives, NED can start an evening short
                                         course for in-service Urban Managers.

                               j.        Civil Services Academy, Lahore: The Civil Services Academy was
                                         established in 1948 for the training of fresh entrants to the Pakistan
                                         Administrative Service Academy. The Academy has two campuses in Lahore,
                                         the Shahrah-e-Quaid-i-Azam campus is meant exclusively for the specialized
                                         training of the District Management Group probationers. The Walton campus
                                         is used for the Common Training Programmme (C.T.P)

                                         The academy, which used to be an autonomous body with its own Board of
                                         Governors, has now been merged with the four NIPAs and the PASC into the
                                         National School of Public Policy.

                                         The objectives of the Common Training Programme are to train the
                                         probationary officers for public service by providing them basic knowledge
                                         and management skills and help take up their future responsibilities.
                                         The trainings offered at CSA Walton campus are as follows:

                                         •    Foundation Course: covering communication and writing skills, public
                                              speaking and Information technology
                                         •    National Issues of Pakistan: Framework analysis, Domestic Issues,
                                              Foreign Policy Issues, Human Rights, and Gender Sensitization
                                         •    Contemporary Issues and Islam
                                         •    Economics and Public Finance
                                         •    Government Functioning in Pakistan
                                         •    Office Management
                                         •    Public Sector Management

                                         CSA employs a mix of case studies, lectures, panel discussions, syndicate
                                         work and field research as part of their training methodology. Country study
                                         tours and community work are also part of the activities at CSA. Evaluation of
                                         the participants is based on examinations, assignments, quality of
                                         participation and general conduct and regularity.

                                         The physical infrastructure includes a campus spread over 65 acres, four well
                                         equipped classrooms with state of the art technology and audio visual aids.
                                         Residential facilities include a hostel and a mess. The campus is also home
                                         to an auditorium that seats 300 people and a library boasting a collection of
                                         over 40,000 books. Computer labs and printing facilities are also available

                                         The Walton campus has 10 qualified permanent faculty members and
                                         employs a large roster of visiting faculty including Public servants, Professors
                                         from other Institutions and experts from various fields.

                                         The CSA is in the process of initiating a mini CTP for ex cadre fresh entrants
                                         the public service through Federal Public Service Commission. The Mini CTP
                                         is a crash course which includes shorter versions of the topics and contents
                                         of the regular CTP.


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     Strengths: Long, prestigious history of training civil service officers.

     Weaknesses: Limited experience in training Urban Managers. Present
     resources are thinly spread. Only operating in Lahore. Experience limited to
     training fresh entrants

     Potential: Given the strain on present resources, new mandate for giving mini-
     CTP for ex-cadre fresh entrants and lack of experience in Urban
     Management, there is no potential for collaboration.

k.   Health Services Academy, Islamabad: Health Services Academy was
     established in 1988 as a department of the Ministry of Health, Government of
     Pakistan, and provided short courses and training for public health
     professionals.

     With assistance from the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), HSA began
     to offer a Master's in Public Health (MPH) degree in 1995, and the first batch
     of students graduated in 1996. The initial curriculum was designed by Dr.
     Arnfried A. Kielmann and Dr. Sameen Siddiqi. During the past ten years, eight
     cohorts of alumni have graduated from the institution with a Master's in Public
     Health (MPH), and these alumni are now engaged in a wide range of exciting
     endeavors across Pakistan in both the public and private sector. The
     Academy remains the most applied to school of public health in Pakistan, and
     is established and well on its way to achieving its institutional objectives.

     Since all leading academic and research organizations require autonomous
     status in order to create an environment of academic excellence, the Ministry
     of Health promulgated an ordinance entitle Health Services Academy
     Ordinance, 2002 , put into place in November, 2002. Following the
     implementation of this ordinance from July 1, 2003, the Board of Governors
     has been supervising the overall affairs of the Academy.

     Recently, HSA has moved to a new campus in Chak Shahzad, revised its
     MPH programme to a two-year MSPH programme, and is in the process of
     overhauling its entire IT infrastructure, its library, and its academic rules and
     regulations. While MSPH continues to be the core programme of HSA, it has
     also started organizing short training courses and workshops like the one
     recently held on the issue of water quality. In the long run HSA can be tapped
     to train municipal managers involved in water supply in urban areas.

     Strengths: Ample physical infrastructure and quality faculty in the Health
     sector

     Weakness: Limited experience in training urban managers, area is too
     specific.

     Potential: Can only be used for training regarding water quality issues.

l.   Government Engineering Academy Punjab, Lahore: Government
     Engineering Academy (GEA) was established in 1984 by the Government of
     Punjab for pre and in service training of engineers working in government
     departments. The GEA has the following objectives:




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                                         •    To develop faculties of planning, preparation, implementation and
                                              evaluation of projects
                                         •    To promote knowledge of the participants necessary for efficient operation
                                              and maintenance of Engineering works
                                         •    To acquaint the participants with theory and practice of organization and
                                              management, finance, budgeting etc.
                                         •    To provide participants opportunities for improving professional skills,
                                              managerial status and general self-development

                                         The training courses offered at the academy are:
                                         • In-service training course for senior executives (BS 19 TO 20)
                                         • In service training course for senior engineers (BS 18 TO 19)
                                         • In service training course for junior engineers (BS 17 TO 18)
                                         • Pre-service training course for new entrants (Fresh Entrants)

                                         During training at the academy the following major topics are covered with a
                                         shift in weightage according to the level of the trainee:
                                         • Islamic and Pakistan Studies
                                         • Management and Public Administration
                                         • Economic Development and Financial Analysis of Engineering Projects
                                         • Financial Management
                                         • Rules, Regulations and Acts
                                         • Engineering project planning, preparation, implementation and evaluation
                                         • Engineering works execution, operation and maintenance
                                         • Computing

                                         The academy employs a mixture of lectures, discussions, presentations and
                                         case studies as part of its training methodology. Research work and field
                                         visits also form a major part of its training. Performance is evaluated based on
                                         participation and assignments.

                                         The faculty consists of 4 permanent members and regularly employs
                                         engineers from public service to impart their knowledge on the participants.

                                         Strengths: Are looking for alternate opportunities. Huge infrastructure.
                                         Experience in training in-service engineers. Some experience in Management
                                         training

                                         Weakness: No ISD, lack of properly trained faculty. No experience in training
                                         Urban Managers. Training quality has not been very high so far.

                                         Potential: Their resources can be used for training urban managers given an
                                         increase in number of qualified faculty.


                               m.        Punjab Local Government Academy: Established in 1953 as the village
                                         AID training institute, the Local Government Academy in Lalamusa is
                                         Punjab’s only institute with the sole purpose of training local government
                                         officers and staff. Devolution reforms have made it mandatory for training on
                                         core principles and administrative issues; hence PLGA plays a vital role in the
                                         capacity building of LG staff. The academy has the following objectives:

                                         •    Capacity building of newly elected established local governments, i.e.
                                              District governments, TMAs and Union administrations


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    •   Training of councilors and Nazims of all three tiers of government
    •   Organizing conferences and seminars on local government and related
        subjects
    •   Undertaking research in the field of local government.
    •   Liaison with regional and international agencies like UNICEF, CIDA, JICA
        and to facilitate them for their country program with regards to capacity
        building

    The academy imparts trainings in the following main areas:

    •   Orientation courses on devolution and Local Government Ordinance 2001
    •   Short courses on concept of Local Government, existing rules/laws,
        operational procedures, financial set up and functions of local councils
    •   Professional in-service long training courses on all aspects of District
        Governments
    •   Specialized training courses in the field of Local Government, Finances,
        Accounts, Taxation, Planning and Development, Execution of Local
        Development Plans, efficient office management, administration and
        development, civil engineering
    •   refresher courses on laws, bye-laws and working of TMAs
    •   Development Planning
    •   Special courses on water and sanitation/ social mobilization and human
        resource development

    The academy is funded wholly by the Government of Punjab. The budget is
    allocated only for pay and allowances of officers and contingent expenditures.

    The academy covers a total area of 4 acres and has 22 rooms and 2 training
    halls that hold more than 25 people each. Only 13 of the rooms are furnished
    and the academy possesses the capacity to house 50 participants. Computer
    and multimedia facilities are minimal with no internet connection or heating/
    air conditioning. The academy also houses a library that can accommodate
    20 people at any time.

    The academy only has 8 permanent staff members of faculty at the moment
    and 53 support/administrative staff members.. Given the scope of activities it
    engages in the staff strength needs to be consolidated.

    Strengths: Only institute in Punjab meant solely for the training of local
    government officials. Apt physical infrastructure.

    Weakness: No quality faculty is available. Weak training methodology and
    ability to design and implement successful urban management courses

    Potential: The infrastructure can be used to impart urban management
    trainings as long as outside assistance in the development and design of
    these courses is procured.

n   TEVTA: TEVTA is a Special Institution of Government of The Punjab,
    established to manage and improve the Technical, Vocational and
    Commercial Education. It is in the process of restructuring and reorganizing
    about 400 institutes and approximately 13,000 employees spread all over
    Punjab



                                  39
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                                         TEVTA has hundreds of institutes across Punjab and offers a range of
                                         vocational and technical training courses. The duration varies from 3 months
                                         for short courses to 3 three years for diploma courses. The courses offered by
                                         TEVTA institutes include Machining, plumbing, public health, electrician,
                                         mechanic, computer operator etc so TEVTA can be utilized to train the
                                         subordinate staff of urban agencies like WASAs and their support staff like
                                         clerks in the computer etc. the current course offering offer very limited
                                         potential. But the real advantage of linking up with TEVTA relies in its huge
                                         infrastructure where employees can be trained in large numbers. In order for
                                         TEVTA institutes to be useful for urban agencies, customized courses shall
                                         have to be developed with resource

                                         The authority has taken over Polytechnics, commercial Training institutes and
                                         colleges, Technical and vocational Centers, Apprentices Training Centers
                                         under the administrative control of the various Departments of Agencies of
                                         the Government including service and training Centers of the Punjab Small
                                         Industries Corporation and any other institution /office /organization or
                                         undertaking notified by the Government according to its own schedule.

                                         Notwithstanding anything contained in the Punjab Board of Technical
                                         Education Ordinance 1962 the Authority shall be the controlling Authority
                                         under section 11 of the said ordinance.

                                         There were seven different departments which were merged to form TEVTA.
                                         • Directorate of Technical Education (DTE).
                                         • Directorate of Manpower & Training (DM&T), Labour.
                                         • Punjab Small Industries Corporation (PSIC).
                                         • Agency for Barani Area Development (ABAD).
                                         • Directorate General of Agriculture.
                                         • Industries and Mineral Development Department.
                                         • Cooperative Department.

                                         There are different fields of education in which TEVTA is serving.
                                         • Colleges of Technology/Polytechnics.
                                         • Colleges of Commerce/Commercial Training Institutes.
                                         • Technical Training Institutes.
                                         • Apprentices Training Centers.
                                         • Technical Training Centers.
                                         • Vocational Training Centers/Institutes.
                                         • Agriculture Machinery Training Schools.
                                         • Agriculture Cooperative Institutes.
                                         • Weaving & Finishing Institutes.
                                         • Dehi Mazdoor Training Centers.
                                         • Institute of Leather Technology.
                                         • Glass and Ceramic Institutes.
                                         • Service Centers.

                                         TEVTA can be utilized for the training of junior staff in the various City District
                                         Government and help increase the efficiency of urban service delivery. Some
                                         of the areas TEVTA can be used in for trainings are:
                                         • Maintenance of water supply systems, repair and maintenance of water
                                             pumps, motors, pipelines etc
                                         • Repair and maintenance of SWM machinery


                                                                                  40
                                                                                                        Semiotics
                                                                                        Final Report
                                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                           Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                   People with simple solutions
     •   Basic computer skills for junior clerks, supervisors, record keepers, store
         keepers admin staff, personnel clerks etc

     Strengths: Unparalleled infrastructure, present in most districts throughout
     Pakistan. Wide variety of technical and vocational trainings. Lab facilities in
     many vocational institutes.

     Weakness: Experience limited to educating students, no in service trainings.
     Quality of faculty is below average.

     Potential: Wide infrastructure can be used to train lower staff responsible for
     efficient service delivery.

o.   PIPFA: PIPFA is the associate member of International Federation of
     Accountants (IFAC), the world organization for the accounting profession.
     IFAC's mission is to develop and enhance the profession to enable it to
     provide services of consistently high quality in the public interest. Its current
     membership consists of 155 professional accounting bodies in 113 countries
     representing more than 2.4 million accountants in practice, education,
     government service, industry and commerce. PIPFA, ICAP and ICMAP are
     the only three institutions of Pakistan having representation with IFAC.

     The three sponsoring bodies - Institute of Chartered Accountants, Institute of
     Cost & Management Accountants and Department of Auditor General of
     Pakistan have continuous stakes in running the affairs of PIPFA through
     combined representation of 75% on the Board of Governors.

     PIPFA’s mission is Identification, development and delivery of Knowledge and
     to provide a structure for the training of accounting professionals
     in the specialist area.

     PIPFA provides Professional Education fully commensurate with the
     demands of present era of Perfection, Specialization and Professionalism.
     The distinctive feature of PIPFA's program is to make available high quality of
     education at easily affordable cost. There are two streams of education -
     Corporate Sector open to all and the Government Sector exclusively for the
     eligible Government employees working in Department of Auditor General of
     Pakistan (AGP), affiliated/related departments and some Government owned
     entities. The Government Sector program is to be launched in near future.
     The Corporate Sector program is successfully functioning and Over 14,000
     students have already joined the program.

     After qualifying examinations and getting membership, one joins the society
     of professional accountants. PIPFA's qualification is ready recognition of
     professional standing and opens up bright career in industry, trade and
     services in both public and private sectors. There is additional opportunity of
     having a ladder to become a Chartered Accountant, Cost & Management
     Accountant or some other professional qualification by availing various
     exemptions available to PIPFA qualified or members.

     Short courses offered through PIPFA can be used to train Government
     Officials in the fields of auditing and accounts and overall financial
     management.

     Strengths: Newly established, high quality ISD


                                    41
     Semiotics
                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions



                                         Weakness: Limited to training students or pre-service officials.

                                         Potential: None

                               p.        Institute of Communication Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore: It
                                         was the first Department of Journalism in the Indo-Pak subcontinent when
                                         established in 1941. Its nomenclature was changed in 1985 from Journalism
                                         Department to Mass Communication Department. The Department has an
                                         academic environment where students enjoy all, university facilities i.e.
                                         transport, medical, hostel residence, main library membership, study and
                                         excursion tours, and sports facilities

                                         The institute currently offers masters, M. Phil and PhD Programmes. with the
                                         facilities of a modem departmental library, Photo Lab. Computer Lab., and
                                         Video Editing Lab., the Institute has experienced and qualified faculty. There
                                         are six Ph. D and one M. Phil in its permanent faculty of nine. Special
                                         lecturers of top most professionals are also arranged frequently.

                                         Strength: Possibility of involving ICS in developing short term training
                                         programmes in PR and Communication Management for urban managers.
                                         State of the art facilities and infrastructure.

                                         Weakness: Only operating in Lahore, no experience of in-service training or
                                         training of Urban Managers.

                                         Potential: Strong potential for collaboration as far as imparting communication
                                         skills trainings is concerned. However does not have the ability to produce
                                         quality and comprehensive training programmes for Urban Managers.

                               q.        Municipal Training and Research Institute, Karachi: The Municipal
                                         Training and Research Institute (MTRI) was established in 1986 and became
                                         functional in its own campus situated at Clifton Beach in Karachi. It is an
                                         attached department of Ministry of Local Government and Rural
                                         Development.

                                         The institute offers trainings to elected representatives, councilors, officers
                                         and staff of Local Bodies as well as representatives of NGOs working in the
                                         social and municipal sectors.

                                         MTRI has the following objectives:
                                         • To provide training and orientation to the elected representatives of local
                                           bodies, officers and officials of Local Government
                                         • To conduct research in the field of Local Government and allied subjects
                                         • To collaborate with municipalities of regional countries in the field of
                                           training and research
                                         • Liaison with international institutions of Local Governments
                                         • Liaison with regional and international agencies like UNICEF, UNDP etc.

                                         The training component of MTRI focuses on Financial Management, Local
                                         Government, and Municipal Engineering. Trainings with specific relevance to
                                         the delivery of Urban Services include the following:
                                         • Local Government System & Impact of Devolution
                                         • Financial Management


                                                                                  42
                                                                                                          Semiotics
                                                                                          Final Report
                                       Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                             Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                     People with simple solutions
     •   Fundamentals of Municipal Engineering
     •   Solid Waste Management
     •   Community Development
     •   Local Level Planning & Appraisal
     •   Challenges of Local Government Management

     MTRI has so far organized around 230 training courses and workshops and
     trained some 8150 participants nationwide. The faculty at MTRI consists of
     five full time members and the rest of the training activity is conducted by
     visiting faculty. The classrooms possess all modern training aids and
     equipments and the institute can accommodate 60 participants at a time for in
     house trainings. A hostel block is also available.

     Strengths: The only institute in Pakistan with training experience specifically
     in Municipal training and research. Long history of training local government
     officials involved in service delivery. Liaison with similar international institutes
     and Local Governments has increased experience with regards to urban
     services and challenges

     Weakness: Situated in Karachi. Logistical problems involved with training
     CDG officials from Punjab. Lack of quality and quantity of faculty. Physical
     infrastructure is limited.

     Potential: Potential is present to use MTRI’s experience and resources to
     train officers involved in the delivery of Urban and Municipal Services.
     However, faculty must be strengthened and more expertise brought in with
     regards to urban transport, water supply etc.

r.   University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi: The University of Arid
     Agriculture in Rawalpindi started offering a Masters Degree course in Urban
     Management for in the academic year 2006-2007.

     The overall aim of this degree programme is to create a cadre of urban sector
     professionals who are trained and are competent to take up challenging
     responsibilities in urban management.

     The specific objectives of the degree programme include the following:

     •   To develop understanding of the broad range of urban issues
     •   To develop understanding of how cities function and are governed
     •   To develop sense of how the problems of urban areas might be better
         addressed in the context of rapid economic, social, spatial and
         environmental change
     •   To enhance awareness of national and international best practices in
         management of cities
     •   To develop theoretical and operational knowledge of designing and
         executing projects for contribution to effective management of cities
     •   To enhance skills in developing appropriate management, governance,
         leadership and organizational tools and strategies
     •   To present the tools needed for effective planning, management and
         governance of cities

     The key themes followed throughout the program are giving participants an
     introduction and understanding of urban management and some of its key


                                      43
     Semiotics
                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                                         aspects while providing them with the necessary strategy sets and tools to
                                         cope with urbanization successfully. Some of the courses taught during the
                                         degree are as follow:
                                         • Local Government and Urban Governance
                                         • Urban Land Management and Real Estate
                                         • Urban Finance and Budgeting
                                         • Project Management and Evaluation
                                         • Computer Aided Design
                                         • Solid Waste Management
                                         • Water and Sanitation Management

                                         Strengths: The first programme of its kind meant specifically for the training of
                                         Urban Managers. Covers all relevant sectors. Situated in Rawalpindi which is
                                         beneficial for prospective training of Urban Managers in Punjab.

                                         Weakness: New programme so quality of faculty and sustainability of
                                         programme is yet to be proven. Does not cover Urban Transport.

                                         Potential: Given the extent to which the program covers all the aspects of
                                         Urban Management, there is potential to train present and future Urban
                                         Managers at this institute. However, the quality of the program and the faculty
                                         need to be proven before any steps are taken in this direction.

                                                     Analysis of Public Sector CBIs in Pakistan
                    Name               Location               Mission            Trainings       Strength      Weakness          Potential
              Accounts and         • Lahore,            • Implementation     • Financial      • Country        • Traditionally   • Possibility of
              Audit Training       Karachi,             of Training          Management,      wide offices     more focused      developing a
              Institute            Islamabad,           Component            Office           and training     on fresh          specialized
                                   Quetta,              under PIFRA-I in     Management,      facilities.      entrants, very    training
                                   Peshawar             addition to          Information      Experienced      limited           program in
                                                        implementation       Technology       staff, New and   training          municipal
                                                        of its regular                        Innovative       experience in     finance for
                                                        training plan                         Training         areas not         district officers.
                                                                                              Programmes       related to
                                                                                                               finance.
              Management           • Lahore             • To                 • General        • History of     • Lack of         • Collaboration
              and                                       professionalize      Management,      training civil   Instructional     would be ideal
              Professional                              the training and     Financial        servants.        System            due to physical
              Development                               career planning      Management,      Ample            Design            infrastructure
              Department                                functions in         Planning and     physical         expertise.        and
                                                        public sector        Development,     infrastructure   Limited to        association
                                                                             Human Resource   Diversified      Lahore. No        with Planning
                                                                             Management,      experience       specific          and
                                                                             Communication    and fields of    experience in     Development
                                                                             Skills           training.        urban             Department,
                                                                                                               management        However,
                                                                                                               training..        sector specific
                                                                                                                                 material and
                                                                                                                                 expertise
                                                                                                                                 regarding
                                                                                                                                 urban
                                                                                                                                 management
                                                                                                                                 must be
                                                                                                                                 brought in from
                                                                                                                                 an external
                                                                                                                                 source.



                                                                                  44
                                                                                                                               Semiotics
                                                                                                             Final Report
                                                          Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                                Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                                          People with simple solutions
      Name        Location             Mission          Trainings             Strength        Weakness         Potential
Pakistan       • Karachi and     • To enhance       • General             • Pioneer in        • No             • PIM would
Institute of   Lahore            the managerial     Management            executive           experience       be eager to join
Management                       skills in public   • Quality             development..       regarding        into a long term
                                 and private        Management            Physical            Urban            partnership
                                 sectors through    • Financial           infrastructure      Management.      which
                                 training,          Management            is sufficient       Only in          guarantees
                                 consultancy and    • Human               Experience of       Lahore and       source of
                                 research           Resource              in-service          Karachi. Has     income.
                                                    Management            training Widest     not been able
                                                    • Information         range of            to develop
                                                    Technology,           training            specialization
                                                    • Improving           modules in
                                                    Personal              Pakistan.
                                                    Effectiveness         Sizeable
                                                    • First Line          amount of
                                                    Supervision           permanent
                                                                          faculty
National       • Lahore          • In-service       • Strategic           • Long history      • Physical       • Present
management                       training of        management            of training civil   infrastructure   strain on
College                          officers for       • Strategic           servants.           and human        resources rules
                                 BPS19-20           planning              Restructuring       resources are    out any
                                 promotion          • Leadership          and reforms         overwhelmed      potential for
                                                    • Negotiation         underway            with present     collaboration in
                                                    skills                aimed at            weight of        the near future.
                                                    • Problem             improving the       activities and
                                                    solving and           quality of          pressure for
                                                    decision making       training.           further
                                                    • Team building                           improvement
                                                    • Creating a                              and changes.
                                                    service culture,                          Weak ISD
                                                    and                                       capacity. Only
                                                    • Professionalism                         in Lahore.
                                                    in public service
                                                    management
                                                    •
NIPAs          • Karachi,        • In-service       • Mandatory           • Same              • All are        • Potential to
               Quetta,Peshawar   trainings          training course for   history,            situated         collaborate is
                                                    promotion from        experience,         outside          present;
                                                    BPS18-19              and resources       Punjab.          however
                                                                          as NMC.                              absence in
                                                                                                               Punjab makes
                                                                                                               it inconvenient.
                                                                                                               Given that
                                                                                                               NIPAs already
                                                                                                               possess the
                                                                                                               mandate to
                                                                                                               train ex-cadre
                                                                                                               officers (non
                                                                                                               CSS officers),
                                                                                                               it would make
                                                                                                               sense to add a
                                                                                                               dimension of
                                                                                                               Urban
                                                                                                               Management
                                                                                                               to the trainings
                                                                                                               offered.
                                                                                                               However
                                                                                                               expertise in



                                                        45
     Semiotics
                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                       Name             Location             Mission              Trainings          Strength       Weakness          Potential
                                                                                                                                      this field must
                                                                                                                                      be procured
                                                                                                                                      from
                                                                                                                                      elsewhere.
              Road Research        • Lahore             • To provide         • N/A                 • Physical       • No              • No potential.
              & Material                                technical support                          infrastructure   residential
              Testing                                   to the                                     is present.      facilities. Do
              Institute                                 Communication                              Experience of    not have
                                                        and Works                                  training in-     reputable
                                                        Department                                 service          track record in
                                                                                                   engineers        imparting
                                                                                                                    quality
                                                                                                                    trainings. No
                                                                                                                    permanent
                                                                                                                    faculty.
              University of        • Lahore             • Premier            • City and            • Long           • Limited         • Given proper
              Engineering                               institution in       regional planning     established      experience of     financial
              and                                       Pakistan for         including             city and         in-service        incentives,
              Technology                                Engineering and      transport             regional         training          UET can start
                                                        Technology           management,           planning                           an evening
                                                                             housing, city         department.                        program for in-
                                                                             planning,             Experience of                      service Urban
                                                                             environmental         graduate                           Managers.
                                                                             planning.             studies,
                                                                                                   experienced
                                                                                                   permanent
                                                                                                   faculty and
                                                                                                   some research
                                                                                                   facilities.
              NED University       • Karachi            • Private sector     • Maters Degree       • Long           • Limited         • Given proper
              of Engineering                            institution          course on Urban       established      experience of     financial
              and                                       excelling in         Planning              city and         in-service        incentives,
              Technology                                Engineering                                regional         training.         NED can start
                                                                                                   planning         Located only      an evening
                                                                                                   department.      in Karachi.       short course
                                                                                                   qualified and                      for in-service
                                                                                                   experienced                        Urban
                                                                                                   permanent                          Managers.
                                                                                                   faculty, some
                                                                                                   research
                                                                                                   facilities..
              Civil Services       • Lahore             • To provide         • Communication       • Long,          • Limited         • Given the
              Academy                                   training for fresh   and writing skills,   prestigious      experience in     strain on
                                                        entrants into the    public speaking       history of       training Urban    present
                                                        CSS                  and Information       training civil   Managers.         resources, lack
                                                                             technology            service          Present           of experience
                                                                             • National Issues     officers.        resources are     in Urban
                                                                             of Pakistan:                           thinly spread.    Management,
                                                                             • Economics and                        Only in           there is no
                                                                             Public Finance                         Lahore.           potential for
                                                                             • Government                           Experience        collaboration.
                                                                             Functioning in                         limited to
                                                                             Pakistan                               training fresh
                                                                             • Office                               entrants
                                                                             Management                             •
                                                                             • Public Sector
                                                                             Management
                                                                             •



                                                                                  46
                                                                                                                            Semiotics
                                                                                                           Final Report
                                                        Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                              Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                                       People with simple solutions
    Name           Location        Mission             Trainings            Strength      Weakness          Potential
Health         • Islamabad    • Short courses      • Trainings on       • Ample           • Limited         • Can only be
Services                      and trainings for    water quality and    physical          experience in     used for
Academy                       Public Health        sanitation issues    infrastructure    training urban    training
                              Officials                                 and quality       managers,         regarding
                                                                        faculty in the    area is too       water quality
                                                                        Health sector     specific.         issues.



Government     • Lahore       • To provide in-     • Management         • Are looking     • No ISD,         • Their
Engineering                   service and          and Public           for alternate     lack of           resources can
Academy                       Fresh entrant        Administration       opportunities.    properly          be used for
                              trainings to         • Economic           Huge              trained           training urban
                              Government           Development and      infrastructure.   faculty. No       managers
                              Engineers            Financial Analysis   Experience in     experience in     given an
                                                   of Engineering       training in-      training Urban    increase in
                                                   Projects             service           Managers.         number of
                                                   • Financial          engineers.        Training          qualified
                                                   Management           Some                                faculty.
                                                   • Rules,             experience in
                                                   Regulations and      Management
                                                   Acts                 training
                                                   • Engineering        •
                                                   project planning,
                                                   preparation,
                                                   implementation
                                                   and evaluation
                                                   • Engineering
                                                   works execution,
                                                   operation and
                                                   maintenance
                                                   • Computing
Punjab Local   • Lalamusa     • Training of        • Local              • Only            • No quality      • The
Government                    Local                Government           institute in      faculty is        infrastructure
Academy                       Government           System Trainings,    Punjab meant      available.        can be used to
                              Officers and Staff   Development          solely for the    Weak training     impart urban
                                                   Planning, Finance    training of       methodology       management
                                                   and Office           local             and ability to    trainings as
                                                   Management           government        design and        long as outside
                                                                        officials. Apt    implement         assistance in
                                                                        physical          successful        the
                                                                        infrastructure.   urban             development
                                                                                          management        and design of
                                                                                          courses           these courses
                                                                                                            is procured.
TEVTA          • Nationwide   • To provide         • N/A                • Unparalleled    • Experience      • Wide
                              technical and                             infrastructure,   limited to        infrastructure
                              vocational                                present in        educating         can be used to
                              trainings                                 most districts    students, no      train lower staff
                                                                        throughout        in service        responsible for
                                                                        Pakistan.         trainings.        efficient service
                                                                        Wide variety of   Quality of        delivery.
                                                                        technical and     faculty is
                                                                        vocational        below
                                                                        trainings. Lab    average.
                                                                        facilities in     •
                                                                        many
                                                                        vocational



                                                       47
     Semiotics
                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                       Name             Location             Mission              Trainings          Strength       Weakness          Potential
                                                                                                  institutes.
              PIPFA                • N/A                • Identification,     • Accounting,       • Newly           • Limited to      • None
                                                        development and       Auditing and        established,      training
                                                        delivery of           Finance trainings   high quality      students or
                                                        Knowledge and                             ISD               pre-service
                                                        to provide a                                                officials.
                                                        structure for the
                                                        training of
                                                        accounting
                                                        professionals
                                                        in the specialist
                                                        area
              Institute of         • Lahore             • Department          • M.phil and PhD    • .State of the   • Only in         • Strong
              Communication                             within the Punjab     Programmes          art facilities    Lahore, no        potential for
              Study                                     University.                               and               experience of     collaboration
                                                                                                  infrastructure.   in-service        as far as
                                                                                                                    training or       imparting
                                                                                                                    training of       communication
                                                                                                                    Urban             skills trainings
                                                                                                                    Managers.         is concerned..
              Municipal            • Karachi            • To provide          • Office            • History and     • Situated in     • Potential is
              Training and                              training and          management,         experience        Karachi. Lack     present to use
              Research                                  orientation to        Local government    with regards to   of staff. Weak    MTRIs
              Institute                                 elected               system and          trainings of      Physical          resources and
                                                        representatives       impact of           local             infrastructure.   experience in
                                                        and officers of       devolution,         government                          training local
                                                        Local                 Financial           officials in                        government
                                                        Governments           Management,         municipal                           officials in
                                                                              Fundamentals of     services                            subjects
                                                                              Municipal                                               related to
                                                                              Engineering and                                         municipal
                                                                              Local Level                                             services, but
                                                                              Planning                                                staff must be
                                                                                                                                      strengthened
                                                                                                                                      and logistical
                                                                                                                                      arrangements
                                                                                                                                      made.
              University of        • Rawalpindi         • To create a         • Courses           • Specific        • New             • Given the
              Arid Agriculture                          cadre of urban        covering relevant   focus on          program,          focus of the
                                                        sector                sectors of SWM,     training urban    quality of        program and
                                                        professionals         WSS, Land Use &     managers and      faculty and       its location,
                                                        who are trained       Spatial Planning,   in-depth          program itself    there is a
                                                        and are               Municipal           program           is still          strong potential
                                                        competent to          Finance.            covering most     unknown.          to train urban
                                                        take up                                   aspects of        Syllabus does     managers here
                                                        challenging                               urban             not cover         once the
                                                        responsibilities in                       management.       Urban             program has
                                                        urban                                     Location in       Transport.        been
                                                        management.                               Rawalpindi                          successfully
                                                                                                  suits the                           established.
                                                                                                  training of
                                                                                                  Urban
                                                                                                  Managers in
                                                                                                  Punjab.

                     Around 18 public sector CBIs considered relevant in the context of capacity building of urban
                     staff were studied. Summary of the key findings is as follows;



                                                                                  48
                                                                                                                   Semiotics
                                                                                                   Final Report
                                                Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                                      Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
                                                                                                              People with simple solutions
   •   None of the existing CBI has the necessary technical resources and expertise to play
       a meaningful role in building the capacity of urban management officials.
   •   In whatever training programmes they are managing, the CBIs were found to have
       the following common characteristics;
           o Hardly any institution could provide any evidence of systematically assessing
                the capacity building needs of its prospective recipients of capacity building
                inputs. The contents of trainings delivered at these institutions are driven by
                convention, common sense and tradition and the institution’s ability to do
                deliver rather than the participants’ needs.
           o The relevance and quality of trainings in generally low, however it varies from
                institution to institution. CSA and other specialized training academies
                responsible for training CSS occupational groups like AATI are relatively more
                focused and deliver better quality, while others like GEA, MPDD, and NIPAs
                have branched out into many areas for which they do not have internal
                capacity.
           o While few of the recipients of trainings expressed that some of them found the
                trainings somewhat useful, none could put forward any evidence as to how
                the learning acquired from the training helped them in improving their job
                performance. Most participants who had received trainings from the public
                sector institutions could not even recall the names of training programmes, or
                resource persons or topics covered. For most, it was merely a supply driven
                exercise which had not connection with the ground realities they face in their
                day to day jobs.
           o None of the CBIs covered in this study conducts any systematic evaluation of
                their training programmes. Training Evaluation was either being ignored all
                together or was restricted to smiley sheet – the short feedback forms filled by
                the participants to record their immediate reaction to the training (also called
                reactioneers)
           o With regard to the design, implementation and evaluation of training
                programmes (commonly known as Instructional System Design), the public
                sector CBIs were found to be extremely deficient. Please see the box for a
                brief introduction to the ISD. Often the training brochures or other records
                shared by these CBIs did not have clear training objectives to start with. Even
                in cases where the objectives were clear, the ensuing descriptions were
                limited to the listing of topics without necessary details about the contents and
                activities and their linkages with the training objectives.
           o Public Sector CBIs were mostly found to be in possession of reasonably well
                equipped and maintained physical infrastructure. Almost all the CBIs had
                purpose built training centres and residential facilities with other guest
                services like kitchens and dinning halls etc .
           o Most CBIs survive with a very lean core faculty. Except for AATI which has
                around 210 permanent faculty members, all the other CBIs heavily rely on
                visiting faculty engaged from the public and private sectors on course to
                course basis. Terms of such engagement are by and large sketchy. Due to
                the weak ISD explained above, the visiting faculty is not conveyed in precise
                and exact terms what is required from them and thus what is to be covered
                and how is generally left to the discretion of the trainer. As a result the quality
                of training becomes a matter of chance rather than planning.

Many CBIs conduct only compulsory training programmes which the participants have to
attend as an obligation to earn eligibility for promotion. Given that both the providers as well
as the recipients view these trainings as mere ‘formalities’, is one major factor behind the
missing rigor and quality in these training programmes.




                                               49
     Semiotics
                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                                                              WHAT IS ISD?
                     Instructional System Development (ISD) means a systemic process of development,
                     implementation and evaluation of a training programme. It starts with identification of
                     purpose and intended learning outcomes of a training programme. Each learning outcomes
                     is a specific action oriented statement like “at the end the training the participants will be able
                     to do .. Then it moves on to identification of sub outcomes under each learning outcome.
                     Then activities to achieve each of learning outcomes and sub outcomes are developed and
                     sequenced. Here an explanation as to which activity will contribute towards which learning
                     outcomes and how is also included. This is followed by the development of course materials
                     like readings, case studies, exercise etc. The development stage also includes developing a
                     mechanism to assess the achievement of learning outcomes. After this the training is
                     delivered and evaluated. Lessons learnt during the delivery and from evaluation are then
                     looped back into the design of the next training programme.

                                                               Instructional System Design




                     Following are the Private Sector CBIs in Pakistan:

                               a.        OCTARA: Octara Private Limited is an independent enterprise and a
                                         Business Information Management company of the Tranzum Group
                                         specializing in Corporate/Management Training & Workshops, Seminars &
                                         Conferences, Event Management, Publications and Public Relations.

                                         Attaining a leadership position in Pakistan in the field of conceptualizing and
                                         executing world-class conferences, Octara had managed the 10th
                                         Management Convention 2006 of Management Association of Pakistan, with
                                         the theme of "Leadership, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship". The event
                                         featured International speakers from Boeing, Harvard, INSEAD, and others
                                         from USA, Singapore, India, Gulf and Pakistan. As the sole licensee of
                                         Luminary Series USA for Pakistan, Octara hosts teleconferences and satellite
                                         events held by Lumacore USA featuring speakers like Jack Welch, Tom
                                         Peters, Daniel Goleman, Brian Tracy, Ken Blanchard, Madeline Albright, and
                                         others.




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     As the event manager to the Central Depository Company of Pakistan, Octara
     has organized Road Shows for CDC in the UAE as well as the 10th General
     Meeting of the Asia Pacific CSD Group in Karachi recently.

     Octara has to its credit events such as the recently held first International
     Business Continuity Management Conference in association with Ferguson
     Associates, Valuing the People Factor international conference featuring Bob
     Urichuck, Dr. Sunil Gupta and other speakers, first international
     Telecommunications Investment Conference, Ministry of IT and Asia Pacific
     Telecommunity International Symposium, Excellence Award Ceremonies of
     CFAAP, ITU World Telecom Day Conference, first international OHSE
     Conference, and numerous workshops and seminars with world-class
     speakers in Dubai, Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad.

     In the UAE, Octara has partnered with organizations like Etisalat Academy for
     international and regional events. As a strategic partner to Leading Minds,
     Octara marketed in Pakistan the 2005 edition of the annual event "Leaders in
     Dubai”, which featured Bill Clinton, Mahathir Mohammad, Kenichi Ohmae,
     Scott Bedbury, and other speakers.

     A leader in Corporate/Management Training, Conferences, Seminars, and
     events, Octara during the past year has organized 80 event days, with over
     100 speakers and trainers and has catered to over 4000 guests, participants,
     and delegates including corporate heads and executives across Pakistan..

     With prime focus on the corporate sector, OCTARA offers courses on time
     and stress management, building high performance teams, creative thinking
     etc. OCTARA has the potential to offer high quality training to senior and top
     management in urban agencies through developing customized training
     programmes on general management like organizational performance,
     strategic planning, motivation and organizational culture, communication
     strategies for public etc.

     Strengths: Part of a well reputed group of companies, rapidly building its
     image as a provider of top quality training.

     Weakness: Karachi based, very newly established. Exclusive focus on
     corporate sector.

     Potential: Top end urban managers can receive high quality senior executive
     level trainings like leadership skills, strategic planning etc.

b.   LUMS (LUMS-McGill Social Enterprise Development Center):LUMS-
     McGill Social Enterprise Development Programme (SEDP) was launched in
     July 2001 when Small and Medium Enterprises Centre (SMEC) signed an
     agreement with McGill University. This agreement is known as “Outreach
     Continuing Education Programme for Community and District Social Service
     Managers” and is being jointly implemented by LUMS’ SMEC and McGill’s
     Faculty of Management and its Centre for International Management Studies
     (CIMS) with the financial support of CIDA.

     The project aims at providing Pakistan with strong and credible institutions to
     respond to the requests of GOP and/or international donor organizations in
     conducting research and preparing policy papers related to NGOs’
     development. The project will ultimately result in the creation of a network of


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                                         service points, in which LUMS will be the central institution providing
                                         intellectual resources and support for the development of more efficient and
                                         effective NGOs.

                                         The introduction of IT- Based Distance Learning for development
                                         professionals is the most innovative component of the SEDP. It will provide
                                         an effective and user-friendly online platform for distance training and
                                         education of personnel from NGOs and the District Social Service
                                         Organisation. With the aim of creating awareness among the development
                                         centre, the SEDP will be coming out with the “NGO Pulse” which will be an
                                         annual publication. This publication will be based on national surveys and will
                                         document information on issues faced by, performance of, and future outlook
                                         of NGOs in Pakistan

                                         Strengths: An institution of International repute based in Lahore. Very strong
                                         study design and quality programmes. Prestigious. Physical infrastructure is
                                         more than sufficient. Experience in executive development and in-service
                                         training of senior managers. Some experience of training public sector and
                                         NGOs. SEDP has exposed LUMS to social development

                                         Weakness: Experience primarily focused on training corporate sector. Costly
                                         programmes. They may not find potential collaboration exciting enough .
                                         Faculty does not have any specific expertise in urban management training.

                                         Potential: Potential for training top end senior urban managers is present,
                                         sector specific skills must be injected. Getting LUMS onboard is going to be a
                                         hard sell.

                               c.        Institute of Business Administration: The IBA initially offered programs
                                         only for day scholars. In 1957, an Evening Program was started to cater to
                                         the needs of the numerous working executives and managers who were
                                         interested in furthering their careers through part-time business studies. In
                                         1982, a three-year BBA (Honors) Program was introduced which has now
                                         been upgraded into a four-year BBA program.

                                         The IBA programs are designed to provide world-class professional
                                         managers and entrepreneurs for the business and industry in Pakistan.
                                         Students take part in a broad variety of activities ranging from volunteering for
                                         charity work and participating in athletic events to organizing conferences on
                                         a variety of business issues. A spirit of involvement is important because
                                         teamwork, leadership and being a responsible citizen are the foundations of
                                         the IBA experience.

                                         The Center for Computer Studies was established in 1983 with the
                                         collaboration of IBM, Pakistan. It initially offered a diploma in system analysis
                                         to overcome a shortage of software professionals in the country. It now offers
                                         BBA (MIS), MBA (MIS) and BCS (software engineering) programs.

                                         In addition a PhD program in MIS/Computer Science and Engineering/ICT
                                         has been launched from August 2005.

                                         Courses offered for Senior Management are:
                                         • Managing Your Time
                                         • Managing Stress at Work
                                         • Building High Performance Teams


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     •   Managing Conflict to Advantage
     •   Effective Interpersonal Communication
     •   Creative Thinking and Problem Solving
     •   Emotional Intelligence at work
     •   Executive Decision Making
     •   Effective Office Management
     •   Increasing Personal Power and Effectiveness
     •   Assertiveness Skills Training
     •   Presentation Skills
     •   Precision Management
     •   Powerful Peoples’ Skills
     •   Win-Win Negotiations
     •   Motivational Power
     •   Goal setting and Reaching One’s Potential
     •   Encouraging Innovation

     Strengths: Another institute of international repute, high quality ISD and
     qualified faculty. Some experience in executive level in-service training, large
     physical infrastructure.

     Weakness: Only in Karachi, no urban management experience.

     Potential: Development of similar program as mentioned with LUMS is
     possible, but given geographical issues it may not be viable.

d.   ICI-Pakistan-British Council Management Centre: The institute’s
     objectives are to deliver cutting-edge management development workshops
     designed to improve individual and organizational quality and efficiency.
     Management Development Services provide managers in the private and
     public sectors, as well as in government and non-government organisations,
     with access to the most up-to-date techniques, skills and perspectives in the
     practice of management.

     The institute tries to bring the best management practices from the UK and
     around the world to businesses in Pakistan through management
     development workshops.

     Following are the training workshops provided in five main areas:

     •   Maximizing individual management potential
     •   Skills needed for effective people management
     •   Improving the quality and efficiency of Organizations
     •   Workshops designed to improve the management of projects and
         activities
     •   Issues in Managing Information Systems Projects

     Strengths: Some experience in training public sector. High quality ISD and
     unmatched resource database in Pakistan. Recently started a 1 on 1 training
     program, the first of its kind.

     Weakness: Main set-up is in Karachi, however they do carry out training
     programmes in other areas. Lack of expertise in more technical aspects of
     Urban Management




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                                         Potential: Strong potential for collaboration on training of top end urban
                                         management. However sector specific skills (water and sanitation,
                                         engineering) need to be found elsewhere.

                                                    Analysis of Private Sector CBIs in Pakistan

                     Name            Location        Mission           Trainings                 Strengths         Weakness         Potential
                     OCTARA          KARACHI         To provide        Corporate/Management      Part of a well    Karachi          Top end
                                                     workshops,        Training & Workshops,     reputed group     based, very      urban
                                                     trainings on      Seminars &                of companies,     newly            managers
                                                     Business          Conferences, Event        rapidly           established.     can receive
                                                     Management        Management,               building its      Exclusive        high quality
                                                     and Corporate     Publications and Public   image as a        focus on         senior
                                                     Trainings         Relations                 provider of       corporate        executive
                                                                                                 top quality       sector           level trainings
                                                                                                 training                           like
                                                                                                                                    leadership
                                                                                                                                    skills,
                                                                                                                                    strategic
                                                                                                                                    planning etc
                     LUMS            LAHORE          Private Sector                              An institution    Experience       Potential for
                                                     University                                  of                primarily        training top
                                                     excelling in                                International     focused on       end senior
                                                     Management                                  repute.           training         urban
                                                     programmes                                  Strong study      corporate        managers is
                                                                                                 design and        sector.          present,
                                                                                                 ISD.              Costly           sector
                                                                                                 Experience in     programmes       specific skills
                                                                                                 executive                          must be
                                                                                                 development                        injected.
                                                                                                 and in-service                     Getting
                                                                                                 training of                        LUMS
                                                                                                 senior                             onboard is
                                                                                                 managers                           going to be a
                                                                                                                                    hard sell.

                     IBA             KARACHI         To provide        Graduate and              Another           : Only in        Development
                                                     students with     Undergraduate degree      institute of      Karachi, no      of similar
                                                     a solid           programmes as well as     international     urban            program as
                                                     background in     training courses for      repute, high      management       mentioned
                                                     Business          senior management         quality ISD       experience       with LUMS is
                                                     Administration    and executives            and qualified                      possible, but
                                                     and to prepare                              faculty. Some                      given
                                                     them for future                             experience in                      geographical
                                                     challenges                                  executive                          issues it may
                                                                                                 level in-                          not be viable
                                                                                                 service
                                                                                                 training, large
                                                                                                 physical
                                                                                                 infrastructure.

                     ICI Pakistan    KARACHI         to deliver        Individual Management,    Some              Main set-up      Strong
                     British                         cutting-edge      People Management,        experience in     is in Karachi,   potential for
                     Council                         management        Improving efficiency of   training public   however          collaboration
                     Management                      development       Organizations, Project    sector. High      they do carry    on training of
                     Centre                          workshops         Management.               quality ISD       out training     top end
                                                     designed to                                 and               programmes       urban
                                                     improve                                     unmatched         in other         management.
                                                     individual and                              resource          areas. Lack      However



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                                                                                                                     People with simple solutions
Name         Location    Mission          Trainings                  Strengths         Weakness        Potential
                         organizational                              database in       of expertise    sector
                         quality and                                 Pakistan.         in more         specific skills
                         efficiency                                  Recently          technical       (water and
                                                                     started a 1 on    aspects of      sanitation,
                                                                     1 training        Urban           engineering)
                                                                     program, the      Management      need to be
                                                                     first of its                      found
                                                                     kind.                             elsewhere

The private sector CBIs analysed above focus mostly on the corporate sector. They provide
high quality trainings with regards to senior and executive management, office management
and Financial Management, but experience of Urban Management is lacking. In cases
where urban management trainings are present and of good quality (NED, UET), experience
of training public servants and in-service trainings is very limited. Most institutes do not have
the physical infrastructure to match the requirements for training the urban managers for
today (except LUMS).

6.1.2   International CBIs and Programmes

        a.      The Urban Institute (UI): The Urban Institute, a non-for-profit Corporation
                organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware in the United
                States of America (“UI”). The institute’s objectives are to “To promote sound
                social policy and public debate on national priorities.” The Urban Institute
                gathers and analyzes data, conducts policy research, evaluates programs
                and services, and educates citizens on critical issues and trends

                District That Work (DTW) Project USAID is a three-year project started from
                November 2006 till August 2009.The Project implemented in six districts of
                Pakistan i.e. Sialkot and Khanewal in Punjab, Sukker and Dadu in Sindh,
                Lasbella in Balochistan and Mansehra in NWFP.Three more districts will be
                added from August 2007.

                District That Work (DTW) Project is a governance project and is striving to
                ensure better service delivery in Local Government. The project aims to
                achieve governance through extensive capacity building focusing on three
                Group of Offices in District Government: EDO F&P, Education, and Health
                apart from building capacity of CSO’s, elected people and Member Monitoring
                Committees for playing effective role. A fund under the name of District
                Support Fund (DSF) is constituted which can be accessed by District
                Government for the procurement of various eligible articles essential for their
                day to day working like furniture fixture, equipments, setting up Resource
                Center renovation of buildings etc.

                Districts That Work (DTW) Project is in the process of setting up Offices in all
                the six districts to help provide on the job and technical support to the District
                Governments for effecting improvement in service deliveries. Currently,
                Panning and Budgeting and New Accounting Model (NAM) trainings have
                since been started for the EDO’s and DDO’s of the three Group of Offices.

                Strengths: Global experience, Due to presence in Pakistan, possibilities of
                experience sharing

                Weakness: Primarily a research institute, no long term potential due to high
                transaction costs.


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                                         Potential: Due to presence in Pakistan, possibilities of experience sharing
                                         between Urban Unit and Urban Institute.

                               b.        Institute for Public Private Partnership (IP3):     The Institute for Public-
                                         Private Partnerships, Inc. (IP3), established in 1994, provides global training
                                         and consulting services to governments and industries in the growing
                                         international marketplace of public-private partnership (PPP) modeling,
                                         regulation design and implementation, and competitive utility management.
                                         Beginning in the early-1990's, countries worldwide began to embrace private
                                         sector management and investment models as the primary paradigm for
                                         economic growth, investment, and poverty alleviation. In particular,
                                         governments were especially keen in attracting long-term private investment,
                                         private sector management practices, and technology into a variety of
                                         sectors, including telecommunications, energy, transportation, water supply
                                         and wastewater treatment, environmental infrastructure, social services, and
                                         most recently, information technology. IP3's pioneering consulting and
                                         training services in PPP, infrastructure regulation, and competitive utility
                                         management has resulted in ground breaking policy and legislative reform in
                                         dozens of countries, the completion of scores of projects/transactions, and
                                         the training of thousands of government, regulatory, utility, and private sector
                                         stakeholders worldwide. Their core competencies in each "practice" area are
                                         highlighted below:

                                         Public-Private Partnership (PPP) core competencies
                                         • PPP policy and institutional framework development
                                         • Project identification, screening and selection
                                         • Feasibility analyses (technical, economic, tariff, and project financing)
                                         • Transaction structuring, financing and procurement strategies
                                         • Transaction bid and tender preparation, tendering/procurement
                                            assistance, and negotiation
                                         • Public awareness and stakeholder consultation
                                         • Bid evaluation, award, and negotiation
                                         • Performance monitoring, contract compliance and dispute resolution
                                         • PPP service delivery and the poor

                                         Regulation core competencies:
                                         • Policy, legislative, and legal requirements for effective regulation
                                         • Designing regulatory institutions and their financial instruments
                                         • Creating regulatory rules, processes, and procedures
                                         • Public awareness and customer relations programs
                                         • Tariff structuring and subsidy analysis design/options
                                         • Rate case application preparations and strategic reviews
                                         • Competition policy and regulatory reform in key sectors

                                         Competitive Utility Management core competencies:
                                         • Restructuring, commercializing, and corporatizing utilities
                                         • Corporate governance planning and implementation
                                         • Utility financial management, budgeting and investment planning
                                         • Customer service and communication strategies
                                         • Employee redeployment and workforce productivity
                                         • E-government and IT solutions to expand and improve services
                                         • Mergers and acquisition planning




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                                                                                                    People with simple solutions
     Each practice area is active in the following sectors:
     • Energy (generation, transmission and distribution)
     • Telecommunications (both new age and traditional telephony, spectrum
        management, internet, and e-commerce)
     • Transportation (roads, railways, mass urban transit, airports & sea ports)
     • Environmental infrastructure (water supply, wastewater treatment, solid
        waste management)
     • Municipal infrastructure (solid waste management, urban transportation,
        parks & recreation, and other general government services)
     • Social infrastructure (pension reform, education reform, and health care
        services)
     • Information communications and technology - ICT (e-Government, e-
        Procurement, and e-Learning)

     Since 1994, the Global Training Division (GTD) has been responsible for
     designing, developing, and implementing customized training solutions on all
     aspects of public-private partnerships in over 50 countries. Customized
     training offers clients the flexibility to fully meet the capacity building needs of
     their organizations, while working within scheduling and budgetary
     constraints.

     Customized training has also greatly enhanced IP3's technical assistance
     projects in a number of countries. GTD often designs workshops to address
     capacity building needs of projects to ensure their successful implementation
     and transition to local hands.

     Customized Training Capabilities Since 1994, IP3 has implemented scores of
     customized training workshops of varying duration. Through customized
     training workshops, IP3 has trained over 2000 participants from over 50
     countries in their local languages which include: English, Russian, Ukrainian,
     Arabic, French, Spanish, Albanian, Serbo-Croatian, and Bahasa-Indonesian.

     Strengths: Rich experience of training public servants as well as corporate
     sector managers in public private partnerships.

     Weakness: U.S based, experience only in public private partnership

     Potential: Massive potential since private sector needs to be involved to
     improve urban services and IP3s expertise in public private partnership is
     unmatched.

c.   IPR Singapore: The Institute of Public Relations of Singapore (IPRS),
     established in 1970 as a non-profit organisation, is the only accrediting body
     for public relations practitioners. The Institute's objective is to establish growth
     for Singapore¹s PR industry through knowledge acquisition, networking, and
     exchanging of new ideas. The Institute continually strives to be the leading
     regional PR organisation that will not only project the profession but also set
     industry standards and increase public recognition of this profession.

     IPRS has about 500 members under four membership categories : Full,
     Corporate, Associate and Affiliate . The Institute welcomes people from
     diverse business backgrounds to contribute to IPRS' strength and dynamism.
     Currently, the membership base includes professionals from a variety of
     backgrounds – public relations, marketing communications, management,
     marketing, education, journalism, etc.


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                                         Following are some of the workshops offered at IPRS:
                                         • Effective Communication.
                                         • Press Conferences.
                                         • Business Presentation Skills.
                                         • Crisis Communications Management
                                         • Introduction to Public Relations

                                         Strengths: Expertise in stakeholder management including citizens and
                                         consumers of urban services

                                         Weakness: Limited only to communication and public relations, the fact that it
                                         is only based in Singapore makes it costly

                                         Potential: The potential for involving IPR is present because urban managers
                                         need to increase the capacity of public dealing and communication. Even a
                                         minimal number of officials trained in public relations and communication in
                                         each district would be extremely beneficial.

                               d.        Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand: The Asian Institute of Technology
                                         (AIT) is an autonomous, international postgraduate institution located in
                                         Thailand but educating and training people from more than thirty countries in
                                         the region and beyond. The institute's 160 hectare campus is located 42 km
                                         north of Bangkok. The institute is supported by donor governments and
                                         international agencies, foundations, business organizations and individuals,
                                         Asian and non-Asian. Responsibility for the Institute's policy direction rests
                                         with the Board of Trustees, which consists of some 40 members from Asia,
                                         Australia, Europe and North America.

                                         AIT mission is to take a leadership role in the promotion of technological
                                         change and its management for sustainable development in the Asia and
                                         Pacific region, through high level education, research and outreach activities
                                         which integrate technology, planning and management. The focus of the
                                         institute's activities is in technology, with special emphasis on the inter-
                                         disciplinary interface among the above three fields, and includes attention to
                                         environmental and socio-economic considerations.

                                         Since its inception in 1959, AIT has offered instruction and conducted
                                         research in engineering, the sciences, planning and management, and
                                         closely-related fields to foster advanced technological learning to meet the
                                         need for key positions in private and public sector throughout the region. It
                                         has presently over 200 international faculty and over 300 international
                                         research staff members working in 14 academic programs grouped into four
                                         schools. Since its establishment, AIT has produced about 8,000 graduates
                                         from 48 countries.

                                         UMP- AIT Partnership consisting the academic units Gender and
                                         Development Studies and Urban Environment Management of School of
                                         Environment, Resources and Development, undertook the responsibility of
                                         co-managing UMP-regional activities and worked as a Regional Anchor
                                         Institution (RAI) of UMP-Asia. Since then they have given a gender-sensitive
                                         and environment friendly direction to different cities in Asia through the city
                                         consultation process. It hosts the office of the Regional Coordinator of UMP-
                                         Asia.



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Urban Environmental Management (UEM) is an area of academic discourse
and professional practice in which urban planning and urban management
are studied and practiced from an environmental management perspective.

As an academic field, UEM provides opportunities of graduate level education
and research at master (MSc.) and doctoral (Ph.D.) level. It draws on and
integrates theories and perspectives in established disciplines of urban
planning, urban and regional development and urban policy and management
studies into a distinctive framework of problem, issues and questions
concerning the urban environment. It enables students to identify problems;
apply appropriate analytic methodologies; design, plan and implement
programs and projects; and monitor impacts and challenges within the
context of sustainable development in developing societies

The Field of Study prepares students for professional careers in the public
and private sector as well as civil society organizations engaged in urban and
environmental management.

AIT, in collaboration with CIDA runs the Southeast Asia Urban Environmental
Management Applications (SEA-UEMA) Project, which aims to improve the
Urban Environmental Management (UEM) policies and good practices in the
region. The goal of the project is to contribute to the improvement of urban
environmental conditions in Southeast Asia (SEA) region. It seeks to attain
improved implementation and sharing of sound urban environmental
management policies and practices in the three key urban environmental sub-
sectors (water and sanitation, solid waste, and air pollution) in Southeast
Asian region with poverty reduction and gender equality as the two
crosscutting themes.

Regional and Rural Development Planning: This field of study focuses on
rural poverty, improvement of the quality of life, and social and economic
development of rural areas. Practice oriented rural-regional planning is
carried out regularly at district and sub-district levels following a participatory
and integrated approach, and attention is paid to management of
development Institutions, infrastructure and physical resources. Sectoral and
spatial planning is equally emphasized along with the management of rural
development programs and local development projects to strengthen rural
communities for sustainable development.

Strengths: Very comprehensive Urban Management Program, Quality faculty
and ample physical Infrastructure, Experience of training government
servants and collaboration with agencies

Weakness: Logistics and costs involved with arranging international trainings.

Potential: Sending officers to graduate studies in urban management at the
UEM and AIT can be very rewarding options, albeit expensive in terms of
both money and time. Pursuance of degree courses has to be preceded by
necessary improvements in service structure and incentive systems in urban
agencies. Changes are needed to help make urban services management as
an exciting and prestigious career so that individuals are motivated to pursue
such studies and have enough motivation to serve in their in parent
departments on completion of study.




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                               e.        National Institute of Urban Affairs: National Institute of Urban Affairs
                                         (NIUA) is a premier institute for research, training and information
                                         dissemination in urban development and management. Established in 1976,
                                         as an autonomous body under the Societies Registration Act, the Institute
                                         enjoys the support and commitment of the Ministry of Urban Affairs and
                                         Employment, Government of India, State Governments, urban and regional
                                         development authorities and other agencies concerned with urban issues.
                                         The Institute's policies and directions are determined by the Governing
                                         Council consisting of a President, who is appointed by the Government of
                                         India, two Vice-Presidents, and three members of the Government of India in
                                         their ex-officio capacity, twelve other members, and the Director, the Chief
                                         Executive of the Institute, as the member-secretary.

                               The Institute's Memorandum of Association lays down, inter alia, the following as its
                                      main functions:
                                      • To act as an autonomous, scientific and research organisation to
                                           undertake, promote and coordinate studies on urbanisation;
                                      • To act as a centre for advanced study of urban problems and to provide
                                           and promote the necessary training and research facilities;
                                      • To evaluate the social, administrative, financial and other aspects of the
                                           implementation of urban development plans and programmes;
                                      • To mobilise available expertise in the field of urban affairs and to offer and
                                           co-ordinate technical and consultancy services;
                                      • To constitute or cause to be constituted or give affiliation to regional, state
                                           or local centres to promote the purpose of the institute;
                                      • To organise and sponsor training courses, workshops and seminars in
                                           various fields;
                                      • To act as a clearing house of information, and to operate a documentation
                                           centre and disseminate information on urban affairs; and
                                      • To undertake and facilitate publication and distribution of books, research
                                           papers, monographs, a journal and other communication material
                                           pertaining to urban affairs.

                                         The core activities of the Institute are carried out by an experienced and
                                         multidisciplinary team of urban planners, economists, geographers,
                                         statisticians, sociologists, systems analysts and management experts.
                                         Specialised staff equipped with the latest computer hardware and advanced
                                         software packages provide the necessary support services to the Institute's
                                         research, training, publication and other activities.

                                         NIUA has been actively engaged in assisting planners and decision makers in
                                         the process of urban policy formulation and programme implementation.
                                         Significant contributions in this respect are:
                                         • A series of exercises to raise issues in urban governance, carried out at
                                            the Institute, helped in the drafting of the Seventy-fourth Constitution
                                            Amendment Act, 1992.
                                         • Extensive work done at the Institute helped the National Commission on
                                            Urbanisation in the drafting of their report.
                                         • Participatory training and research conducted in the area of urban basic
                                            services, being conducted at the Institute since the inception of UBSP
                                            programme under the Seventh Five Year Plan, contributed to building
                                            community processes toward urban poverty alleviation.
                                         • A series of national level meetings organised at the Institute provided
                                            technical assistance to State Finance Commissions on various issues
                                            pertaining to municipal finances.


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     •   Training workshops, seminars and research under the Indo-USAID
         collaborative programme, the Financial Institutions Reform and Expansion
         (FIRE-D) programme, being conducted at the Institute, sensitised the
         State Governments to the concept of full cost recovery for directly
         chargeable urban infrastructure and motivated city governments to
         increasingly go in for credit rating.

     NIUA is in the process of developing a comprehensive Urban Information
     System which aims at providing all relevant information on the urban sector
     for the benefit of the government at the Central, State, and Local levels,
     academics and others interested in urban research and study. As a first step
     in this direction, NIUA has been publishing a Handbook of Urban Statistics
     which has been well received by all concerned. The handbook provides
     statistical information on various aspects of urban India: urbanisation, urban
     economy and employment, municipal finance, housing, infrastructure,
     transport, health, poverty, environment and plan outlay on urban
     development. Under the government's poverty alleviation programmes, NIUA
     has completed work on the Social Sector Mapping of Slums and Poor
     Communities in relation to health, nutrition, education, and environment
     facilities, for Delhi West zone and East zone. The Institute has been
     associated with bringing out a Benchmark Survey of UBSP in collaboration
     with UNICEF. A Multi-indicator Cluster Survey on the status of health,
     education, and nutrition levels has also been completed by the Institute.
     Currently work is in progress to: · Bring out a Municipal Directory providing
     data on the state of finances in over 500 municipal bodies in the country. ·
     Computerise all the available information on Urban Infrastructure at the
     Institute and with other agencies. · Undertake a project to develop a MIS
     System for City Planning in selected cities and towns towards monitoring
     achievement of national and programme goals.

     NIUA has conducted several seminars and conferences broadly covering...
     • National Workshop on State Finance Commissions
     • Policy Seminar on Property Tax Innovations in India
     • Seminar on Pricing and Cost Recovery of Urban Services
     • Seminar on Capacity Building for Urban Governance

     Strengths: Long history of training civil servants on Urban Management
     Issues. Qualified and experienced Staff. Flexibility of training design and
     implementation

     Weakness: Cooperation problems with India

     Potential: Potential is present for collaboration given NIUAs unique
     experience in training civil servants on urban management issues. However
     any cooperation depends on inter-governmental relations.

f.   Middle East Technical University: Established in 1961, the Department of
     City and Regional Planning at METU is the oldest and one of the largest
     schools of planning in Turkey. With more than 2,000 graduates and about 400
     undergraduate and graduate students today, the Department has played a
     key role not only in planning education but also in the development of urban
     research in Turkey.




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                                         The following Masters Programs are carried out by the Department
                                         • Masters Program (MSc) in City Planning
                                         • Masters Program in Regional Planning
                                         • Masters Program in Urban Design

                                         Interdisciplinary Masters Programs carries out jointly with other departments
                                         in METU:
                                         • Masters Program in Urban Policy Planning and Local Governments (run
                                             jointly with the Department of Political Sciences and Public Administration)
                                         • Masters Program in Geodetic and Geographic Information Technologies
                                             (run jointly with the Departments of Civil Engineering, Computer
                                             Engineering, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Environmental
                                             Engineering, and Geological Engineering)
                                         • Masters Program in Settlement Archeology (run jointly with the
                                             Department of Architecture and Archeometry Graduate Program)
                                         • Ph.D. degree in City and Regional Planning

                                         The Department of City and Regional Planning is the partner of the two
                                         Erasmus-Socrates intensive programs (IP), and a new IP program is being
                                         prepared:
                                         • Border-Lines in Urban Spaces and Planning
                                         • Spatial Development Planning

                                         The Department of City and Regional Planning is also a full member of the
                                         Association of European Schools of Planning (AESOP) and Association of
                                         Turkish Schools of Planning.

                                         The undergraduate curriculum have been designed with the understanding
                                         that the challenges facing urban planners have multiplied especially in the last
                                         two decades and the scope of tasks that planners are expected to undertake
                                         has considerably widened. As far as planning education is considered, this
                                         means that planners need to be equipped not only with conventional skills but
                                         also with the skills required to cope with the new challenges. Planners must
                                         now be capable of formulating questions in the light of the inputs of a variety
                                         of disciplines.

                                         The aim of the undergraduate program in City and Regional Planning is to
                                         train planners who can perceive holistic relationships, develop alternative
                                         views (utopian/realist) on how to transform these relationships and produce
                                         creative designs for the future. Students are, therefore, equipped with a
                                         variety of skills ranging from quantitative analysis techniques to social and
                                         economic analyses required to understand how the urban system works.

                                         The undergraduate curriculum comprises Planning Studio classes, which aim
                                         to equip students with professional skills, and theoretical classes, which aim
                                         to develop an understanding of a variety of urban and regional issues, and to
                                         help students better understand and analyze urban and regional areas, their
                                         components, their physical and socio-economic structures, and their
                                         governance.

                                         The program is designed with a view to offer students a wide range of elective
                                         courses to help enhance the interdisciplinary nature of planning. The elective
                                         courses start on the third year of undergraduate education and are organized
                                         in four modules: Urban Policy Module; Urban and Regional Economic



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     Development Module; Urban Design Module; and Environment, Infrastructure
     and Transport Planning Module.

     The Department of City and Regional Planning also offers a Minor Program in
     City and Regional Planning for students from other departments of METU,
     who wish to improve their knowledge and understanding of urban areas,
     urban systems, and planning issues.

     Minor program in city planning: City Planning is closely interrelated with a
     wide range of disciplines and fields of knowledge extending from engineering
     sciences to sociology, history, architecture, law, economics, and political
     sciences. The Minor Program in City Planning aims to familiarize students
     from other but related disciplines with the idea of planning and to equip them
     with a degree of sensitivity towards urban related issues.

     The program is in principle open to students from any planning-related
     department of METU and consists of a must course and five electives to be
     chosen from among the following courses. Successful completion of these
     courses grants students with a Minor Diploma in City Planning, but does not
     entitle them to the right to exercise the profession.

     Masters program in urban policy planning and local governments: The
     graduate program in Urban Policy Planning and Local Governments is
     designed to specialize students in the fields of urban management, urban law,
     urban public economy, urban policy analysis and urban project production.

     The graduate program of Urban Policy Planning and Local Governments is a
     program administered by The Graduate School of Social Sciences with the
     academic contribution of the departments of City and Regional Planning and
     Political Science and Public Administration. The rationale lying behind the
     development of a multi-disciplinary program between these two departments
     is the provision of the "transfer and synthesis of interdisciplinary knowledge".
     This program is designed for people having been educated in the fields of
     urban planning, political science, public administration, law, economics,
     finance, sociology, philosophy etc

     Strengths: One of the most comprehensive Urban Management and Planning
     Programmes in the World. Huge physical infrastructure and unmatched
     learning resources. Long experience of imparting courses on Urban
     Management. Qualified faculty.

     Weakness: No present set up for short training courses for Government
     officials on Urban Management. Costs are quite high.

     Potential: Potential is present to collaborate with METU, given proper financial
     incentives, they do have the capacity to develop and implement a successful
     training program for Urban Managers.

g.   Civil Services College International: Established in 2003 as the
     international department of the Civil Service College, CSC International
     (CSCI) aspires to share Singapore’s experience in public reforms and good
     governance with governments around the world to promote good governance
     and generate goodwill and cooperation across international borders. CSCI
     partners with clients in following areas. • Designing of capacity building
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                                         •    Establishment of public training institutes
                                         •    Public Sector Reform programmes
                                         •    Human Resource Management and Development Strategies
                                         •    Instructional Techniques and Training Design
                                         •    Quality Management

                                         In December 2006, CSCI entered into an agreement with the Government of
                                         Punjab, Pakistan to assist them in their Capacity Building Initiative via the
                                         Punjab Resource Management Programme (PRMP). The Asian Development
                                         Bank (ADB)-sponsored PRMP seeks to reform provincial finances through
                                         fiscal restructuring and financial management, processes and institutions for
                                         pro-poor service delivery and creation of enabling environment for private
                                         sector development

                                         CSCI’s Capacity Building and Training Initiative for officers from the
                                         Government of the Punjab is a two-track project.

                                         Track 1 is a Competency Based Training Needs Analysis which includes
                                         design and conduct of specially designed training programmes for 4
                                         Government Departments within the Government of Punjab (i.e. Finance,
                                         Planning and Development, Services and General Administration and
                                         Management for Performance and Development Departments.)

                                         Track 2 is a capacity building project for the Management for Performance
                                         and Development Department (MPDD) which is a training institution for
                                         provincial government officers.

                                         Since entering into the agreement in December last year, CSCI has
                                         conducted the following in Lahore, Pakistan:

                                         •    Dialogue Session on Public Sector Reform-the Singapore Experience;
                                         •    Fiscal Policy and it’s Impact on the Economy for the Finance Department;
                                         •    New Budgeting Techniques for the Finance Department;
                                         •    Training and Development for Officers from MPDD; and
                                         •    Training of Trainers for Resource Persons from the Government of
                                              Punjab.

                                         In year 2007, CSCI will be conducting several more courses in Finance,
                                         Human Resource, Planning and Training and Development.

                                         Strengths: Relevant Experience, Already a partner of MPDD,

                                         Weaknesses: The focus of CSCI-MPDD partnership has been capacity
                                         building of provincial officers in general instead of specific focus on urban
                                         management.

                                         Potential: Potential to expand the scope of CSCI-MPDD partnership through
                                         inclusion of urban management as a key focus area.

                               h.        The National Institute of Public Administration (INTAN), Malaysia: The
                                         National Institute of Public Administration (INTAN) is the training arm of the
                                         Public Service Department, Malaysia. It began as a modest training centre
                                         which provided training to government officers on land administration,
                                         financial administration, office management and local government


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     administration. The center later assumed greater capacity building
     responsibilities and was upgraded to the National Institute of Public
     Administration (INTAN) in 1972.

     Rapid expansion of INTAN’s training in 1980s resulted in the establishment of
     several branch campuses in 1983. INTAN’s main campus, located at Bukit
     Kiara Kuala Lumpur was officially opened in 1984 and INTAN Jalan Elmu
     then became the Central Regional Campus (INTENGAH) in 1998.

     INTAN’s mission is to develop human resource in the public sector through
     quality training and vision is to become a world class public sector training
     institution and to develop human resource in the public sector through quality
     training.

     In 2004 INTAN started a Programme for Local Government and District
     Management called PKTD. The Programme focuses on providing training on
     local government, district and environmental management to Local Authorities
     (LAs), district offices, government departments and relevant agencies.

     This Programme is spearheaded by three core units; the Local Government
     Management Unit, the Environmental Management Unit and the District
     Management Unit. Both the Local Government Management Unit and the
     District Management Unit focus on improving the capacity and capability of
     Local Authorities and District Administration in providing services and
     managing resources. The Environmental Management Unit helps the
     planning and operational agencies in decision making by sharing of expertise
     and experience on environmental management through its training
     programmes.

     This programme also acts as the focal point for collaboration between INTAN
     and other international agencies pertaining to local government management
     and environmental management such as Network of Local Government
     Training and Research Institutes in Asia and The Pacific (LOGOTRI), Japan
     International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Danish International
     Development Assistance (DANIDA).

     Strengths: Relevant experience in training urban managers, ISO 9001
     certified, reasonably good quality as well as physical infrastructure and
     facilities, international linkages, likely to be relevant for Pakistani urban
     managers Malaysia having a huge public sector and being a transitional
     country, not as expensive as Europe and North America.

     Weaknesses: PKDT does not have an exclusive focus on mega cities like
     Lahore.

     Potential: Potential to serve the immediate capacity building needs of urban
     mangers either through sending participants to INTAN to attend relevant
     training programmes or through exploring the possibility of inviting INTAN to
     develop the capacity of a local institution like GEA, MPDD or one of the
     provincial NIPAs in urban management training.

i.   Asia Training and Research Initiative for Urban Management (ATRIUM):
     ADB and International Enterprise (IE) Singapore established the Asia Training
     and Research Initiative for Urban Management (ATRIUM) to promote



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                                         cooperation and knowledge sharing in urban infrastructure and water
                                         management.

                                         ATRIUM specifically aims to:
                                         • Create a platform to stimulate discussions and knowledge sharing among
                                            governments, industries, and international organizations on innovative
                                            and sustainable urban management solutions; and
                                         • Promote public-private partnerships in urban management.

                                         ATRIUM provides a flexible framework of cooperation between ADB and IE
                                         Singapore, under which knowledge sharing programs and demonstration
                                         projects can be undertaken. The partnership is guided by the following
                                         principles:
                                         • Share knowledge on lessons learned, and plan and evaluate cooperation
                                             activities in urban management for Asia Pacific countries.
                                         • Leverage and pool resources, expertise and facilities to mutual advantage
                                             and benefit.
                                         • Evaluate the effectiveness of collaborating on respective organizational
                                             mandates and priorities.

                                         ATRIUM's initial programs focus on key aspects of urban management.
                                         Among them are
                                         • Land use and urban master-planning
                                         • Transportation planning and management
                                         • Integrated water resources management
                                         • Municipal water and solid waste treatment
                                         • Environmental management

                                         Strengths: Experience and specific focus on Urban Management trainings.

                                         Weakness: Costs and logistics might make it difficult to train a large number
                                         of urban managers.

                                         Potential: Possibility of forging a partnership between the Urban Unit and
                                         Atrium.

                               j.        University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia: The programme is
                                         organized by the International Water Center and is taught by faculty drawn
                                         from four Australian Universities. The program aims to build the capacity of
                                         future leaders in water resource management, with an emphasis on
                                         professionals working in developing countries and draws on the expertise of
                                         international leaders in teaching and research across a wide breadth of
                                         disciplines, taking a multi-disciplinary `whole-of-water-cycle’ approach that
                                         equips students with practical tools and skills for adopting innovative solutions
                                         to local, regional, national and international water resource issues.

                                         Strengths: Comprehensive water management programme. Meets the
                                         training needs of WASA employees and other officials involved in water
                                         supply.

                                         Weakness: Trainings focused only on the water sector and curriculum does
                                         not include holistic urban management. Logistical and financial issues
                                         regarding international trainings.

                                         Potential: Opportunity to train young officers from WASAs


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          k.       Lund University, Sweden: Lund University was founded in 1666. With eight
                   faculties and a multitude of research centres and specialised institutes, it is
                   today the largest unit for research and higher education in Sweden.

                   In 2007, Lund University offered 90 different training programmes organized
                   by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA).The
                   aim is to contribute to capacity development and processes of change in
                   partner countries and other developing countries by offering key persons
                   training programmes in subject areas given priority in Swedish development
                   cooperation, in which Swedish expertise is in demand, and in which use is
                   made of experience from countries at different stages of development.

                   One of these programmes focuses strictly on urban transportation and traffic
                   management. The objectives of this particular are to provide the participants
                   with knowledge of how to analyse traffic and transport problems in urban
                   areas, how to formulate goals for the transport system, develop strategies
                   and plans for solving the problems and to evaluate the proposed strategies.
                   The goal is that the participants after the programme on their own shall be
                   able to develop strategies and plans for tackling problems in their own country
                   and to feel confident in their own profession. The programme is split into four
                   parts, out of which two are in the participants’ home countries, one in
                   Sweden, and the last is a regional seminar in one of the participating
                   countries. The program is meant for persons in managerial positions, working
                   with policy- and development issues within the national road administration,
                   public transport authorities and other local or regional authorities dealing with
                   transport issues.

                   Strengths: Comprehensive yet concise programme covering all aspects of
                   Urban Transport. Mix of activities in home country and Sweden makes it
                   practical and relevant. Quality faculty.

                   Weakness: Currently Pakistan is not on the list of participating countries.
                   Future of the programme is uncertain.

                                               Analysis of International CBIs
Name             Location    Mission           Trainings           Strengths            Weakness           Potential
The Urban        Pakistan,   non-for-profit    capacity building   Global               Primarily a        Due to presence
Institute        United      Corporation       with regards to     experience, Due      research           in Pakistan,
                 States      organized and     service delivery    to presence in       institute, no      possibilities of
                             existing under    focusing on three   Pakistan,            long term          experience
                             the laws of       Group of Offices    possibilities of     potential due to   sharing between
                             the State of      in District         experience           high               Urban Unit and
                             Delaware in       Government:         sharing              transaction        Urban Institute
                             the United        EDO F&P,                                 costs
                             States of         Education, and
                             America           Health
Institute for    United      To provide        Trainings           Rich experience      U.S based,         Massive
Public Private   States      global training   exclusively on      of training public   experience         potential since
Partnership                  and               Public Private      servants as well     only in public     private sector
                             consulting        Partnerships        as corporate         private            needs to be
                             services to                           sector               partnership        involved to
                             governments                           managers in                             improve urban
                             and industries                        public private                          services and
                             in the growing                        partnerships                            IP3s expertise in
                             international                                                                 public private



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                                                    marketplace                                                                 partnership is
                                                    of public-                                                                  unmatched.
                                                    private
                                                    partnership
                     Institute of      Singapore    to establish      Effective          Expertise in         Limited only to   potential for
                     Public                         growth for        Communication.     stakeholder          communication     involving IPR is
                     Relations                      Singapore¹s       Press              management           and public        present because
                                                    PR industry       Conferences.       including            relations, the    urban managers
                                                    through           Business           citizens and         fact that it is   need to increase
                                                    knowledge         Presentation       consumers of         only based in     the capacity of
                                                    acquisition,      Skills.            urban services       Singapore         public dealing
                                                    networking,       Crisis                                  makes it costly   and
                                                    and               Communications                                            communication.
                                                    exchanging of     Management                                                Even a minimal
                                                    new ideas         Introduction to                                           number of
                                                                      Public Relations                                          officials trained
                                                                                                                                in public
                                                                                                                                relations and
                                                                                                                                communication
                                                                                                                                in each district
                                                                                                                                would be
                                                                                                                                extremely
                                                                                                                                beneficial
                     Asian Institute   Thailand     to take a         Urban Planning     comprehensive        Logistics and     Strong potential
                     of Technology                  leadership        and Urban          Urban                costs involved    for collaboration
                                                    role in the       Management         Management           with arranging    but might prove
                                                    promotion of      and                Program,             international     too costly
                                                    technological     Environmental      Quality faculty      trainings
                                                    change and        Management         and ample
                                                    its               MSc and PhD        physical
                                                    management        programmes         Infrastructure,
                                                    for                                  Experience of
                                                    sustainable                          training
                                                    development                          government
                                                    in the Asia                          servants and
                                                    and Pacific                          collaboration
                                                    region                               with agencies
                     National          India        premier           Focused            Long history of      Cooperation       Potential is
                     Institute of                   institute for     trainings on       training civil       problems with     present for
                     Urban Affairs                  research,         Urban              servants on          India             collaboration
                                                    training and      Management.        Urban                                  given NIUAs
                                                    information                          Management                             unique
                                                    dissemination                        Issues. Qualified                      experience in
                                                    in urban                             and experienced                        training civil
                                                    development                          Staff. Flexibility                     servants on
                                                    and                                  of training                            urban
                                                    management                           design and                             management
                                                                                         implementation                         issues

                     Middle East       Turkey       key role not      Maters in Urban    One of the most      No present set    Potential is
                     Technical                      only in           Planning, City     comprehensive        up for short      present to
                     University                     planning          Planning, Urban    Urban                training          collaborate with
                                                    education but     Policy and Local   Management           courses for       METU, given
                                                    also in the       Government         and Planning         Government        proper financial
                                                    development                          Programmes in        officials on      incentives
                                                    of urban                             the World. Huge      Urban
                                                    research in                          physical             Management.
                                                    Turkey                               infrastructure       Costs are quite
                                                                                         and unmatched        high
                                                                                         learning


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                                                                  resources. Long
                                                                  experience of
                                                                  imparting
                                                                  courses on
                                                                  Urban
                                                                  Management.
                                                                  Qualified faculty
Civil Services   Singapore   to share         Office              Relevant            The focus of       Potential to
College                      Singapore s      management,         Experience,         CSC-MPDD           expand the
International                experience in    general             Already a           partnership has    scope of CSC-
                             public reforms   management,         partner of          been capacity      MPDD
                             and good         Financial           MPDD                building of        partnership
                             governance       Management,                             provincial         through inclusion
                             with             Public Service                          officers in        of urban
                             governments      trainings etc.                          general instead    management as
                             around the                                               of specific        a key focus area
                             world                                                    focus on urban
                                                                                      management
National         Malaysia    training arm     local               Relevant            does not have      Potential to
Institute of                 of the Public    government,         experience in       an exclusive       serve the
Public                       Service          district and        training urban      focus on mega      immediate
Administration               Department,      environmental       managers            cities like        capacity building
                             Malaysia         management                              Lahore             needs of urban
                                                                                                         mangers either
                                                                                                         through sending
                                                                                                         participants to
                                                                                                         INTAN to attend
                                                                                                         relevant training
                                                                                                         programmes or
                                                                                                         through
                                                                                                         exploring the
                                                                                                         possibility of
                                                                                                         inviting INTAN to
                                                                                                         develop the
                                                                                                         capacity of a
                                                                                                         local institution
                                                                                                         like GEA, MPDD
                                                                                                         or one of the
                                                                                                         provincial NIPAs
                                                                                                         in urban
                                                                                                         management
                                                                                                         training
Asian Training   Singapore   Joint venture    Land use and        Experience and      Logistics and      Possibility of
and Research                 between ADB      urban master-       Specific focus      costs involved     forging a
Initiative for               and              planning            on Trainings        might limit the    partnership
Urban                        International    Transportation      with regards to     number of          between UU and
Management                   Enterprise       planning and        Urban               urban              ATRIUM
                             Singapore        management          Management          managers that
                                              Integrated water                        can be trained
                                              resources                               through
                                              management                              ATRIUM.
                                              Municipal water
                                              and solid waste
                                              treatment
                                              Environmental
                                              management
International    Australia   Masters          Masters of          Comprehensive       Training in        Potential to train
Water Center                 program          Integrated Water    water               Australia might    new entrants
                             arranged by      Management          management          prove costly       and young
                             IWC taught at                        programme.          and hard to        WASA officers


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                                                    the University                                             manage            through IWC.
                                                    of
                                                    Queensland
                                                    in Australia
                     Lund             Sweden        Urban             3-8 month          Comprehensive         Pakistan not on
                     University                     Transport         trainings          Urban Transport       current list of
                                                    Training          covering major     Programme with        participating
                                                    programme         aspects of Urban   activities in both,   countries
                                                    organized by      Transportation     home country
                                                    SIDA                                 and Sweden.

                     A few additional institutions delivering urban management related trainings and their contact
                     information are given in Annex-I.

                     6.2 Projects and Programmes
                     Pakistan has been the focus of many Donor and locally funded projects. Some of these
                     projects have focused entirely on or have had a significant component related to capacity
                     building and improved service delivery. The projects that are still running are a valuable
                     source of capacity building in Pakistan and can be utilized to achieve trainings for Urban
                     Management. The range of Projects in Pakistan is vast, however; a brief review of some of
                     the projects of the past and present related to capacity building with regards to Urban
                     Service Delivery is given below:

                     6.2.1 Faisalabad Area Upgrading Project
                     FAUP was a project funded by the Department for International Development UK and the
                     total cost is estimated at £15,865,000. The project was initiated in 1991 and completed in
                     2003 and was meant only for the Faisalabad area.

                     There were essentially six main threads to FAUP’s strategy:
                        • Working to establish community organizations with the skills, capacity and alliances
                            to enable the poor, women, and the poorest, who are most vulnerable and at risk, to
                            access their needs and rights.
                        • Demonstrating successful ways to improve the security and livelihoods of the poor,
                        • Assisting service providers to have the capacity to work with and respond to the
                            demands of the poor
                        • Creating an enabling environment through helping to establish a policy framework
                            and mandate to ensure pro-poor focused urban development.
                        • Implementation of components of the devolution of power programme
                        • Establishing structures able to sustain and take forward urban poverty focused
                            development and look towards supporting the emergence of a lead urban poverty
                            reduction organization and the absorption of key functions back with in line
                            departments.

                     The institutional development component of FAUP involved assisting local government
                     institutions (mainly active process of monitoring the lessons learnt. WASA, FMC Health
                     department, FMC Solid Waste Management department and government education
                     departments) to develop the capacity to implement on a sustainable basis, integrated area-
                     upgrading programme FAUP was also responsible for the establishment of the Strategic
                     Policy Unit which has played a key role in helping the Faisalabad City District Government in
                     achieving higher efficiency in resource management, service delivery, and governance.

                     Apart from institutional development, FAUP focused on sectors including Health, Education,
                     Social Development, Environmental Infrastructure, Enterprise Development and Good
                     Governance.



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The main beneficiaries of the project were the people, especially the women and the poor, of
Faisalabad, Local Government Institutions (TMAs, FMC, and City District Government) and
the staff of WASA and FDA.

6.2.2 Project Improvement to Financial Reporting and Auditing Project
PIFRA was World Bank funded project being implemented by the Department of the Auditor
General of Pakistan. The total value of the project is $37.2 million with the World Bank
providing $28.8 million and the remaining $8.4 million being provided by the Government of
Pakistan. The program was implemented nation-wide with no particular geographical focus.
The program began in 1997 and ran till 2005.

The Objectives included
   • To improve public sector accounting and financial systems;
   • To provide a basis for enhancing public sector accountability
   • To support improved institutional capacity for economic policy-making and
      management.

The target areas consisted of:
   • Government accounting and financial reporting
   • Government auditing
   • Separation of the audit and accounts functions
   • Institutional development (human resource management)
   • Institutional development (training)

Other related likely benefits targeted were:
   • Modernized government audit procedures and adoption of internationally accepted
       auditing standards to enable program oversights and improve evaluation capabilities.
   • Effective accounting and reporting systems to enable the government to better
       formulate, control, and monitor its budget.
   • Strengthened financial management practices to increase the impact of development
       programs and related external assistance.
   • Financial information generated by the improved accounting and information systems
       to be more useful, complete, reliable and timely. Improved data
   • Improved data to facilitate program management by government decision-makers.
   • Tighter internal controls to lessen the occurrence of errors and irregularities in the
       processing of payments and receipts.
   • Related training programs to build staff capabilities and enhance utilization of human
       resources.

The project had the following four components:

(a) FABS (Financial Accounting and Budgeting Systems)
Aimed at creation of fully automated, integrated, and interfaced financial accounting and
budgeting system under a new accounting mode


(b) Government Auditing
Under this component international auditing standards are being introduced and capacity
building on modern auditing techniques and methodologies is being undertaken

(c) Institutional Development
It covers (a) improvement of training facilities for accountants and auditors, (b) human
resource policymaking in financial management, including training of accountants and



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                     auditors, (c) project management, and (d) introduction of an automated management
                     information system for the Office of the Auditor General.

                     (d) Other Policy Support for Economic Development
                     It covers the cost of selected studies on economic and financial issues to lend support to the
                     ongoing macroeconomic, structural, and fiscal reform program in Pakistan. It will also entail
                     revision of government financial rules for consistency with the new accounting model and
                     design of a “comprehensive reconciliation framework” for Interfacing PIFRA accounting
                     systems with the banking (State Bank and National Bank of Pakistan) and revenue
                     departments.

                     The intended beneficiaries of the project were:

                               •   Auditor General of Pakistan
                               •   Planning Division
                               •   Ministry of Finance
                               •   Offices of Accountant General Pakistan Revenue and Provincial Accountant General
                               •   Controller General Accounts
                               •   Provincial Finance Departments
                               •   NRB (National Reconstruction Bureau)
                               •   Provincial Local Government Departments
                               •   District Accounts Offices
                               •   District Governments

                     6.2.3 Project Improvement in Financial Reporting and Auditing Project-II
                     A continuation of the successful PIFRA-I project, PIFRA II, also being funded by the World
                     Bank is estimated to cost $93 million with 10% of the cost being financed by the Government
                     of Pakistan. The project began in 2005 and is supposed to run into 2010. Just like its
                     predecessor, PIFRA II is also a national level project.

                     The project contributes to improved governance and accountability. Clear, transparent,
                     timely and accurate data about the Government’s plans, progress with implementation, and
                     final achievements shall become widely available, for example by publication of financial and
                     fiscal performance data on web-sites. The Governments’ performance shall also be subject
                     to scrutiny through respective Public Accounts Committees, which should receive an
                     improved quality and standard of audit reports, focused upon matters of substance, and
                     have the implementation of recommendations followed-up routinely.

                     The CGA and other line agencies. PIFRA II supports widespread implementation of the
                     systems developed in PIFRA I, and can accommodate the different tiers of Government by
                     working with the other reform efforts of the Government of Pakistan (GOP), such as
                     introducing devolved local government, introducing medium term budgetary frameworks
                     (MTBF), and assisting in deepening the changes in Government Financial Management.
                     These efforts, which are seen as complementary, are being coordinated by the Ministry of
                     Finance (MOF) and supported by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), UK’s Department for
                     International Development (DFID) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) respectively.

                     6.2.4 Democratic Governance Program
                     A number of recent projects and initiatives fall under the Democratic Governance Program
                     that is being funded by CIDA. The projects are valued at $12 million. The main
                     implementation agency for the program in Pakistan is the National Reconstruction Bureau.
                     Coverage of the project includes Balochistan, Islamabad and Punjab.




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Projects under Democratic Governance Program strengthen local government policies,
practices and institutions; enhance citizen participation in local planning, decision making
and implementation, foster more accessible, client based and accountable public sector
practices, particularly in the delivery of social services and justice.

Following is a description of the projects and programs that fall within the Democratic
Governance Program:

6.2.4.1 Devolution Support Project
The purpose is to strengthen local governments in target districts through:

   •   Enhanced and gender sensitive enabling environment for local government and
       citizen participation,
   •   More effective, inclusive, responsive and equitable local government decision
       making, resource use and management,
   •   Improved accessible, accountable and sustainable service delivery at the local level.

The focus of this project is strictly in the Punjab province with an initial focus on Kasur and
Lodhran Districts. The projects value is estimated at $6 million. The project operates at the
province, district, tehsil, union council and community level. The intended beneficiaries are
district and tehsil governments, union councils, especially women councilors and the poor.

The project seeks to improve the performance of local government in the two target districts
and use this increased efficiency in performance as a basis for sustainable social and
economic development. The project intends to intensively use Pakistani resources to
achieve its goals in a geographically and thematically focused way with a special emphasis
on capacity building and Gender equality. Project activities in the past and present have
consisted of Trainings, system and procedures development, technical assistance. And
linkages and networking.

At the provincial level, the project is focusing on improvement in the Local Government
Commission, Local Government Department, and the Women Development and Social
Welfare Department. The focus at the District level has been to improve efficiency in
planning and financial management, resource mobilization and overall gains in the health
and education sectors. Tehsil level activities have revolved around strengthening of
Municipal Service Delivery and capacity building with respects to service delivery, planning,
and resource mobilization and management. Capacity building at the Union council level has
dealt with quality monitoring, establishment of information/complaint centers and logistics
and financial support. The project has also helped in raising awareness on the role of Local
Government and CCBs at the community level while also engaging in community
mobilization, CCB formation and capacity building of the community.

6.2.4.2 Punjab Initiatives Fund
This part of the DGP is being executed by Co-water International and CIDA at a value of $2
million. The initiative began in 2004 and is expected to last till 2008. All activities under this
project are strictly limited to the Punjab province. The overall objective is supporting
government of Pakistan’s governance reforms leading to devolution of power,
decentralization of administration and participation of people in local government and its
decision making process. PIF focuses on projects in areas like Governance, Implementing
devolution, Advocacy & Awareness, Capacity building, Service delivery, Gender issues,
Accountability, and public private partnership. The intended beneficiaries of this initiative are
District, tehsil and union governments, councilors especially women councilors, civil society
organizations, private sector, women and poor.




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                     The Fund operates in close conjunction with CIDA Devolution Support Project (CDSP) to
                     strengthen local governance policies, practices and institutions, to contribute to the
                     institutionalization of citizen participation in local planning, decision-making and
                     implementation and to foster more accessible, client-oriented and accountable public
                     services.

                     PIF is being used to fund local initiatives by Pakistani organizations and institutions in
                     support of the Devolution Plan.

                     Within the conceptual framework of CIDA Democratic Governance Program and Devolution
                     Support Project, PIF focuses on projects in areas such as:
                        • Governance
                        • Implementation of Devolution
                        • Advocacy and Awareness
                        • Capacity Building
                        • Service Delivery Mechanisms
                        • Gender Issues
                        • Accountability
                        • Public Private Partnership

                     Government institutions, non-government and private sector organizations are eligible for
                     PIF through well defined projects. A set of guidelines for the fund are given below:

                     The projects should be synergistic to the Government of Pakistan’s priority and agenda with
                     respect to the implementation of the Devolution Plan, the Local Government Ordinance and
                     any other policy guiding the implementation of the government reforms.
                        • The projects should be directly related to democratic local governance, effective
                            citizen representation and responsive public services at local level.
                        • The projects should make use of local resources, local expertise and capacities.
                        • The projects should be based on realistic demand assessment, arrived at through
                            local consultations.

                     The implementing partners agree to the monitoring and evaluation of the project by CIDA
                     and CDSP. The monitoring is done through periodic time bound narrative and financial
                     progress reports, field visits and inspections. Disbursement of funds is made in rationally
                     divided installments linked with the demonstrated implementation of the project(s). The Fund
                     can also outsource the monitoring & Evaluation function to a third party. Monitoring and
                     evaluation arrangements shall be a part of the detailed project proposal and shall be agreed
                     upon in the contribution agreement. Following are some of the projects falling under PIF and
                     their current status:

                     Project Title: Capacity Building Training Plan for Secretaries of Union Councils of Districts
                     Kasur & Lodhran and Development of Training Module for Tehsil Municipal Administration

                               Duration                          18 months
                               Executing Agency                  Local Government Academy Lalamusa
                               Location                          Kasur & Lodhran
                               Contact Person                    Khuda Bukhsh Awan

                     Project Summary: The project comprises two main components. The first component is
                     about training 331 secretaries of all the Union Councils in the Districts of Lodhran and Kasur.
                     The project will undertake their training in office skills, budgeting, planning and learning new
                     law i.e. The Local Government Ordinance. There will be a total of 14 training sessions of two


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weeks each. Forty secretaries will be trained in each session. The three Tehsils of each of
the Districts shall be taken one after another. Refresher courses of one week duration will be
conducted for all of the participants a year after the original training.
The second component of the Project envisages preparation and development of a
comprehensive training module for the functionaries of Tehsil Municipal Administration
(TMA).

Current Status: The project is operational


Project Title: Tehsil Municipal Administration Management Information System (TMA-MIS),
Kasur.

    Duration                     3 years
    Executing Agency             FINCON Consultants, Islamabad
    Location                     Kasur
    Contact Person               Mr.Nazar Abbas Naqvi, Executive Director FINCON

Project Summary: A management information system (MIS) shall be developed and made
operational in Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMA) Kasur to support its main activities by
efficiently processing data to assist with the transaction workload and by efficiently supplying
prompt information to authorized people. This will enhance operational efficiency and
functional effectiveness of the TMA ADP Process in PE&DD, Strengthening of the PE&D
Department (Dutch Funded) and Financial Management Information System (FIMS) for
Primary Education Program, NWFP etc.

Current Status: The project is operational


Project Title: Facilitation in Community based Solid Waste Management System in Tehsil
Pattuki

    Duration                     12 months
    Executing Agency             Organization Pan Environment (OPE), Gujranwala
    Location                     Pattuki
    Contact Person               Mehar Muhammad Islam, President OPE

Project Summary: The project focuses on the enhancement of service delivery capacity of
the Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMA), Pattuki, with the participation of community. On
the one hand, it envisages involving people, especially women, in the decision making
process regarding the management of their solid waste and environmental protection; on the
other hand, it will help the TMA in establishing a proper system of solid waste management,
construction of collection bins, establishment of a composting unit and, finally, transformation
of waste into valuable compost for revenue generation.

Current Status: The project is operational

6.2.5 Punjab Municipal Development Fund Company
PMDFC was established in 1998 through World Bank funding. The Government of Punjab,
in view of a growing realization that there should be a separate agency for municipal
development in the province, has established a provincial level apex institution, the Punjab
Municipal Development Fund Company (PMDFC). In the meanwhile, the Government of
Pakistan in the process of devolution of powers to the grassroots level has established a


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                     system of local governments that enables the people to participate in governing themselves
                     through institutions led by them via direct electorate. It is desired to support the development
                     process of the local councils by providing them multidimensional assistance.

                     The Punjab Municipal Development Fund Company (PMDFC) has been established under
                     section 42 of the Companies Ordinance 1984 with an autonomous governance structure
                     (majority of Board members are from the private sector). The Company aims to provide
                     financial and non-financial assistance to local bodies for infrastructure development and
                     institutional strengthening

                     The PMDFC was established to fulfill the following objectives:
                        • Assist Local Governments in building the capacities for better fiscal and service
                           delivery management
                        • Strengthen LGs and CDGs involved in institutional, financial and technical aspects of
                           development in order to improve the efficiency of services provided.
                        • To provide financial assistance and consultation to improve fiscal efficiency of LGs
                        • Institutional-building of LGs and expand existing capacity.

                     The company’s vision is to develop institutional capacity of local government institutions
                     enabling them to promote sustainable municipal development in towns and cities, making
                     them environment friendly and livable through improved infrastructure and service delivery
                     systems.

                     In keeping with the objects for which the Company has been established as stated in detail
                     in the Memorandum of Association of the Company, the focus is on improvement of basic
                     municipal services such as water supply and sanitation for the well-being of urban population
                     of Punjab. Thus in order to realize its Mission and Vision the Company has set the following
                     as its objectives:

                               •   Improve the efficiency, coverage and quality of basic infrastructure and services in
                                   Punjab in a sustainable manner by:

                                          a.    Developing an efficient mechanism for allocating public resources for
                                                infrastructure.
                                        b.      Building the capacity of the:
                                                i.      Provincial Government to manage a process of LG
                                                        performance improvement.
                                                ii.     City Districts (CDs), and Tehsil Municipal Administrations
                                                        (TMAs) for delivery of urban services; and
                                        c.      Providing performance-related matching grants for infrastructure
                                                repair and renewal PMDFC will provide financial assistance for
                                                improved infrastructure and services preferably in areas such as:
                                                     • Water Supply
                                                     • Bridges
                                                     • Sewerage & DrainageStreet
                                                     • Lighting
                                                     • Solid Waste Management
                                                     • Parks
                                                     • Roads
                                                     • Bus Stands
                               •   PMDFC’s activities are presently being carried out in 16 municipalities in Punjab.

                     The company has a strong focus on town planning and has embarked on preparing a
                     development plan for every Tehsil. The objectives of the Development Plan are:


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   •   To discourage the growth of cities and towns in a haphazard manner.
   •   To restrict the inflow of the rural population toward cities.
   •   To cater to the future needs of housing, municipal services, traffic congestion, etc.

PMDFC has started urban planning in 4 TMAs namely: P. D. Khan, Chakwal, Chiniot and
Bhalwal. In this regard T.A is being provided for the preparation of the development plans
and the identification of key areas of institutional strengthening for TMAs. Their services are
required to (i) develop guidelines and methodology for the integrated plan (ii) assist TMAs to
undertake the preparation of an integrated development plan leading to a prioritization of a
list of development and capacity building projects.

PMDFC has conducted a number of workshops to achieve its goals. The workshops have
covered areas from Performance Management, GIS, Improving Service Delivery through
Strengthening TMAs, an orientation seminar for Tehsil Nazims on PMSIP and a workshop
on Baseline Values Procedures for Service Delivery Indicators.

6.2.6 Punjab Municipal Services Improvement Project
PMSIP is a project being run by Punjab Municipal Fund Development Corporation with
funding from the Government of Punjab and the World Bank. The projects geographical
focus covers all of the Punjab Province and its cost is estimated at Rs 3540 Million.

Ever increasing urban population coupled with massive rural to urban migration has put
extensive pressure on the urban areas of Punjab. Urban services such as water supply, solid
waste management, transport and roads and other municipal services have not developed at
a pace which would enable them to deal with the growing demand due to resource
constraints and limited capacity. This gap between demand and supply has led to a
deterioration of urban services and has caused a negative impact on the quality of life in
these urban areas. Newly formed grassroots level institutions like TMAs and Union and local
councils do not have the capacity or the resources to deal with these challenges.

PMSIP aims at providing multidimensional assistance to these bodies to help them cope with
rapid urbanization and improve the quality and efficiency of the services they provide.

The project has the following two components;

   •   Institutional & Infrastructure Development of TMAs: This component includes
       capacity building sub projects consisting of training/workshops for TMA staff,
       infrastructure building and data base and benchmarking of TMAs and an introduction
       to modern techniques of spatial planning and mapping. The project also aims at
       introducing Performance management systems and financial management systems
       at the TMA level. These activities are aimed at strengthening human resource
       development of TMAs, manage growth of cities using spatial planning as a tool and
       increasing the capacity of TMAs to effectively deliver and measure urban and
       municipal services.

   •   Capacity Building of Punjab Municipal Development Fund Company, Government of
       Punjab, and Urban Sector Policy & Management Unit: Capacity building initiatives
       with the mentioned departments will include trainings on performance management,
       appraisal, supervision and monitoring of grants, support of Human Resource
       Management and effective implementation of projects aimed at overall efficiency
       gains in urban services.




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                     6.2.7 Decentralization Support Program
                     DSP was a national project funded by the Asian Development Bank and executed by the
                     Finance Division of the Government of Pakistan. The total value of the project was $270
                     million and after being initiated in 2002, and there is a possibility of it being extended to
                     2008. DSP was a national level project and covered all four provinces of Pakistan. There
                     were two separate technical assistance loans under the project, one for Local government
                     performance enhancement, and the second for governance and gender mainstreaming.

                     The Program sought to impact on poverty by creating an enabling environment for improved
                     public access to equitably delivered and sustainable services. As part of the Government’s
                     broader governance reform agenda, the program supported the development of
                     democratically representative, accountable and transparent arrangements of local
                     governance delivering services efficiently and equitably.

                     The projects objectives and purpose can be divided into long-term objectives and immediate
                     ones:

                     Long term objective of the Project is improved local government representation,
                     accountability, service delivery and poverty reduction through fiscal restructuring to support
                     reforms in policy, legal, technical and fiscal domains.

                     Immediate objectives are: sufficient and effective federal support for devolution and related
                     reforms, effective and sustainable province-local intergovernmental relations, local
                     government planning and fiscal management systems resulting in efficient and equitable
                     delivery of services according to clearly established norms of public participation, access to
                     information and accountability.

                     Some of the key activities undertaken through DSP are:
                       • Resource management and accountability contributing to efficient and equitable
                           delivery of services
                       • Improving the effectiveness of local government bodies
                       • Putting necessary systems in place and training people in their use
                       • Promoting monitoring of service delivery
                       • Training of personnel for local level auditing
                       • Training for personnel in District Accounts Officers, Tehsil Accounts Officer, Union
                           Administrations
                       • Assessment of training needs in local governments and provincial departments and
                           preparation of training material
                       • Performance Budgeting and Service Delivery
                       • Political and institutional arrangements and administrative restructuring for improved
                           local government performance

                     The main scope of activities under the two different technical assistance loans mentioned
                     above fall into the following 11 thematic areas:
                        • Audit
                        • Accounts
                        • Communication, Strategic Monitoring and Social Audit processes
                        • Balochistan medium-term policy making, resource management systems
                        • Province training, capacity building and mentoring arrangements
                        • Local government regulation and intergovernmental relations
                        • Intergovernmental fiscal transfers and local revenue generation
                        • Performance Budgeting and Service Delivery,



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   •   9. Political & Institutional arrangements and administrative restructuring for improved
       local government performance
   •   Public access, information and internal audit/quality assurance
   •   Public grievance and dispute resolution, internal administrative process and
       functionality of Ombudsman office.

Being a national level project, DSP has a large group of intended beneficiaries. These
include Federal, Provincial, and Local Government organizations having a vital role in the
implementation of the Local Government Ordinance, e.g. Provincial Finance departments,
Local Government Officials like Nazims, Executive District Officers, District Officers and
District Accounts Offices.

6.2.8 Punjab Devolved Social Services Program
PDSSP is a program jointly funded by the Asian Development Bank and the Department for
International Development UK. The program began in 2005 and is expected to run into 2009.
The total loan/grant for the project is $180 million and it is being implemented by the
Planning and Development Department of the Government of Punjab. The project covers the
whole of the Punjab region.

The overall goal of PDSSP is to achieve progress on millennium development goals (MDGs)
related to poverty, gender, education, health and WSS. PDSSP objective is to strengthen
devolved social services for more equitable, efficient, effective, and sustainable delivery of
social services in line with the Punjab Local Government Ordinance (PLGO).

    The principal policy outcomes:
    • Realignment of intergovernmental relations to support devolved social services
    • Rationalization of and setting minimum standards for social services
    • Strengthening of public accountability mechanisms and promotion of public private
       partnership
    • Promote public-private partnership and innovations in alternative service delivery
    • Enhance social sector financing and allocative efficiency
    •
This project will focus on health sector (65% component of the Programme is earmarked for
the health sector)


PDSSP seeks to achieve the following policy outcomes:
  • Realigning intergovernmental relations to support devolved social services.
  • Rationalizing and setting minimum standards for social services
  • Strengthening accountability and promoting public private partnership.

TA component will support broad activities in line with policy framework and policy matrix in
the following areas:
    • Capacity building of Local Governments
    • Partnership development with private sector including NGOs, CBOs, and WUPs
    • Sector Specific Policy Reforms
    • Planning, programming, management and monitoring & evaluation

The current status of the project is as follows:
   • Through the Bridging TA arrangement, progress has been made towards formulation
       of the Annual Sector Plans for DGs and the TMAs.
   • The Compendium of Local Govt. laws, regulations, rules, instructions, directives etc.
       is in its final stages.
   • By-laws for LG Monitoring Committees have also been drafted


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                               •   The White Paper on PPP is being prepared
                               •   The Guidelines for the Provincial Line Department 5-year plans are being prepared
                               •   The M&E Framework is being worked on.

                     The project aims to benefit the poor and vulnerable communities of Punjab through the
                     Federal, Provincial, and Local Governments and various civil society organizations that play
                     a role in the implementation and delivery of devolved social services.

                     6.2.9 Punjab Resource Management Programme
                     PRMP is an Asian Development Bank funded programme being implemented by the
                     Planning and Development department of the Government of Punjab. The value of the
                     project is estimated at $500 million and has all of Punjab as its geographical focus. The
                     implementation period began in 2003 and will carry on into 2008.

                     The overarching objective of PRMP is to assist the Punjab government in reducing poverty
                     through good governance including improved public sector resource management. The
                     program seeks:
                         • To improve service delivery with particular emphasis on pro poor sectors through
                            structural reforms in systems and processes to manage public resources.
                         • To gradually liquidate the accumulated structural rigidities in the provincial
                            expenditures, creating sizable fiscal space for enhanced spending on pro-poor
                            activities and critical social sectors.
                         • To strengthen institutional arrangements for maximization of outputs and utility of the
                            resource (human, physical and intellectual) available to the province with an objective
                            to reduce the severity and incidence of poverty.
                         • To improve upon the decision making and implementation processes for reformation
                            of the institutions and public sector entities.
                         • To create an enabling environment for private sector by minimizing public
                            interventions in economic activities.

                     The structure of the program cluster and the key result areas in each component are as
                     follows:

                     Component-I: Reforming provincial financing through fiscal structuring and financial
                     management by; A. Strengthening provincial revenues B. Rationalizing provincial
                     expenditure; C. Improving effectiveness, predictability, and accountability in financial
                     management.

                     Component-II: Reforming process and institutions for pro-poor service delivery through; A.
                     Improving strategic programming of investments for poverty; B. Restructuring and
                     strengthening government administration and human resource management

                     Component-III: Creating opportunities for growth and income generation through private
                     sector development by A. Undertaking reforms for private sector development and public-
                     private partnership; B. Reducing direct public sector involvement in economic and/or
                     commercial operations.

                     A major component of PRMP involves capacity building and a capacity building framework.
                     This includes capacity building of the officers of the provincial and the district governments
                     in line with objectives of PRMP, Capacity building of the provincial government’s training
                     institutions, primarily the MPDD, Development of training modules & IT enabled learning
                     facilities, and training exposure visits domestically and abroad. Some of the key areas which
                     the PRMP seeks to reform are expenditure tracking, medium term budgetary and
                     development frameworks, institutional strengthening, Expenditure tracking. Improving


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service delivery for social sectors including health, education and water supply & sanitation,
housing, livestock, SMEs, civil services and urban planning.

The project targets reform and capacity building of several provincial government
departments including Planning and Development department, Finance, Excise, Health and
Education Departments and the poor and women of Punjab.

Through training and capacity building government departments equip themselves with tools
and techniques to undertake the necessary functions of governance and service provision in
a sustainable fashion. The process of capacity building must also be aimed at improving
business practices for effective service delivery. It is closely related to sustainability as
without adequate and appropriate capacity at different levels service delivery will not be
sustainable. In the context of reforms under the PRMP there is an urgent need for a focused,
flexible and widely applicable training and capacity development policy framework, to guide
capacity building and training activities of the employees of the public sector in Punjab.
CDI under the PRMP TA Loan would focus on four main areas;

   •   Capacity building of the officers of the provincial and the district governments in line
       with objectives of PRMP as contained in revised PCII,
   •   Capacity building of the provincial government’s training institutions, primarily the
       MPDD,
   •   Development of training modules & IT enabled learning facilities,
   •   Exposure visits (domestic & international),

Other relevant areas would be included based on demand and subject to approval by the
Program Steering Committee.

In line with the training strategy an action plan will be developed with cost estimates and
time lines for the capacity development of senior and middle level management of the
provincial government departments. The main ingredients of the Training and CDI would be:

   •   A detailed Training Needs Assessment (TNA) of selected provincial government
       departments for capacity building in line with their functional responsibilities,
   •   Finalization of training methodology, training schedule and identification of trainers/
       training institutions/facilities,
   •   Identification and procurement of services (institutions/ firms and individuals) for the
       capacity development interventions, to conduct TNAs, develop training modules,
       deliver training components etc. [Developing TORs and handling procurements etc.]
   •   Assessing the capacity gaps and improvements required to improve the local training
       institutions,
   •   Identification of training facilities (local and foreign training institutions and resource
       persons) that could provide quality training in cost-effective manner,
   •   Negotiations with the selected institutions/individuals for tailored training, venue
       (possibility if international institution imparting training inn Pakistan), as well as the
       cost of training,
   •   Preparation of selection criteria for the officers of the provincial government that will
       undergo training in various training institutes (domestic & international) and exposure
       visits/workshops in consultation with S&GAD & MPDD,
   •   Training and building local capacity in the PMU, PRMP to replicate tasks under the
       assignment on a sustainable basis,

Ten training courses will be conducted at / through NIPA, LUMS, CMD and other domestic
training institutes of excellence. The resource persons for these courses would be from
either these institutes or from outside. Option for engaging outside experts would be internal


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                     issue of the selected institute. Each course will have an intake of 20 participants. Around 200
                     officers of provincial government will be trained through these courses in different areas of
                     planning, management and governance. Modalities will be worked out later as to whether
                     one or more of these institutes will be entrusted with the task. Flexibility has been provided
                     to arrange one or more resource persons from outside these institutes to conduct these
                     courses. The course offered will fall within the following broad areas of reforms:
                          • Public Financial Management with an emphasis on MTBF
                          • Strategic Planning
                          • Tax Administration
                          • Monitoring & Evaluation of Poverty focused projects.
                          • Public sector procurement

                     However in case a concerned department indicates a specific area for capacity development
                     that area will also be considered for capacity development after the approval of the
                     Executive Committee for PRMP.

                     Training and CDI, in addition to capacity building and training of the employees of the
                     provincial government, would also seek to directly and indirectly strengthen and up grade the
                     capacities of training facilities in local training institutes especially the MPDD. This initiative
                     would aim at introduction of modern training tools/resources (online learning process/video
                     conference) and designing training modules, based upon the detailed assessment /
                     recommendations of the training experts. Management and Professional Development
                     Department (MPDD) will be conducting these courses by essentially engaging outside
                     experts (both international as well as domestic experts) for the capacity building training of
                     the officers in the key reform areas mentioned above. Moreover MPDD would also
                     collaborate with an international capacity development training institute such as Civil Service
                     College of Singapore to conduct these courses. MPDD would also develop a long term
                     strategic partnership with the selected institute for future courses. These would be tailored
                     courses in accordance with the training need assessments carried out in this regard. Around
                     20 such courses are planned with each course having around 20 participants. In total around
                     400 officers will be trained under this program.

                     Capacity building initiatives would focus on the key personnel at senior and middle level
                     management of the Implementing Agencies of PRMP to ensure continuation and
                     sustainability of the reforms initiated under SP-I and the proposed reforms under SP II of
                     PRMP. Trainings would be demand driven and selection would be based on objective
                     criteria to be determined by the training committee and approved by the Executive
                     Committee of the PSC.

                     6.2.10 Rawalpindi Environment Improvement Project
                     REIP is a recently initiated project funded by the Asian Development Bank and expected to
                     cost around $85.7 million. The project began in 2005 and is currently being implemented by
                     the Rawalpindi Development Authority. The project focuses primarily on area in and around
                     the City District of Rawalpindi. Its major sectoral focus is on Environment and Environmental
                     Management.

                     The main project objectives are (i) improving living conditions and quality of life of the people
                     of Rawalpindi by improving the water supply and sanitation facilities, solid waste
                     management, wastewater treatment, and slaughterhouse; and (ii) ensuring sustainable
                     urban investments by strengthening institutional capacities of the Rawalpindi Tehsil
                     Municipal Administration (TMA) and Rawalpindi Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA),
                     promoting policy reforms focused on greater devolution of authority, and involving all
                     stakeholders in service delivery.




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The project comprises the following components: (i) environmental sanitation; (ii) water
supply services; and (iii) institutional development, including financial management system,
database development for the TMA, RDA, WASA; asset management; project
implementation support; and incremental administration support.

The institutional development component of REIP can be further divided into the following
activities:

1. Municipal Management System Development: Planned interventions under the
institutional development subcomponent will include (i) training in technical and financial
management for TMA and WASA staff, including mapping and asset management; (ii)
increasing public awareness on urban issues, water quality, sustainability of facilities, and
options for improving the delivery of urban services; (iii) improving municipal financial
management by introducing improved accounting procedures and management information
systems that include budgeting, resource mobilization, enhanced O&M of assets, and
improved billing, revenue collection, and reporting systems; and (iv) establishing regulatory
systems to ensure that laws, standards, rules, and regulations are equitably and consistently
applied. These are critical to long-term sustainability of urban centers. Wherever possible,
technical training will be linked to measurable outputs. This will help determine whether skill
levels have been achieved and technical training is applied.

2. Environmental Support Services: An environmentally sound urban development plan will
be developed to ensure a well managed urban expansion in a fast-growing city with high
demand for housing. This will include preparation of base as well as geographic information
systems (GIS) mapping of the specified area. Land use, zoning, and building laws will also
be revised and legislated both to control urban expansion and to monitor water and
sanitation connections and charges. A comprehensive database will be available through
this subcomponent to enable the asset management and billing departments of TMA and
WASA to increase and maintain revenue, in addition to controlling and guiding urban
development, and urban transport improvement.

3. Asset Management: WASAs and TMAs assets are scattered and no records are readily
available. This subcomponent will also set up a separate asset management section to
maintain, update, and record assets, resulting in greater transparency and sustainability.

4. Urban Development: A baseline survey and GIS mapping of additional specified areas are
proposed under this subcomponent, as are detailed land use, housing, and consumer
surveys. This will lead to the development of land use and urban housing databases to
identify areas available for development. These are vital for both urban development and
consumer records of water supply and sanitation.

The intended beneficiaries of this project will be the residents of the Rawalpindi area and
participating TMAs, the City District Government, staff of WASA and RDA and the Local
Government and Rural Development Department.

6.2.11 Southern Punjab Basic Urban Services Project
SPBUS is another Asian Development Bank funded program which was initiated in 2004 and
is expected to carry on into 2009. The project cost is estimated at $128.6 million with ADB
funding $90 million and the rest being provided by the Government of Pakistan. The Local
Government and Rural Development Department of the Government of Punjab is the
implementing agency for this project. The projects geographical focus is in 21 towns in
Southern Punjab including towns in Multan and Bahawalpur.

The Project intends to (i) reduce urban poverty, improve community health and related
environmental degradation in 21 Project towns by improving water supply, sanitation, solid


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                     waste management, and roads for low-income communities; and (ii) ensure sustainability of
                     urban investments by strengthening institutional capacities of newly devolved local
                     government municipal agencies. The Project is formulated to support the Government’s
                     initiatives for poverty reduction, as well as the devolution of power and responsibility to the
                     local governments for providing and financing urban infrastructure and municipal services.

                     SPBUS has the following two components:

                               •   Development of infrastructure for basic urban services including community
                                   development and participation
                               •   Institutional Development including development of municipal management system
                                   for local government agencies, support of project implementation and incremental
                                   administration support

                     The project aims to facilitate sustainable urban development in selected low-income
                     communities in urban centers in Southern Punjab, and (ii) develop a city/town level,
                     sustainable and participatory approach to the severe environmental problems faced by poor
                     urban communities. Policy formulation and institutional strengthening will also be involved to
                     develop a mechanism to incrementally improve urban environmental infrastructure and
                     services using a participatory approach where all beneficiary stakeholders all involved at all
                     stages.

                     Infrastructure upgrading will include improvements to water supply, sanitation, solid waste
                     management, drainage, access roads and footpaths. Governance issues regarding local
                     government participation, especially the devolution powers to local governments, with
                     objectives to (i) increase ownership, transparency, and accountability; and (ii) over the
                     longer term, create an institutional framework that will increase empowerment and
                     strengthen social capital.

                     Director General Katchi Abadis heads the PCO (Project Coordination Office), Each TMA has
                     established project Unit (PU). Two committees are be set up for internal coordination a)
                     Project Implementation Review Committee (PIRC) at tehsil level b) Project Steering
                     Committee (PSC) headed by Chairman P&D

                     The project is targeting 3.6 million residents of target towns of South Punjab, especially the
                     poor and women, TMAS in target towns as its main beneficiaries.

                     6.2.12 Strengthening Decentralized Local Government in Punjab- Faisalabad District
                             Project
                     This is a project being meant to benefit the Faisalabad City District and being funded by the
                     Department for International Development UK. The approved cost of the project is £ 6.189
                     million. The project can be thought of as a continuation of the Faisalabad Area Upgrading
                     Project and was initiated in 2003 and is expected to end this year.

                     The purpose of the project is to establish efficient and effective local government in
                     Faisalabad district which is responsive to the needs of local communities and priorities of
                     poor people, and which can be replicated elsewhere in country. The purpose will contribute
                     to achieving the goal of sustainable poverty reduction in Faisalabad district The Project is
                     aimed at enhancing the capacity of Local Government by improving the efficiency,
                     effectiveness, transparency and accountability of District, Tehsil and Union Administrations;
                     ensuring that the Local Governments are responsive to the needs of communities and are
                     capable of addressing the priorities of poor people. The project focuses on improving
                     management systems and developing the skills of Elected Representatives, district and
                     tehsil Officers, Communities and Civil Society Groups in working effectively together. The
                     project will assist communities to better organize themselves and making their priorities


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known to the Local Governments, to plan and implement programmes with the local
government. The project operates mainly at district level though it also addresses the issues
of TMAs, UCs and CCB. The intended beneficiaries of this project are District, tehsil and
union administration, councilors, poor and women in Faisalabad

6.2.13 JICA Devolution Support Project
This is a project being funded by the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and
implemented by JICA and the District Government of Hafizabad. The total value of the
project is Rs 63.799 Million. The project began in 2004 and was supposed to terminate in
2006 but is still running. JICA DSP focuses on Hafizabad and has declared it as its model
district where all activities are to be based. The intended beneficiaries of the project are local
government officials working in the district, councilors and CCB members.
The objective of the project is to ensure that CCBs are made more effective and efficient and
an overall improvement in local government performance. The project set outfour distinct
outputs at its start, these are:

    •    Identification of obstacles and needs in communities and people for implementation
         of CCB in Hafizabad through a socio-economic survey.
    •     Identification of problems in and improvement of public administration in CCBs
         through organizational analysis.
    •    Manuals for trial model of basic project cycle management on CCB .
    •    Ensuring that executives and public representatives in Hafizabad acquire skills and
         knowledge on how to implement applicable and basic project cycle management
         models for CCBs.

The project has provided trainings regarding the issues mentioned above to local
government officials throughout the district. JICA facilitated six workshops participated by the
District Coordination Officers (DCO), Executive District Officers (EDO) and Tehsil Municipal
Officers (TMO) of the Local Governments in the Punjab through Japan returned officers.

        List of Projects Related to Capacity Building in Urban and Municipal Service

    Name         Duration      Activities & Beneficiaries           Implementing          Sponsor            Value
                                                                      Agency
Punjab         2006-2010    PMSIP is an initiative taken by the    PMDFC              Government of       Rs.3540.00
Municipal                   PMDFC.The project has the                                 Punjab with         Million
Services                    following two components;                                 World Bank
Improvement                 • Institutional & Infrastructure                          Funding
Project                           Development of
                                  TMAs:includes capacity
                                  building sub projects
                                  consisting of
                                  training/workshops for TMA
                                  staff, infrastructure building
                                  and data base and
                                  benchmarking of TMAs and
                                  an introduction to modern
                                  techniques of spatial
                                  planning and
                                  mapping,Performance
                                  management systems and
                                  financial management
                                  systems at the TMA level.
                            • Capacity Building of Punjab
                                  Municipal Development
                                  Fund Company, Government
                                  of Punjab, and Urban Sector


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                               Name       Duration           Activities & Beneficiaries          Implementing        Sponsor       Value
                                                                                                   Agency
                                                               Policy & Management Unit:
                                                               Capacity building initiatives
                                                               will include trainings on
                                                               performance management,
                                                               appraisal, supervision and
                                                               monitoring of grants, support
                                                               of Human Resource
                                                               Management and effective
                                                               implementation of projects
                                                               aimed at overall efficiency
                                                               gains in urban services.
                                                         Beneficiaries: Participating
                                                         TMAs in Punjab, GoPb, Urban
                                                         Unit
                     Punjab             1998-Present     The PMDFC was established to:           Established by     World Bank
                     Municipal                           • Assist Local Governments in            the Govt of
                     Development                               building the capacities for           Punjab
                     Fund Company                              better fiscal and service
                                                               delivery management
                                                         • Strengthen LG`s and CDGs
                                                               involved in institutional,
                                                               financial and technical
                                                               aspects of development in
                                                               order to improve the
                                                               efficiency of services
                                                               provided.
                                                         • To provide financial
                                                               assistance and consultation
                                                               to improve fiscal efficiency of
                                                               LGs
                                                         • Institutional-building of LGs
                                                               and expand existing
                                                               capacity.
                                                         Beneficiaries: Participating
                                                         TMAs and CDGs, LG&RD
                     Punjab              2003-2008       A major component of PRMP               Planning &       Asian          $500
                     Resource                            involves capacity building and a        Development      Development    million for
                     Management                          capacity building framework. This       Department of    Bank           program
                     Programme                           includes capacity building of the       the Gov. of                     TA loan $4
                                                         officers of the provincial and the      Punjab                          million TA
                                                         district governments in line with                                       grant
                                                         objectives of PRMP, Capacity                                            $850000
                                                         building of the provincial
                                                         government s training institutions,
                                                         primarily the MPDD, Development
                                                         of training modules & IT enabled
                                                         learning facilities, and training
                                                         exposure visits domestically and
                                                         abroad. Some of the key areas
                                                         which the PRMP seeks to reform
                                                         are expenditure tracking, medium
                                                         term budgetary and development
                                                         frameworks, institutional
                                                         strengthening, Expenditure
                                                         tracking
                                                         Improving service delivery for
                                                         social sectors including health,
                                                         education and water supply &


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    Name            Duration        Activities & Beneficiaries            Implementing          Sponsor            Value
                                                                            Agency
                                 sanitation, housing, livestock,
                                 SMEs, civil services and urban
                                 planning.
                                 Beneficiaries: Provincial
                                 Planning and Development
                                 department,
                                 Finance department, Excise
                                 department, Education
                                 health department, Health
                                 department and other
                                 implementation agencies and
                                 departments , People of
                                 Punjab especially the poor and
                                 women
Decentralizatio   2003-Present   DSP is working to improve local         Finance Division   Asian               $270million
n Support                        government representation,              of the             Development         (Program
Program                          accountability, efficiency, resulting   Government of      Bank Co.            Loan) $23
                                 in improved service delivery.           Pakistan           financed by         million
                                 Some of the key activities being                           CIDA, DFID and      (TA1-LG
                                 carried out are:                                           Dutch               Performanc
                                 • Resource management and                                  Government          e
                                      accountability contributing to                                            Enhancem
                                      efficient and equitable                                                   ent)
                                      delivery of services                                                      $7million
                                 • Improving the effectiveness                                                  (TA-2
                                      of local government bodies                                                Governanc
                                 • Putting necessary systems                                                    e and
                                      in place and training people                                              Gender
                                      in their use                                                              Mainstream
                                 • Promoting monitoring of                                                      ing) $8.34
                                      service delivery                                                          million
                                 • Training of personnel for                                                    ADTA
                                      local level auditing                                                      Grant
                                 • Training for personnel in
                                      District Accounts Officers,
                                      Tehsil Accounts Officer,
                                      Union Administrations
                                 • Assessment of training
                                      needs in local governments
                                      and provincial departments
                                      and preparation of training
                                      material
                                 • Performance Budgeting and
                                      Service Delivery
                                 • Political and institutional
                                      arrangements and
                                      administrative restructuring
                                      for improved local
                                      government performance.
                                 Beneficiaries: Federal, Provincial
                                 and local government
                                 organizations having role in
                                 implementation of Local
                                 Government ordinance, For
                                 Example: Local Government,
                                 Finance departments,
                                 Nazims,EDOs F&P, D.Os, District
                                 Accounts Offices


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                               Name       Duration           Activities & Beneficiaries         Implementing         Sponsor       Value
                                                                                                   Agency
                     Rawalpindi         2005-Present     The project consists of (i)           Rawalpindi         Asian         $85.7
                     Environment                         environmental sanitation (ii) water   Development        Development   million
                     Improvement                         supply improvement; and (iii)         Authority          Bank
                     Project                             institutional development,
                                                         comprising municipal
                                                         management system
                                                         development, environmental
                                                         support services, asset
                                                         management, and an urban
                                                         development plan. Planned
                                                         interventions under the
                                                         institutional development
                                                         subcomponent include (i) training
                                                         in technical and financial
                                                         management for TMA and WASA
                                                         staff, including mapping and asset
                                                         management; (ii) increasing
                                                         public awareness on urban
                                                         issues, water quality,
                                                         sustainability of facilities, and
                                                         options for improving the delivery
                                                         of urban services; (iii) improving
                                                         municipal financial management
                                                         by introducing improved
                                                         accounting procedures and
                                                         management information systems
                                                         that include budgeting, resource
                                                         mobilization, enhanced O&M of
                                                         assets, and improved billing,
                                                         revenue collection, and reporting
                                                         systems; and (iv) establishing
                                                         regulatory systems to ensure that
                                                         laws, standards, rules, and
                                                         regulations are equitably and
                                                         consistently applied.
                                                         Beneficiaries: TMAs and WASA
                                                         and CDG staff in Rawalpindi
                     Faisalabad         1991-2003        Beneficiaries: Local                  Strategic Policy   DFID          £15,865,0
                     Area Upgrading                      Government Institutions, mainly       Unit Faisalabad                  00
                     Project                             WASA TMAs and FMC.
                     Southern           Jan 2004-Jan     The project aims at improving the     Local              Asian         Total: $
                     Punjab Basic       2009             urban services and quality of life    Government and     Development   128.6
                     Urban Services                      in the southern Punjab area and       Rural              Bank          million ADB
                     Project                             ensure sustainability of urban        Development                      Loan $90
                                                         investments by strengthening          Department                       million
                                                         institutional capacities of newly
                                                         devolved local government
                                                         municipal agencies It has the
                                                         following two components:
                                                         1. Development of infrastructure
                                                         for basic urban services including
                                                         community development and
                                                         participation
                                                         2. Institutional Development
                                                         including development of
                                                         municipal management system
                                                         for local government agencies,
                                                         support of project implementation


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     Name            Duration         Activities & Beneficiaries           Implementing          Sponsor            Value
                                                                             Agency
                                   and incremental administration
                                   support
                                   Beneficiaries: TMAs in target
                                   towns and Multan CDG
Punjab             2005-2009       PDSSP objective is to strengthen       Planning and        ADB and DFID       Program
Devolved                           devolved social services for more      Development         (UK)               Loan/Grant
Social Services                    equitable, efficient, effective, and   Department,                            : $180
Program                            sustainable delivery of social         Punjab                                 million TA
                                   services in line With the Punjab                                              Cost: $ 25
                                   Local Government Ordinance.                                                   million
                                   The project will support broad
                                   activities in line with policy
                                   framework and policy matrix in
                                   the following areas:
                                     Capacity building of Local
                                   Governments
                                     Partnership development with
                                   private sector including NGOs,
                                   CBOs, and WUPs
                                     Sector Specific Policy Reforms
                                     Planning, programming,
                                   management and monitoring &
                                   evaluation
                                   Beneficiaries: Federal, Provincial
                                   and local governments and civil
                                   society organizations having role
                                   in implementation of devolved
                                   social services
Punjab             August, 2004-   The overall objective is supporting    Co Water            CIDA               CAN $2
Initiatives Fund   August 2008     government of Pakistan s               International and                      million ($
(PIF)                              governance reforms leading to          CIDA                                   US 2
                                   devolution of power,                                                          millions)
                                   decentralization of administration
                                   and participation of people in local
                                   government and its decision
                                   making process. PIF focuses on
                                   projects in areas like Governance,
                                   Implementing devolution,
                                   Advocacy & Awareness, Capacity
                                   building, Service delivery, Gender
                                   issues, Accountability, Public
                                   Private Partnership
                                   Beneficiaries: District, tehsil and
                                   union governments, councilors
                                   especially women councilors, civil
                                   society organizations, private
                                   sector
Devolution         August,2004-    The purpose is to strengthen local     Canadian            CIDA               CAN $6
Support Project    August 2008     governments in target districts        Executing                              Million
(Under CIDA                        through:                               Agency Co                              ($US 5
DGP)                               1)Enhanced and gender sensitive        Water                                  millions)
                                   enabling environment for local         International
                                   government and citizen                 Managed by a
                                   participation,                         consortium of
                                   2)More effective, inclusive,           Canadian&
                                   responsive and equitable local         Pakistani
                                   government decision making,            organizations
                                   resource use and management,


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                               Name       Duration           Activities & Beneficiaries         Implementing         Sponsor      Value
                                                                                                  Agency
                                                         3)Improved accessible,
                                                         accountable and sustainable
                                                         service delivery at the local level
                                                         Beneficiaries: District, tehsil and
                                                         union governments, councilors
                     Strengthening      May 2003-        The purpose of the project was to     Strategic Policy   DFID (UK)    £6.189
                     Decentralized      April 2007       establish efficient and effective     Unit (SPU) of                   million
                     Local                               local government in Faisalabad        District                        grant (at
                     Government in                       district which is responsive to the   Government                      2002-03
                     Punjab-                             needs of local communities and        Faisalabad                      constant
                     Faisalabad                          priorities of poor people, and                                        prices)
                     District Project                    which can be replicated                                               (approx
                                                         elsewhere in country.                                                 US$ 10.5
                                                         Beneficiaries: District, tehsil and                                   millions)
                                                         union administration, councilors,
                                                         poor and women in Faisalabad
                     Project            November         The project aims at improving         Department of      World Bank   World Bank
                     Improvement to     1996 (8.5        accounting and financial              Auditor General                 Loan $
                     Financial          Years)           procedures and systems in the                                         28.8 million
                     Reporting and                       public sector in order to raise                                       GOP
                     Auditing Project                    efficiency and accountability. This                                   counterpart
                     (PIFRA)                             includes support for increased                                        funding $
                                                         institutional capacity with regards                                   8.4 million
                                                         to policy making and                                                  Grand
                                                         management. The target areas                                          Total $
                                                         will consist of:                                                      37.2 million
                                                         • government accounting and
                                                               financial reporting
                                                         • government auditing
                                                         • separation of the audit and
                                                               accounts functions
                                                         • institutional development
                                                               (human resource
                                                               management)
                                                         • institutional development
                                                               (training)
                                                         • Related training programs to
                                                               build staff capabilities and
                                                               enhance utilization of human
                                                               resources. The institutional
                                                               development component
                                                               consists of (a) improvement
                                                               of training facilities for
                                                               accountants and auditors,
                                                               (b) human resource
                                                               policymaking in financial
                                                               management, including
                                                               training of accountants and
                                                               auditors, (c) project
                                                               management, and (d)
                                                               introduction of an automated
                                                               management information
                                                               system for the Office of the
                                                               Auditor General.
                                                         Beneficiaries:
                                                         Auditor General of Pakistan
                                                         Planning Division
                                                         Ministry of Finance


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    Name             Duration      Activities & Beneficiaries           Implementing           Sponsor            Value
                                                                          Agency
                                Offices of Accountant General
                                Pakistan Revenue
                                and Provincial Accountant
                                General
                                Controller General Accounts
                                Provincial Finance Departments
                                NRB (National Reconstruction
                                Bureau)                 Provincial
                                Local Government Departments
                                District Accounts Offices
                                District Governments
Project            May 2005-    PIFRA II supports widespread            Department of      World Bank          Total
Improvement to     2010         implementation of the systems           Auditor General                        Project
Financial                       developed in PIFRA I, and can                                                  Cost is
Reporting and                   accommodate the different tiers of                                             $93.0
Auditing Project                Government by working with the                                                 million
(PIFRA) II                      other reform efforts of the                                                    (10% to be
                                Government of Pakistan (GOP),                                                  financed by
                                such as introducing devolved                                                   Governmen
                                local government, introducing                                                  t Of
                                medium term budgetary                                                          Pakistan
                                frameworks (MBTF), and
                                assisting in deepening the
                                changes in Government financial
                                management
                                Beneficiaries:
                                Auditor General of Pakistan
                                Planning Division
                                Ministry of Finance
                                Offices of Accountant General
                                Pakistan Revenue
                                and Provincial Accountant
                                General
                                Controller General Accounts
                                Provincial Finance Departments
                                NRB (National Reconstruction
                                Bureau)
                                Provincial Local Government
                                Departments
                                District Accounts Offices
                                District Governments
Democratic         2001-2006    Projects under Democratic               Pakistani          CIDA                CAN$12.0
governance                      Governance Program strengthen           Partner:                               million (
Program                         local government policies,              National                               Approximat
                                practices and institutions,             Reconstruction                         e US$ 10
                                enhance citizen participation in        Bureau                                 million
                                local planning, decision making         Canadian
                                and implementation, foster more         Partner: Co
                                accessible, client based and            water
                                accountable public sector               International,
                                practices, particularly in the          CIET
                                delivery of social services and         International
                                justice
                                Beneficiaries: Projects under
                                Democratic Governance Program
                                strengthen local government
                                policies, practices and institutions,
                                enhance citizen participation in


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                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions
                               Name       Duration           Activities & Beneficiaries        Implementing          Sponsor        Value
                                                                                                 Agency
                                                         local planning, decision making
                                                         and implementation, foster more
                                                         accessible, client based and
                                                         accountable public sector
                                                         practices, particularly in the
                                                         delivery of social services
                     JICA               2004-Present     Improvement in the efficiency,       District            JICA            Rs. 63.799
                     Devolution                          performance, accountability and      Government                          Million
                     Support Project                     representativeness of local          Hafizabad
                                                         government primarily through
                                                         CCBs. Project is providing
                                                         trainings on project cycle
                                                         management.
                                                         Beneficiaries: Local Government
                                                         Officials, Councillors and CCB
                                                         members.

                     7. CAPACITY BUILDING IN DPL SECTORS: DEMAND – SUPPLY ANALYSIS
                     Previous sections of this report attempt to take a snapshot of the present capacity to deliver
                     urban services in the five City District Governments of Punjab, further capacities required to
                     increase efficiency, and presently available capacity building sources.

                     The present situation in the targeted cities varies with regards to qualification of employees
                     involved in service delivery, trainings received in the last decade, and trainings given by
                     donor funded projects and programmes. However, key generic capacities which are required
                     by all urban managers have been identified. These capacities are mandatory for efficient
                     service delivery, regardless of whether the service is urban transport or municipal finance,
                     water and sanitation or solid waste management etc.

                                               GENERIC CAPACITIES NEEDED BY URBAN MANAGERS
                     Financial Management                                          Strategic Planning
                     Human Resource Management                                     Community Participation and Public Relations
                     Information Technology                                        Public Private Partnership
                     Project Management                                            Office Management

                     Most of the capacities in question are provided by institutions in Pakistan. Financial
                     management trainings are offered by institutes like AATI, IBA, and OCTARA etc. Office
                     management trainings can be received at PIM and MPDD and so on. The key issue here is
                     that no single institute provides all the trainings required. There is a large degree of overlap
                     in the trainings provided by these institutes and no present mechanism in place to ensure
                     that urban managers of today can meet their capacity building needs at any one of the
                     capacity building institutes. The institutes that provide these trainings all have strengths and
                     weaknesses, and in some cases the geographical location of these institutes makes capacity
                     building activities unfeasible.

                     There are also a group of specialized capacities needed by Urban Managers of today.
                     Capacities with regards to Urban Engineering are lacking in the following fields:
                     • Traffic/Transport Management and Engineering
                     • Water Supply and Drainage
                     • Solid Waste Management and Treatment.

                     The number of institutions that provide such trainings in Pakistan is limited. Out of the public
                     sector institutes only NED and UET have a combination of both; the physical capacity and
                     the quality of programmes and faculty, to conduct such trainings. However, these two


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institutes lack the experience of training public servants and in-service trainings that other
Government Institutions possess. Institutes like the Government Engineering Academy in
Lahore have the physical capacity, and the experience of conducting such trainings, but their
faculty and course quality needs to be strengthened for any meaningful training activities.

In the fields of Land-use and Spatial Planning, qualified town planners are presently
employed in all City District Governments (mostly at the TMA level), but there is no
mechanism for keeping them up to date with developments in the mentioned field. The
mechanism for continuous training is also lacking. Only NED and UET provide the relevant
capacities needed by these Urban Managers, but only in the shape of degree courses which
are costly and long.

Given the number of capacities needed by Urban Managers in Punjab today, and the wide
array of capacity building institutes present locally and internationally, the development of a
capacity building plan is required to ensure that the training needs of Urban Managers are
met and the provision of Urban Services improves. This is done in the following section.

8. CAPACITY BUILDING PLAN/RECOMMENDATIONS

8.1 Towards building the capacities of Urban Management Agencies
As stated earlier in this report, any serious effort aimed at improving performance of urban
agencies will have to view ‘capacity building’ in its holistic perspective. While enhanced
capacity does contribute towards organizations’ ability to improve their performance, this
ability alone will not lead to improved performance levels unless it is complemented by an
enabling environment that supports performance (policies, regulation, service structure
including APT issues, incentive and reward systems, political interference, accountability and
transparency.

Keeping this in view, before getting into specific capacity building recommendations, it is
pertinent to first analyze the overall environment and working culture of urban management
agencies and propose systemic measures aimed at making these organizations more
responsive, effective and efficient. Some of the important management steps needed in
addition to capacity building are as follows;

   1. Begin with Business Process Reengineering (BPR) in urban agencies. This will
      involve study, documentation and analysis of all the processes with a view to
      eliminating value deficient processes and increasing value efficient processes.
   2. Conduct a thorough job analysis to develop clear job descriptions (JDs) and
      performance standards at all levels, in line with the new processes. (Work in this area
      is under way in Faisalabad CDG. However other urban agencies in Faisalabad like
      WASA and FDA and almost all the agencies in the remaining four cities are seriously
      lagging in this area).
   3. Identify job specifications (JSs) which cover key competencies required to perform a
      certain job (Job specifications do not exist in any urban agency except for those
      positions which have been recently opened for recruitment from the market like MDs
      WASA.)
   4. Conduct Salary Survey to benchmark market competitive compensation packages for
      each position.
   5. Abolish the existing grade system and develop new job groups and their
      corresponding compensation packages based on JDs, JSs and salary survey.
   6. Conduct Resource Analysis to determine what resources are needed to perform a
      certain job effectively. The resources would include human resources, physical
      infrastructure, equipments, machinery, and financial resources.
   7. Introduce a performance monitoring systems which collects information against pre-
      determined targets and performance standards.


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                               8. Develop performance (Service) standards at organizational for every urban agency.
                               9. Develop and implement incentive and reward system which is closely linked with
                                   performance. At present, people are mostly being paid for presence rather than
                                   performance.
                               10. Link promotion with past performance and future potential rather than chronological
                                   seniority.
                               11. Develop a responsibility-authority matrix for each job and ensure that every official is
                                   given sufficient authority to fulfill his/her responsibilities. Despite devolution the
                                   authority is still concentrated at the top. With maximum at the Nazim and DCO level,
                                   it diminishes rapidly from DCO to EDO and DO levels and almost disappears
                                   completely below the ADO level.
                               12. Make urban management a separate cadre with transferability from one CDG to the
                                   other but no transferability to provincial and federal departments.

                     8.1.1 Addressing capacity building needs on immediate basis
                     Apropos demand and supply side analysis of capacity building given in the previous
                     chapters, this section attempts to propose a way forward for building the capacities of urban
                     management officials in the selected five cities of Punjab. The first part of proposal covers
                     measures to build the capacities of local government official on an immediate basis. This
                     section addresses those capacity building needs
                          • which are crucial as well as urgent
                          • which can be addressed in a relatively shorter period
                          • which pertain to such capacities without which the selected urban management
                             departments will not be able to pursue the DPL reform agenda.

                     In addition, following criteria has been used to assess the suitability of an intervention while
                     selecting capacity building opportunities to be included in the proposal;

                               •   Overall suitability of the capacity building program or institution
                               •   Relevance of programme objectives, outcomes and contents
                               •   Timing, duration and frequency of the programme
                               •   Expected quality of the programme
                               •   Degree of administrative and logistical convenience
                               •   Cost

                     Proposal to address urgent capacity building needs of urban management agencies
                     on immediate basis
                     Following steps are needed to build the capacity of urban management agencies in short to
                     medium term.
                         4. Immediately start the process to have EDOs, DOs and ADOs trained through short
                            term courses as identified in the following matrix.
                         5. Start introducing BPR and service structure reforms to ensure that the newly trained
                            managers find it sufficiently rewarding to return and serve.
                         6. Bring in highly competent urban managers and faculty of urban management
                            institutes from countries like Singapore, Malaysia, Turkey, on secondement for up to
                            a year to implement reform agenda.




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1.        Urban Sector: Solid Waste Management
    Required                      Capacity Building Needs                           Priority         Recommendation
   mandate of
   the agency
    involved
Regularly
collect 100%        General Management and Leadership
solid from the      • Engage stakeholders, especially citizens, civil           VH             Customized training from ICS
given area and          society and other relevant organizations.                              Punjab University or IPR,
dispose it off in                                                                              Singapore
an environment
friendly way.       •   Develop strategic plan which includes vision,           VH             Customized training from
                        mission, targets, strategies and values.                               LUMS or PIM in collaboration
                    •   Prepare yearly operational plans in line with the       H              with the FAUP Faisalabad
                        strategic plan.                                                        team.



                    •   Computerize and automate support functions like                        Engage           professional
                        payroll, record keeping, accounting etc.                M              consulting firms with relevant
                                                                                               expertise
                    •   Develop and implement a performance
                        management system which clearly defines                 VH             Customized training from
                        performance for each section and individual,                           CSCI- Singapore, LUMS or
                        measures it, supports it and rewards it.                               NIUA - India. Plus bring HR
                    •   Recruit, develop and maintain high performance                         managers on secondment
                        teams                                                   H              from organizations like NEA,
                                                                                               Singapore
                    Technical
                                                                                H              Exposure and training in
                    • Develop and manage land fill sites
                                                                                               Singapore, METU etc

                                                                                               Learn from private sector
                    •   Manage, maintain and utilize              machinery,
                                                                                M              companies like DESCON
                        equipment and vehicles efficiently.
                                                                                               which manage huge fleets of
                                                                                               various types of machinery
                                                                                               and vehicles


                                                                                               Engage            professional
                    •   Develop and implement a costing system which
                                                                                H              consulting services in cost
                        identifies fixed, variable, direct and indirect costs
                                                                                               and management accounting
                        and provides correct information about various
                                                                                               as well as hire professional
                        costs like cost of primary solid waste collection per
                                                                                               cost     and     management
                        ton, secondary collection per ton, disposal per ton
                                                                                               accountants in staff.
                        etc.
                                                                                               Work with NGOs like Waste
                    •   Engage the existing informal recycling community                       Busters, Gul Bahao etc
                        to improve and professionalize solid waste              M
                        segregation and recycling




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                     2.        Urban Sector: Water Supply and Sanitation
                          Required                    Capacities Building Needs                         Priority        Recommendation
                         mandate of
                         the agency
                          involved

                                        General Management and Leadership Capacities

                                        •    Develop strategic plan which includes vision,          VH             Customized training from
                                             mission, targets, strategies and values.                              LUMS or PIM in collaboration
                                        •    Capacity to prepare yearly operational plans in line   VH             with FAUP Faisalabad team.
                                             with the strategic plan.

                                                                                                                   Customized Training from
                                        •    Advocate with relevant stakeholders to mobilize        H              ICS, PU or IPR Singapore
                                             resources and political will required to improve the
                                             WSS situation in Lahore
                                        •    Engage stakeholders, especially citizens, civil        M
                                             society and other relevant organizations on issues
                                             like water conservation, metered billing etc.

                                        •    Develop suitable partnerships with the private                        Customized Training from
                                             sector to improve access and quality of WSS            VH             IP3, US. Preferably invite IP3
                                             services.                                                             Trainers to develop and
                                                                                                                   conduct trainings for urban
                                                                                                                   managers in Lahore rather
                                                                                                                   than sending so many people
                                                                                                                   to US.

                                        •    Develop and Implement a performance                                   Customized training from
                                             management system which clearly defines                VH             CSCI- Singapore, LUMS or
                                             performance for each section and individual,                          NIUA - India. Plus engage
                                             measures it, supports it and rewards it.                              professional consulting firms
                                        •    Recruit, develop and maintain high performance                        with relevant expertise.
                                             teams                                                  H

                                                                                                                   Engage           professional
                                        •    Computerize and automate support functions like
                                                                                                    H              consulting firms with relevant
                                             payroll, record keeping, accounting etc.
                                                                                                                   expertise
                                        Technical Capacities
                                                                                                                   Customized trainings from
                                        • Analyze the existing situation in the WSS sector
                                                                                                    H              Bern University of Applied
                                            with regard to coverage, reliability, quality and
                                                                                                                   Sciences,   University of
                                            affordability and develop a future vision for this
                                                                                                                   Queensland and IWC -
                                            sector.
                                                                                                                   Australia,  or     ATRIUM
                                        • Forecast the year wise domestic, commercial and           H              Singapore
                                            agricultural demand for water and sanitation in the
                                            next ten years
                                        • Develop and implement quality control system to           M
                                            ensure that the quality of water supplied is fit for
                                            human consumption
                                        • Collect reliable data about water supply, wastage,
                                            consumption etc.
                                        • Meter all water connections and collect water bills       H
                                        • Manage, maintain and utilize machinery,
                                            equipment and vehicles efficiently.                     M              Learn from private sector
                                                                                                                   companies like DESCON
                                                                                                                   which manage huge fleets of
                                                                                                                   various types of machinery
                                                                                                                   and vehicles


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  Required                  Capacities Building Needs                          Priority         Recommendation
 mandate of
 the agency
  involved

              •    Develop and implement a costing system which            H               Engage            professional
                   identifies fixed, variable, direct and indirect costs                   consulting services in cost
                   and provides correct information about various                          and management accounting
                   costs like cost per gallon of water pumped, cleaned                     as well as hire professional
                   and distributed.                                                        cost     and     management
                                                                                           accountants in staff.


3.     Urban Sector: Urban Transport
  Required                   Capacity Building Needs                           Priority         Recommendation
 mandate of
 the agency
  involved

              General Management and Leadership Capacities
              • Engage        stakeholders,    especially citizens,                        Customized training from
                  transporters and transporters associations, civil        VH              ICS, PU or IPR Singapore
                  society and other relevant organizations to
                  enhance responsible driving, road safety and
                  control vehicular emissions.

              •   Develop strategic plan which includes vision,            VH              Customized training from
                  mission, targets, strategies and values.                                 LUMS or PIM in collaboration
              •   Prepare yearly operational plans in line with the                        with FAUP, Faisalabad team.
                  strategic plan.                                          H
                                                                                           Customized training from
              •   Develop and Implement a performance                                      CSCI- Singapore, LUMS or
                  management system which clearly defines                  M               NIUA - India
                  performance for each section and individual,
                  measures it, supports it and rewards it.

              Technical Capacities                                                         Customized training from
              • Develop a suitable urban transport policy                  VH              ATRIUM Singapore, AIT
              • Forecast the volume, pattern and trends of urban           H               Bangkok or METU Turkey.
                  traffic.
              • Collect credible data and conduct research on
                  numbers, types and transportation needs of urban         H
                  population and undertake transport planning on the
                  basis of this information.
              • Develop and enforce standards for vehicular
                                                                           H
                  emissions
              • Work with different actors to improve the quality of
                                                                           M               Customized trainings from
                  public transport and reduce road congestion in
                                                                                           IP3 - US, IPR Singapore
                  cities. For instance working with schools and
                                                                                           and ATRIUM - Singapore
                  private investors to develop a system of schools
                  buses which are safe and efficient. Or developing
                  suitable incentives and disincentives to check
                  vehicles entry in congested areas like parking
                  meters, down town entrance fee etc




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                     4.        Urban Sector: Spatial Planning
                         Required                     Capacity Building Needs                        Priority           Recommendation
                        mandate of
                        the agency
                         involved

                                       General Management and Leadership Capacities
                                       • Engage stakeholders especially citizen groups,         VH                 Customized training from
                                           other urban management agencies, private sector,                        ICS, PU or IPR Singapore
                                           women, special people and professionals like town
                                           planners, engineers and architects etc.

                                       •    Develop and Implement a performance
                                            management system which clearly defines             VH                 Customized training from
                                            performance for each section and individual,                           CSCI- Singapore, LUMS or
                                            measures it, supports it and rewards it.                               NIUA - India

                                       Technical Capacities
                                       • Forecast land use needs for housing, business,         VH
                                           government departments, education, and health                           Customized Training from
                                           services etc                                                            METU - Turkey, ATRIUM -
                                       • Develop integrated spatial plans including land use,                      Singapore, AIT- Bangkok,
                                           zoning, classification and reclassification          VH                 UET Lahore and NED
                                       • Develop, promulgate and enforce building rules and     H                  Karachi
                                           planning standards
                                       • Preserve and promote cultural heritage of cities
                                           through conservation of historical and cultural      H
                                           monuments and municipal ornamentation
                                       • Enforce implementation of spatial plans
                                                                                                H


                     5.        Urban Sector: Municipal Finance17
                         Required                     Capacity Building Needs                   Priority                Recommendation
                        mandate of
                        the agency
                         involved

                                       General Management and Leadership Capacities
                                       • Develop strategic plan which includes vision,          M               Customized training from LUMS or
                                           mission, targets, strategies and values.                             PIM in collaboration with FAUP,
                                                                                                                Faisalabad team.
                                       •    Develop and Implement a performance
                                            management system which clearly defines             H               Customized training from CSCI-
                                            performance for each section and individual,                        Singapore, LUMS or NIUA - India
                                            measures it, supports it and rewards it.

                                       Technical Capacities
                                       • Undertake multiyear forecasting of CDG revenues
                                           and expenditures                                     VH              Engage finance experts from the
                                       • Prepare annual budgets which have inputs from                          market to work with public servants
                                           relevant stakeholders and which correctly reflect    H               at provincial and at each CDG level
                                           development priorities of the district.                              to develop means for enhancing
                                       • Monitor spending and prepare and share variance        H               OSR and taping other sources of
                                           analysis, regularly and timely.                                      raising funds. Simultaneously work

                     17
                        Capacity of EDO Finance and Planning Office of the CDG Faisalabad was found to be advanced as compared
                     to other CDGs. Similarly capacities of Faisalabad CGD in other areas such as planning, monitoring and HRM
                     were also better than those of other CDGs. This difference is primarily attributable to Faisalabad Area Up
                     gradation Project being implemented with the support of DfID.


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  Required                Capacity Building Needs                   Priority              Recommendation
 mandate of
 the agency
  involved
              •   Raise necessary funds for urban development      VH            with the State Bank of Pakistan to
                  through enhancing OSR and using financial                      develop a suitable regulatory
                  instruments like municipal bonds.                              framework for the management of
                                                                                 urban finance instruments like
                                                                                 municipal bonds.


8.1.2   Addressing Capacity Building Needs in the long run and Institutionalization of
        Capacity Building
Short-term measures proposed in the above section are needed to inject high potency doses
of managerial and technical capacities in minimum possible time. However, short-term
measures are like life-saving drugs which will help the patient survive. Side by side, other
steps are needed to improve and maintain the internal health of these agencies in the long
run so that they don’t have to rely on life-saving drugs.

In addition, as concepts of organizational and individual capacities are dynamic, building
capacities as a one off activity is of little value in the long run. In today’s fast changing world,
internal and external environment of organizations as well as their stakeholders’ demands
and expectations keep changing pretty fast. As a result, collective organizational capacities
required to fulfill those expectations also change. Therefore creating a sustainable
institutional arrangement to assess and address capacity building needs of urban managers
on an ongoing basis would be absolutely critical to the success of DPL reforms in the long
run. Keeping this in view, there is a pressing need to develop and implement suitable steps
to institutionalize capacity building in urban management agencies. This will ensure that
capacity gap analysis and corresponding capacity building interventions are systematically
conducted on a regular basis.

Some of the important steps to ensure that urban management agencies have required HR
capacities in the long run are
   • Arrange scholarships for promising young gradates for one to two years masters
       programmes abroad with such conditions in following institutions;
            o Masters Program in Urban Design Masters Program, (MSc) in City Planning
                and Masters Program in Regional Planning at METU, Turkey
            o Graduate and post graduate studies in Urban Environmental Management at
                the AIT, Bangkok
            o Masters in Integrated Water Management at the University of Queensland,
                Australia (in collaboration with the International Water Center)
            o Master of Science in Urban Affairs (M.S.) at the University of New York
            o Graduate and post graduate studies in City and Regional Planning at the
                University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
            o Masters in Urban Planning at the NED Engineering University, Karachi
            o M.SC in Urban Management at the University Institute of Management
                Sciences, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi
       • Introduce institutional reforms in at least two crucial areas; business processes
            and service structure. As explained above BPR and service structure reforms are
            needed to attract and retain suitably qualified and high performer urban
            managers.
       • Negotiate with one of the good local universities – LUMS, IBA, GIK etc or a
            government institution like MPDD or GEA to collaborate with one or more good
            foreign universities or institutions like CSCI Singapore, AIT, METU and ATRIUM
            to start high quality capacity building programmes in urban management.


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                                   •   Further expand the scope of SEI-MPDD collaboration and commission them to
                                       develop and conduct customized courses for each sector like SWM, Water
                                       Supply, and Transport etc.

                      8.1.3 Options for Institutionalization of Capacity Building
                      There are a number of different options for institutionalization of capacity building in these
                      institutions. First option is to establish an effective Organizational Development function in
                      each of the selected institutions. Second option is to have a centralized Organizational
                      Development section at the CDG level which serves all the urban management agencies.
                      Third option is to establish an independent organization to address the institutional
                      strengthening and human resource development needs of urban management agencies.
                      Fourth option is to outsource capacity building to an organization like PIM or OCTARA.
                      Another variation of third option is to establish an independent institution in partnership with
                      other public or private sector organizations. Such options need to be examined from various
                      angles such as start up and recurring cost and time needed, administrative convenience,
                      responsiveness to the needs of various departments and sustainability etc. The above
                      mentioned options are discussed one by one in the following lines;

                      1. First Option: Establish CB function within each agency
                      Fist option is to establish a unit within each agency with the mandate to look after the entire
                      function of capacity building. This would involve undertaking capacity building needs
                      assessment periodically and developing and conducting suitable capacity building
                      programmes to fulfill the identified needs on an on going basis. This option has following
                      advantages.

                      Advantages
                         • Given that the unit will be housed within every agency, the respective agency will
                             have greater control over selection of contents, methodologies and resource
                             persons in its capacity building programmes. This can result in greater alignment of
                             capacity building interventions with the needs of urban managers and staff within the
                             context of a certain agency.
                         • Operational costs of running capacity building programmes will be low due to less
                             travel involved. Similarly due to proximity of potential participants, their travel time
                             will be reduced.
                         • There will be more administrative and logistical convenience in organizing
                             programmes and in participation of officials. In addition follow up of training as well
                             as using other means of capacity building like establishing communities of practice,
                             peer learning, mentoring and coaching would be relatively easy.
                         • Once the costs of the CB (capacity building) unit become part of the agency’s
                             annual budget, the unit is likely to sustain.

                      However pursuing this strategy may not be advisable due to the following disadvantages.

                      Disadvantages

                  •            Every agency will have to develop its own HRD unit. Given that most of the urban
                               agencies have no existing capacity in this area, almost all the expertise needed to
                               establish and run this function will have to be procured from outside which could be
                               prohibitively expensive.
                  •            At present, required expertise in urban management capacity building is neither available
                               within the urban management agencies nor in the local market. Therefore even if the
                               agencies are able to make financial resources available to procure the expertise from the
                               market, they may not get it.



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•        The unit will face the risk of becoming overly inward looking and isolated. There will be
         fewer opportunities to learn from experiences of other agencies and other cities.
•        A good quality capacity building has to have an equally strong arm in research and
         development. Following a research, development, implementation and evaluation cycle is
         the only way to ensure that the capacity building programmes are of high quality and are
         firmly grounded in the emerging needs of the agencies. Therefore establishing a good
         quality capacity building unit is like establishing a mini university. Given this, establishing
         and running such unit effectively is a too huge task for the urban agencies to undertake.

    Recommendation: Disadvantages of establishing CB unit within each agency outweigh the
    advantages, therefore this option is not recommended.

    2. Second Option: Establish CB function within each CDG
    Every CDG has a DO (HR) office mandated to look after major HR functions of the CDG.
    Theoretically this office can be developed into a capacity building unit. Advantages and
    disadvantages of following this approach are;

    Advantages

          •   Given that the unit will be housed within every CDG, the respective CDG will have
              greater control over selection of contents, methodologies and resource persons in its
              capacity building programmes. This can result in greater alignment of capacity
              building interventions with the needs of urban managers and staff within the context
              of a certain city.
          •   Operational costs of running capacity building programmes will be low due to less
              travel involved. Similarly due to proximity of potential participants, their travel time
              will be reduced.
          •   There will be more administrative and logistical convenience in organizing
              programmes and in participation of officials. In addition follow up of training as well
              as using other means of capacity building like establishing communities of practice,
              peer learning, mentoring and coaching would be easy.
          •   Once the costs of the CB unit become part of the CDGs annual budget, the unit is
              likely to sustain.
          •   A very important merit of this option is that a centralized CB unit at the CDG level
              has the potential to help improve coordination and collaboration among various
              urban agencies working in a city.

    Disadvantages

•        Given that DO (HR) office in most of the CDGs have no existing capacity in this area18,
         almost all the expertise needed to establish and run this function will have to be procured
         from outside which could be very expensive.
•        At present, required expertise in urban management capacity building is neither available
         within the urban management agencies nor in the local market. Therefore even if the
         CDGs are able to make financial resources available to procure the expertise from the
         market, they may not get it.
•        In terms of exposure and mutual sharing, this option is better than option 1 as there will be
         more opportunities for sharing among various agencies working within a certain city.
         However there will be fewer opportunities to learn from experiences of other cities.


    18
      DO (HR) office in CDG Faisalabad is relatively advanced. However the existing capacity even in this case is
    too low to undertake the functions of a good quality capacity building unit which could provide high quality
    capacity building services to all the urban agencies in Faisalabad.


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                  •            As explained under the first option, establishing a really good quality and effective
                               capacity building unit is a huge undertaking. While CDGs are surely better poised to
                               establish such units as compared to individual agencies, establishing such unit at each
                               CDG level would still be very challenging.

                      Recommendation: Keeping in view the above explained advantages and disadvantages of
                      establishing CB units at CDG level; the option is certainly worth considering. Even if a full
                      fledged CB unit becomes too expensive or impractical, a smaller unit to coordinate and
                      implement CB functions at the CDG level may still be needed in each city.

                      3. Third Option: Establish a centralized CB Unit in one city to serve all the cities in Punjab (in
                      collaboration with relevant local and foreign experts and institutions)
                      This option involves establishing a full fledged CB institute to serve all the capacity building
                      needs of all the agencies involved in urban affairs across Punjab. Lahore and Faisalabad are
                      likely candidates for this institute on account of relatively central location and better initial
                      capacity. Given that none of the exiting public sector institutions possess sufficient technical
                      capacity, know how and expertise required to establish and manage a state of the art
                      institute for urban affairs, suitable expertise will have be brought from the private sector
                      within Pakistan and from private and public sectors from outside Pakistan. Advantages and
                      disadvantages of following this approach are;

                      Advantages

                                •   It would be easier and more economical to provide all the inputs to establish one
                                    high quality institution instead of many.
                                •   Given that there is an acute dearth of urban management capacity building expertise
                                    in the local market, one institution has better probability of finding the needed
                                    expertise from the market rather than many units competing for a share in the same
                                    small pool.
                                •   As explained earlier, a good quality capacity building institution is like a mini
                                    university which needs to be continuously engaged in research, development,
                                    implementation and evaluation. Establishing one institution would make it relatively
                                    easier to undertake all of these functions under one roof which will help ensure
                                    quality.
                                •   As there is an acute shortage of urban management capacity building expertise in
                                    Pakistan, any serious effort aimed at building local capacities will have to rely on
                                    relevant expertise from abroad at least in the short run. Given the expenses as well
                                    as administrative and logistical complexities involved in engaging foreign experts,
                                    many CDGs and urban agencies may not be able to handle this component.
                                    Besides, a certain level of capacity in needed even to manage foreign experts and
                                    get quality output from them. Such capacity is not available within CDGs and Urban
                                    agencies. These factors make the case for a centralized CB institution stronger.
                                •   While this study covers only five cities, the challenge of improving urban services is
                                    not limited to the cities covered in this study. In future more and more cities of
                                    Punjab will be facing similar issues and challenges and therefore will need capacity
                                    building services. In case there is no centralized CB institution, each new CDG or
                                    worse each urban agency will have to establish a new CB unit. On the other hand, a
                                    centralized CB institution can have the flexibility to keep expanding to serve the
                                    capacity building needs of new cities and agencies, as the need arises.
                                •   There will be more frequent opportunities for mutual sharing among cities and
                                    agencies.




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Disadvantages

    •   CDGs and urban agencies will have less control over selection of contents,
        methodologies and resource persons in the capacity building programmes. This can
        result in more generalization and less customization and has the risk of reducing the
        relevance of capacity building programmes.
    •   Operational costs of running capacity building programmes will be high due to more
        travel involved. Similarly participation costs will be more on account of greater travel,
        board and lodging involved.
    •   There will be less administrative and logistical convenience in participation of
        officials. In addition follow up of training as well as using other means of capacity
        building like establishing communities of practice, peer learning, mentoring and
        coaching would be difficult to manage.
    •   While the start up costs of such institution could be borne by one or another donor
        agency, the government will have to create a new department with its own budget to
        run the institution afterwards.
    •   There will be fewer opportunities to help improve coordination and collaboration
        among various agencies working within a city.

Recommendation: Keeping in view the above explained advantages and disadvantages of
establishing a centralized CB Institution; the merit of this choice seems to outweigh the
demerits. However a combination of a CB institution in one city with smaller satellite CB units
at each CDG level appears to be the best option to follow. The proposed institute may be
named Punjab Institute of Urban Affairs (PIUA), Punjab Institute of Urban Research and
Training (PIURT) or any other suitable name. While establishment of such institute will have
to be preceded by a more detailed design phase with the involvement of relevant experts, its
broad contours can be summarized as below;

Mandate of the Institute

Possible institutional mandates of the said institute could be,
   • To become a state of the art research and training institution, serving as a catalyst for
       continuously enhancing economic prosperity and social development within urban
       areas of Punjab province.
   • Develop high quality urban managers who are committed to the pursuit of excellence,
       and are endowed with vision, managerial and technical competence and dedication.
   • Improve urban management practices in Punjab through creation and dissemination
       of knowledge.
   • Serve as an intellectual resource base in the field of urban management.

Where it may be located

The institute should preferably be located in Lahore for the following reasons;
   • Being capital of the province, it will be easier to coordinate with relevant provincial
       line departments, provincial ministries and other government departments.
   • Head offices of many large business groups and prominent corporate sector
       companies are located in Lahore. This will make it convenient to engage corporate
       leadership in the governance as well as in resource generation for the institute.
   • Lahore, itself being the largest CDG of the province, can offer rich and diverse
       opportunities for study, research, and practical exercises in the field of urban
       management for prospective participants of capacity building programs.
   • Lahore has greater chances of finding and retaining suitable human resources for the
       institute than other cities.



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                               •   The Urban Unit, which is fast developing into a repository of knowledge and expertise
                                   in urban management, is located in Lahore. Locating the proposed institute in the
                                   same city will make it more convenient for the UU to play its due role in the
                                   establishment of this institute.

                     Governance
                     The proposed institute must have a fully autonomous status and should be governed by a
                     Board of Directors. The BoD should have a balanced representation from the urban
                     management agencies, provincial line departments, corporate sector, academia
                     (Engineering University, LUMS etc) and civil society.

                     Funding
                     Conceivable sources of initial funding for the proposed institute may include grant from one
                     or more multilateral or bilateral donors, government’s own funds and donations from
                     corporate sector. It would be best to create an endowment fund in the start up phase of an
                     amount which is ensures a steady stream of income to meet the basic operational expenses
                     of the institute. As the institute grows, it will obviously need more resources. However,
                     having autonomous status, the institute should generate its own resources from its services
                     to top up the income from endowment.

                     Some Functional and Operational Features of the Institute

                               •   There is a yawning vacuum in the availability of reliable data and information about
                                   for instance demand, access, usage and quality of urban services in the cities of
                                   Punjab. Designing quality interventions by the institute would be contingent upon a
                                   strong capacity to fill this information gap through conducting focussed and
                                   meaningful research. Therefore the proposed institute must have a robust research
                                   component. Similarly the proposed institute will need to have strong ICT capacity to
                                   handle process and analyze huge amounts of data.
                               •   Since there are hardly any experts available in Pakistan who could teach modern
                                   urban management, faculty for the proposed institute will have to be brought from
                                   outside the country. Moreover suitable technical expertise will be needed to design,
                                   establish and launch this institute. This can be best achieved through entering into a
                                   strategic partnership with a suitable and relevant oversees institution. ATRIUM -
                                   Singapore, NIUA - India, AIT - Thailand, Civil Services College International –
                                   Singapore, Middle East Technical University – Turkey and INTAN – Malaysia may be
                                   explored for such collaboration.
                               •   The institute may design and conduct basic courses in integrated urban planning and
                                   advance courses in various urban management sectors like SWM, Urban Transport,
                                   and Water Supply etc.
                               •   There should be a general management unit within the institute which develops and
                                   conducts general management courses contextualized within the ambit of urban
                                   management such as strategic planning, human resource management, operational
                                   management, information and communication management, comparative studies of
                                   rapidly developing and developed cities of Asia and the world, management in
                                   service industries etc
                               •   The institute may first start short term certificate courses and then gradually move
                                   into offering longer term diploma and degree awarding programs like a two years
                                   masters program in urban management.

                     4. Fourth Option: Outsource capacity building of urban management agencies to
                        private sector.
                     The study found out that none of the private sector capacity building institutions in Pakistan
                     including universities and training outfits possess necessary know how and expertise to


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manage the capacity building function for urban management agencies. Besides willingness
of good quality institutions like LUMS and IBA needed to seriously pursue development of a
high quality urban training center is doubtful. On the other hand while it might be possible to
pursue smaller private sector universities like Preston or SZABIST, their value add is
expected to be minimal. Therefore this option is not worth further examination and has been
dropped.

9. CONCLUSION
This report gives an overview of urban services in five cities of Punjab and highlights some
of the key challenges being faced by agencies involved in the management of these
services. Further the report suggests a number of important practical measures needed to
improve the performance of urban management agencies. The recommendations cover
policy level reforms, institutional reforms and capacity building reforms. In capacity building,
a range of options are recommended to build the capacity of urban agencies on a short term
basis. This is needed to inject high potency doses of managerial and technical capacities in
minimum possible time. However, short term measures are like life-saving drugs which will
only help the patient survive. Side by side, other steps are needed to improve and maintain
the internal health of these agencies in the long run. Keeping this in view, the report
recommends establishment of a centralized CB Institute in preferably Lahore or Faisalabad
to serve the capacity building needs of all urban management agencies across Punjab. In
addition, creation of smaller satellite CB units at each CDG level which are linked to the main
institute is also recommended.




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                                                                                                  Annex I

           INDICATIVE LIST OF CAPACITY BUILDING INSTITUTIONS/PROJECTS

Public Sector Institutions

   1. Accounts and Audit Training Institute.
   2. Management and Professional Development Department.
   3. Pakistan Institute of Management.
   4. National School of Public Policy
   5. National Management College
   6. National Institute of Public Administration.
   7. Road Research & Material Testing Institute.
   8. University of Engineering and Technology Lahore.
   9. NED University of Engineering and Technology.
   10. Civil Services Academy.
   11. Health Services Academy.
   12. Government Engineering Academy.
   13. Punjab Local Government Academy.
   14. TEVTA.
   15. PIPFA.
   16. Institute of Communication Studies
   17. Municipal Training and Research Institute, Karachi
   18. University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi

Projects

   1. Punjab Municipal Services Improvement Project
   2. Punjab Municipal Development Fund Company
   3. Punjab Resource Management Programme
   4. Decentralization Support Programme
   5. Rawalpindi Environment Improvement Project
   6. Faisalabad Area Upgrading Project
   7. Southern Punjab Basic Urban Services
   8. Punjab Devolved Social Services Program
   9. Punjab Initiatives Fund
   10. Devolution Support Project
   11. Strengthening Decentralized Local Government in Punjab- Faisalabad District Project
   12. Project Improvement to Financial Reporting and Auditing Project
   13. Project Improvement to Financial Reporting and Auditing Project II
   14. Democratic Governance Program
   15. JICA Devolution Support Project

Private Sector Institutions

   1.   OCTARA.
   2.   LUMS.
   3.   Institute of Business Administration.
   4.   ICI-Pakistan-British Council Management Centre


Overseas Institutions and opportunities
   1. The Urban Institute, (Pakistan, United States)
   2. Institute for Public Private Partnership, United States.
   3. Institute of Public Relations, Singapore.


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                               4. Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand.
                               5. National Institute of Urban Affairs, India.
                               6. Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
                               7. Civil Services College International, Singapore.
                               8. National Institute of Public Administration, Malaysia.
                               9. Asia Training and Research Initiative for Urban Management, Singapore
                               10. International Water Center, Australia
                               11. Lund University, Sweden.

                     Other International Institutions
                        1. National School of Government, United Kingdom
                            Web Address: www.nationalschool.gov.uk
                        2. Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies, Netherlands
                            Web Address: www.ihs.nl
                        3. The New School for Management and Urban Policy, Italy
                            Web Address: www.newschool.edu/milano/
                        4. Australian Institute of Urban Studies, Australia
                            Web Address: www.aius.org.au
                        5. Canadian Urban Institute, Canada
                            Web Address: www.canurb.com




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                                                                                             Annex II

                            LIST OF PEOPLE CONSULTED

Lahore
Name                        Designation
Tariq Mahmood Khan          G.M Institutional Development PMFDC
Tariq Muhammad              M.D. WASA
Asadullah Khan Sumbal       Program Director PRMP
Dr. Tufail Siddiqui         District Officer Solid Waste Management
Dr. Akhtar Nazir            Urban Unit
Mehnaz Bhaur                Deputy Director PRMP
Naveed Hassan Asif          Director General WASA
Nasrullah Baloch            Director Housing LDA
Asim Iqbal                  Executive District Officer Finance and Planning
Khushal Khan                Chief Traffic Engineer TEPA
Prof. Syed Qasim Ali Shah   Director of Studies Government Engineering Academy Punjab
Shahid Zia Cheema           District Officer Planning and Development
Javed Nisar                 Director Common Training Program Civil Services Academy
                            Lahore
Dr. Haider Ali Shah         Director Management NIPA Lahore
Rafiq Jatoi                 District Officer Planning
Shafique Ahmad              Town Municipal Officer Shalimar Town
Shoeb Iqbal                 Deputy Director DSSP
Syed Riaz Hussain           District Officer Roads
RajaNadir Ali               Cantonment Executive Officer Lahore
Rubina Yasmeen              Deputy Director DSSP
Zulfiqar younas             Deputy Director PRMP

Rawalpindi
Capt. Saqib Zaffar          Executive District Officer Finance and Planning
Ghulam Abbas Khan           Executive District Officer Works and Services
Farhat Munir                District Officer Buildings
M. Azeem                    District Officer Roads
Iftikhar Shellwani          Executive District Officer Municipal Services
Saleem Janjua               District Officer Environment
Dr. Mazhar Azim              District Officer Solid Waste Management
Sheikh Shahid Bashir        Cantonment Executive Officer
Ghulam Abid Shah            Senior Engineer
Ammar Idrees                Cantonment Engineer
Abid Hussain                Sanitary Inspector Rawalpindi Cantt
Hassan Kamal                Sanitary Inspector Rawalpindi Cantt
Raja Shaukat Mahmood        Director Administration and Finance RDA
M. Makeen                   Director Metropolitan Planning and Traffic Engineering RDA
Jamshed Aftab               Deputy Director Metropolitan Planning and Traffic Engineering
                            RDA
Chaudhry Naseer Ahmed       Director Water Supply WASA
Zahoor Dogar                Director Information Rawalpindi Environment Improvement
                            Project
Omar Farooq                 Assistant Director Sewerage Rawalpindi Environment
                            Improvement Project
Faisal saeed                Additional CEO Cantonment Board



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                     Faisalabad
                     M. Shahid Alvi                                                     Human Resource Specialist
                     Mahmood Akhtar                                                     Deputy Team Leader
                     M. khalid Mahmood                                                  DO Buildings
                     Raja Safdar Hasan                                                  DG FDA
                     M.Tariq                                                            Community Development Specialist
                     Saima Raza                                                         District Officer Finance and Budgeting
                     Saleem Ahmed Awan                                                  DMD WASA
                     Anwar Muneeb Ud Din                                                DD (Dev.control) FDA
                     Asif Hayat Khan Niazi                                              TO(Planning) layyalpur
                     Gul Hafeez                                                         SPU
                     Nasir Shahzad                                                      BS LYP Town
                     Waseem Ahmed                                                       Director (O&M)WASA
                     Imran Yousafzai                                                    Financial Management Specialist
                     Dr.Ishfaq Ahmed                                                    District Officer Solid Waste Management
                     Ali Imran                                                          District Officer Spatial Planning
                     Dr. Aslam Pervaiz                                                  Deputy District Officer Solid Waste Management
                     M. Ramzan                                                          DO (Planning)
                     Dr. Tariq Sardar                                                   EDO F&P
                     Naveed Ahmed                                                       AC Income Tax
                     Shahzad Nazir                                                      Town Officer Finance Lyalpur town
                     Khalid Pervaiz                                                     DO
                     Ali Imran                                                          DO (Spatial planning)
                     Dr. Rai Qamar Zaman                                                Deputy District Officer Solid Waste Management
                     Javed Iqbal                                                        District Officer Environment
                     Chaudhry Liaqat Ali                                                Town Municipal Officer Jinnah Town
                     Muhammad Rahid                                                     Town Officer I&S Jinnah Town
                     Chaudhry Ashraf                                                    Town Officer Regulation Jinnah Town
                     Ume-Laila Naqvi                                                    Town Officer Planning Jinnah Town
                     Tariq Shabir Khan                                                  Town Officer Finance Jinnah Town

                     Gujranwala
                     Zafar Hanif Chaudhry                                               Executive District Officer Works and Services
                     Sheikh Najam-u-Saqib                                               District Officer Buildings
                     Muhammad Abdullah                                                  District Officer Roads
                     Shahbaz Khan                                                       Superintendent Works and Services
                     Waheed Ahmed Butt                                                  Executive District Officer Municipal Services
                     Shafqat Saeed Farooqi                                              District Officer Environment
                     Muhammed Saeed Ahmed                                               District Officer Solid Waste Management
                     Khalid Mehmood Sheikh                                              Executive District Officer Finance and Planning
                     Shaukat Hussain Khan                                               District Officer Budget and Finance
                     Muhammad Amin Bajwa                                                District Officer Planning
                     Chaudhry Shahid Iqbal                                              Town Municipal Officer Qila Didar Singh
                     Ifthikhar Hussain Mehmood                                          Town Officer Regulation Qila Didar Singh
                     Manzoor Ahmed                                                      Town Officer I&S Qila Didar Singh
                     Sheraz Aslam                                                       Town Municipal Officer Nandipur Town
                     Pervez Pasha                                                       Town Officer Planning Nandipur Town
                     Zaffar Ali Buttar                                                  Town Officer I&S Nandipur Town
                     Muhammad Aslam Ghumal                                              Town Officer Regulation Nandipur Town
                     Arshad Maidan                                                      Director Engineering WASA Gujranwala




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Multan
Ubaid-ur-Rehman Ansari          Executive District Officer Works and Services
Habib-ur-Rehman Gohir           District Officer Roads
Javed Iqbal                     Executive District Officer Finance and Planning
Arshad Hussain                  District Officer Enterprise and Investment
Chaudhry Mukhtar Ali            District Officer Accounts
Abdul Shakoor Bhutta            District Officer Solid Waste Management
Zafar Iqbal                     District Officer Environment
Faheem Ahmed Khan Lodhi         Motor Transport Officer
Asghar Majeed Baloch            District Officer Transport and Secretary RTA
Shoaib Mehmood                  Assistant Engineer Cantonment Board Multan
Faheem Zafar                    Cantonment Executive Officer Multan
Muhammed Iqbal Malik            Chief Sanitory Inspector Cantonment Board
                                Multan
Muhammad Nadeem Shah            Sanitory Inspector Cantonment Board Multan
                                Director MDA
Chaudhry Muhammad Tayyub        Director Town Planning MDA
Iqbal Ahmed                     Deputy Director Urban Planning MDA
Muhammad Shamim                 Director Engineering MDA
Dr. Javed Iqbal                 Managing Director WASA Multan
Malik Tassaduq Hussain          Director Works WASA Multan
Syed Saqib Hussain Bukhari      Deputy Director Planning and Development
                                WASA Multan




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                                                                                                 Annex III

                                   TERMS OF REFERENCE

Assignment TORs

    TASK 1
      (10) Identify capacity building needs for local government officials and available
           capacity building sources.

    TASK 2
      (11) Identify gaps and overlaps in the differing approaches to capacity building and
           specify institutional arrangements in areas where capacity building work needs
           to be undertaken.

    TASK 2
      (12) Identify, review and assess the form and substance of various capacity building
           institutions operating at the local, provincial and national level

    TASK 3
      (13) Identify, review and assess the form and substance of the capacity building
           programs and projects initiated by international institutions and donor agencies
           in the area of urban planning , management and development (covering sector
           of SWM, Land use planning and Management, Municipal Finance, Water Supply
           and Sanitation, Urban Transport)

    TASK 4
      (14) Review curricula for training and capacity building for different level of local
           Government Officials.

    TASK 5
      (15) Prepare a detailed profile of capacity building institutions including the resources
           at their disposal and an exhaustive and consolidated list of all public sector
           capacity building programs and projects conducted in the Province during the
           last 10 years.

    TASK 6
      (16)Suggest capacity building programs for specific areas and function of local
          governments such as urban planning , management and development (covering
          sector of SWM, Land use planning and Management, Municipal Finance, Water
          Supply and Sanitation, Urban Transport)

    TASK 7
      (17) Formulate an objective and practical proposal for institutional arrangements
         which will enable sustainable capacity building of public institutions in the
         Province.

Above are the TORs detailing the collective responsibilities of the team. Individual TORs
describing the division of work amongst team members are given below




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                     Individual TORs

                     Dr. Amjad Saqib - Team Leader

                     As Team Leader:
                     Prepare detailed methodology, and time frame for the completion of the study
                     • Meetings/discussion and dialogue with the Client
                     • Review the existing material and refinement of TORs and finalization of Work Plan
                     • Ensure the quality of the output
                     • Attend the meetings and lead the discussion on various activities/ tasks of the project
                        with stakeholders
                     • Coordinate the overall team work
                     • Preparation of interim, draft and final reports

                     As Capacity Building Expert:
                     • Identify capacity building needs for local government officials and available capacity
                        building sources
                     • Identify gaps and overlaps in the differing approaches to capacity building
                     • Identify, review and assess the form and substance of various capacity building
                        institutions
                     • Review curricula for training and capacity building for different level of local Government
                        Officials
                     • Suggest capacity building programs for specific areas and function of local governments
                     • Formulate an objective and practical proposal for institutional arrangements

                     Muhammad Zahoor - Human Resource Development Specialist
                     • Preliminary Meetings with the Client
                     • Identify capacity building needs for local government officials and available capacity
                       building sources
                     • Identify gaps and overlaps in the differing approaches to capacity building and specify
                       institutional arrangements in areas where capacity building work needs to be undertaken
                     • Identify, review and assess the form and substance of various capacity building
                       institutions operating at the local, provincial and national level
                     • Prepare a detailed profile of capacity building institutions
                     • Suggest capacity building programs for specific areas and function of local governments
                       such as covering sector of SWM, Water Supply and Sanitation
                     • Formulate an objective and practical proposal for institutional arrangements which will
                       enable sustainable capacity building for the above stated sector.
                     • Attend the meetings/ discussion on various activities/ tasks of the project with
                       stakeholders
                     • Assist the team leader in preparation of interim, draft and final reports

                     Azhar Saeed - Institutional Development Specialist
                     • Preliminary Meetings with the Client
                     • Identify capacity building needs for local government officials and available capacity
                        building sources
                     • Identify gaps and overlaps in the differing approaches to capacity building
                     • Identify, review and assess the form and substance of various capacity building
                        institutions operating at the local, provincial and national level
                     • Identify, review and assess the form and substance of the capacity building programs
                        and projects initiated by international institutions and donor agencies in the area of urban
                        planning, management and development



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•   Review curricula for training and capacity building for different level of local Government
    Officials
•   Prepare detailed Profiling of capacity building institutions
•   Suggest capacity building programs for specific areas and function of local governments
    such as urban planning, management and development
•   Formulate an objective and practical proposal for institutional arrangements
•   Assist the team leader in review the existing material
•   Attend the meetings/ discussion on various activities/ tasks of the project with
    stakeholders
•   Assist the team leader in preparation of interim, draft and final reports

Shehnaz Kapadia Rahat - Technical Advisor
• Preliminary Meetings with the Client
• Review the work done by the team and provide technical leadership
• Assist the Team Leader in suggesting capacity building programs for specific areas and
   function of local governments
• Assist the Team Leader in formulating an objective and practical proposal for institutional
   arrangements which
• Provide backstopping on technical issues related to capacity building initiatives.




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                                                                        Annex-IV
                 ORGANOGRAMS


EXECUTIVE DISTRICT OFFICE FINANCE AND PLANNING




 EXECUTIVE DISTRICT OFFICE MUNICIPAL SERVICES




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                                              EXECUTIVE DISTRICT OFFICE WORKS AND SERVICES


                                                                   Executive District Officer



                                 District Officer                               District Officer               District Officer
                                      Road                               Energy & Industrial Promotion            Building




                                                                              DDO Generation
                               Tehsil Level Officer                           DDO Distribution               Tehsil Level Officer
                                                                           DDO Industrial Promotion




                           DDO (Road)                                                IDO                 DDO (BLDG)
                           DDO (Road)                                               AIDO                 DDO (BLDG)
                           DDO (Road)                                             Other Staff            DDO (BLDG)
                           DDO (Road)                                                                    DDO (BLDG)




                                                         TOWN MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION




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Faisalabad Development Authority




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                                                                                        Multan Development Authority




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Rawalpindi Development Authority




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                                                                                        WASA Rawalpindi




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                                                               WASA Multan

                                                                   Managing Director
                                                                       BS-20



                                                                                       Dy Managing Director
                                                                                             BS-19



   Director                           Director                                   Director
Admn & Finance                        Works                                  Recovery (vacant)
   BS-19                              BS-19                                       BS-19


             Dy Director Admn                Dy Director Sew (N)                                                                   Dy Director
                                                                                           Dy Dir Rec H/Q                             P&D
                  BS-18                            BS-18                                       BS-18                                 BS-18
                        Ast Dir Adm                         Ast Dir Const                                Ast Dir Comp
                        BS-17                               BS-17                                        BS-17                                   C H Draftman
                                                                                                                                                    BS-17
                 Dy Dir Fin                                 Ast Dir Maint
                                                            BS-17
                                                                                              Dy Dir Rev
                  BS-18                                                                         BS-18
                                                                                                                                                 Asstt Dir P&D
                                                            Ast Dir Maint                                                                           BS-17
                        Ast Dir Fin
                                                            BS-17                                        Ast Dir Accounts
                        BS-17
                                                                                                         BS-17 (Vacant)
                                                 Dy Dir Sew (S)
                                                     BS-18                                               Ast Dir Rec (N)
                                                                                                         BS-17
                                                            Ast Dir Const
                                                            BS-17                                        Ast Dir Rec (S)
                                                                                                         BS-17

                                                            Ast Dir Maint
                                                            BS-17                                        Tehsildar
                                                                                                         BS-16
                                                            Ast Dir Maint
                                                            BS-17                                SSM
                                                                                                 BS-18
                                                   Dy Dir DS
                                                    BS-18
                                                                                                         Police staff

                                                            Ast Dir Mech
                                                            BS-17


                                                            Ast Dir Elect
                                                            BS-17




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     Semiotics
                     Final Report
                     Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                     Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
People with simple solutions




                                                                                                             WASA Lahore

                                                                                                         ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE


                                                                                                             Managing Director


                                                                                         Dir. (P&E)


                                                                             DMD (ENGG)                              DMD (F,A & R)         DMD (O&M)


                                                                Dir. (WWI)               Dir. (P&D)                    Dir. (Admn)       Dir. Operation (N)


                                                                Dir. (HYD)               Dir. (P&S)                   Dir. (Finance)     Dir. Operation (S)


                                                                                        Dir. Const: I                Dir. (Revenue)     Dir. Operation (S.C)


                                                                                        Dir. Const: II                Dir. (Training)    Dir. Maintenance




                                                                                                                   124
                   Semiotics
                                                                             Final Report
                          Assessment of Capacity and Capacity Building Institutions in the
                                                Development Policy Loan (DPL) Sectors
              People with simple solutions

TEPA Lahore




    125