Facilitation Workshop for PMI and IIBA Chapters

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Facilitation Workshop for PMI and IIBA Chapters Powered By Docstoc
					Peter Paul CPF, PMP
April 28, 2010
This exercise targets the:
 Glutes,
 Quads,
 Fine motor skills of arms

How to do it:
 Organize yourselves into groups (tables join to make
  up a full table)
 Every person fills out a workout form
 Elect someone to capture the information on the
  summary sheet and give to Peter or delegate
               Exercise time: 10 minutes
              Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul             2
Strongly                                                                    Strongly
                     Agree                        Neutral   Disagree
 Agree                                                                      Disagree


     A                 B                              C       D                  E

1.       An effective meeting is often more by surprise than by design
2.       Predicting meeting success is like trying to capture lightning in a bottle
3.       I often ask myself why it takes so long for everyone else to “get it”
4.       You can be both a facilitator and a process /subject matter expert in
         the same meeting
5.       If a meeting spins out of control I have a difficult time getting it back
         on track
6.       Facilitation isn’t needed in gathering or validating business
         requirements
7.       Facilitation isn’t needed in managing a project

                           Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                              3
                                                                Strongly                              Strongly
                                                                           Agree   Neutral Disagree
                                                                 Agree                                Disagree
    An effective meeting is often more by surprise than by
1
    design.
                                                                  0%       11%     13%      46%        30%
    Predicting meeting success is like trying to capture
2
    lightning in a bottle.
                                                                  2%       10%     15%      60%        15%
    I often ask myself why it takes so long for everyone
3
    else to “get it”.
                                                                  3%       35%     33%      22%         6%
    You can be both a facilitator and a process /subject
4
    matter expert in the same meeting.
                                                                  8%       19%     14%      44%        16%
    If a meeting spins out of control I have a difficult time
5
    getting it back on track.
                                                                  5%       19%     16%      56%         5%
    Facilitation isn’t needed in gathering or validating
6
    business requirements.
                                                                  0%       0%       3%      44%        53%
    Facilitation isn’t needed in managing a project.
7                                                                 0%       0%       5%      30%        65%




                         Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                          4
              Less than 1 year             11%
         Between 1 and 5 years             21%
        Between 5 and 10 years             37%
       Between 10 and 15 years             21%
           More than 15 years              11%

Total years experience in the room today   813


         Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul          5
This exercise targets the:
 Individual / collective wisdom of peers and colleagues

How to do it:
 Move yourself so that there is (if possible) one person
  at the table with:
     <1 yr.
     1-5 yrs.
     5-10 yrs.
     10-15 yrs.
     15+ yrs.

                     Exercise time: 5 minutes
                   Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul           6
          I am currently a Business Analyst             15%
 I am both a Business Analyst and a Project Manager     20%
I am neither a Business Analyst nor a Project Manager   21%
          I am currently a Project Manager              45%




              Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                  7
This exercise targets cranial development through:
 New or different perspectives
 New or different thoughts
 New or different ideas

How to do it:
 Move yourself so that there is (if possible) an equal
  number of Project Managers and Business Analysts at the
  table
 If you have people who are both or neither PM / BA they
  can stay seated!

                   Exercise time: 5 minutes

               Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul               8
                             1. An effective meeting is often more by surprise than by design




1. An effective
meeting is often
more by surprise
than by design
   Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                        9
                                     1. An effective meeting is often more by surprise than by design




All meetings have the same components:
 A beginning
 A middle
 An end
All meetings need a purpose and a design:
 What do we want to accomplish?
 How are we going to accomplish it?
 What do we do with what we’ve
  accomplished?
           Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                       10
                                               1. An effective meeting is often more by surprise than by design




Second Law of Thermodynamics:
Matter expands to take up all available space (think
  balloon)
Second law of human dynamics:
People’s conversations expand to take up all available
  time
In other words, time-boxing and time management are
   critical to achieving meeting success
*First Law of human dynamics: for every meeting there is an equal and opposite
   non-meeting (coffee break, extended lunch, shopping trip)


                     Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                       11
                                        1. An effective meeting is often more by surprise than by design




Purpose
   Needs to get at the heart of the reason you’re
    convening
   Needs to be clear, neutral, and concise
   Should not be biased (personal agenda) or vague
    (creates meeting spin)

Example: “To sustain our existing customer base
  by identifying and agreeing to an effective
  customer complaint process/system.”
                                                         Goldman, M. “Facilitator’s Flipchart”, June 2009
              Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                           12
                                             1. An effective meeting is often more by surprise than by design




Outcomes
   the “what” of the meeting
   Tangible and intangible results you hope to attain by the
    end of the event.
     Tangible: action, strategy, document, prioritized list
     Intangible: emotional state or attitude such as greater
      willingness to commit, excitement, buy-in

Example: By the end of this meeting we will have:
 Decided on a new customer complaints process
 Completed an action plan to implement our new process
 Reinvigorated our commitment to great customer service!


                                                              Goldman, M. “Facilitator’s Flipchart”, June 2009
                   Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                           13
                                         1. An effective meeting is often more by surprise than by design




Process
   Speaks to the “how” we are to achieve the
    outcomes and ultimately the purpose of the
    meeting

   Two aspects of event management:
     Event structuring – activities, tools
     Participant management – behaviour guidelines
     or norms on how the group wants to relate to one
     another
                                                          Goldman, M. “Facilitator’s Flipchart”, June 2009
               Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                           14
                                         1. An effective meeting is often more by surprise than by design




   Norms are important protocols adopted by the
    team to manage their behaviour within the
    context of the event
   Norms will only work if the team agrees to
    embrace them as part of their explicit and
    implicit behaviour
   Adopted / embraced norms require very little
    maintenance (after the initial forming stage) as
    they will be reinforced by the team
    (interventions)

               Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                       15
                                          1. An effective meeting is often more by surprise than by design




   Elicit them from the team
   When in doubt, use some common norms
     Devices on stun mode
     All input is valuable
     One person at a time
     Vegas rules (what happens in … stays in …)
   Make sure norms are reviewed, edited, and
    agreed upon by the team as part of the
    startup process
                Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                       16
                                     2. Meeting success is like capturing lightning in a bottle




2. Meeting success
  is like capturing
    lightning in a
        bottle
    Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                        17
Teams typically go through these four phases:
 Forming
 Storming
 Norming
 Performing




           Tuckman, B.W., “Development sequence in small groups”, Psychological Bulletin, 1965, 63, 384-399
            Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                              18
                                                   2. Meeting success is like capturing lightning in a bottle




This exercise targets the:
 Rapid development of a team
 Unconventional ways in which we can bond with others

How to do it:
 Collect one example of each of the following items from the
   people in your team / at your table :
1.  Business card,
2.  Lipstick (or lip balm),
3.  Something blue in colour,
4.  A sport or entertainment ticket
5.  A passport
 The team that comes up with all the items first wins a prize!


                          Exercise time: 5 minutes

                  Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                        19
                                                2. Meeting success is like capturing lightning in a bottle




   To effectively facilitate, you must rapidly build a
    rapport and trust both with and amongst the
    participants
   Don’t confuse rapport or trust with respect,
    you’re not there to gain their respect – that’s for
    the SME’s and peers
   You need to focus the participants on respecting
    the process
   You will become almost invisible to the
    participants once they respect the process

               Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                        20
                                                 2. Meeting success is like capturing lightning in a bottle




How?
 Take advantage of physicality / logistics:
     Arrange the room e.g., U shape configuration
     Stand up and walk around

 Ensure that you can be clearly heard and that
  you can clearly hear everyone (move closer to
  subject while they are talking)
 Ensure you speak with a calm but inviting voice
 Maintain a neutral language style
 Maintain an impartial communications style

                Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                        21
                                                 2. Meeting success is like capturing lightning in a bottle




How?
 Be transparent at all times:
     tell ’em what you’re gonna do,
     tell ’em when you’re doing it
     tell ’em what you just did
   Invite feedback from the team at every step:
     Is this discussion important right now to the
      team?
     What should we do at this point in time?
                Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                        22
                                                     2. Meeting success is like capturing lightning in a bottle




 Establish norms at the beginning of every (new) meeting
 Take attendance
 Use attendance list to address everyone who needs to respond
  (checkmark)
 Use a single source of information to keep everyone focused on
  the topic (Netmeeting, WebEx, SharePoint)
 For meeting with face-to-face and teleconference attendees:
     Place tent cards on table to represent tele-attendees
     Remind f2f attendees to speak clearly and in direction of microphone /
      polycom
     Remind team of norms (side conversations tend to exclude tele-
      tendees)
     Check in with tele-tendees
     Assign an f2f attendee (avatar) to represent a tele-tendee for task
      based activities


                    Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                        23
                                     3. Why does it take so long for everyone else to “get it”




3. Why does it take
    so long for
  everyone else to
      “get it”
    Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                      24
                                             3. Why does it take so long for everyone else to “get it”




Which square is darker, A or B?




            Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                      25
                                             3. Why does it take so long for everyone else to “get it”




This exercise targets the:
 Optical nerves
 Cerebral cortex


How to do it:
 Count the number of times the letter “F”
  appears in the following sentence

                                 Ready?
            Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                      26
                                           3. Why does it take so long for everyone else to “get it”




“Finished files are the result of years
 of scientific study combined with
 the experience of years”




          Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                      27
                                 3. Why does it take so long for everyone else to “get it”




                                             Do you see the
                                             spirals of green,
                                             pinkish-orange
                                             and blue?

                                             “Our process is
                                             better than
                                             anyone else’s
                                             process”




Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                      28
                                                  3. Why does it take so long for everyone else to “get it”




This exercise targets:
 Muscles that may have atrophied over time
 Identification of personal stress levels

How to do it:
 The picture you are about to see was used in a case study on stress
  levels at St. Mary’s Hospital.
 Look at both dolphins jumping out of the water. The dolphins are
  identical. A closely monitored, scientific study revealed that, in
  spite of the fact that the dolphins are identical, a person under
  stress would find differences between the two dolphins. The more
  differences a person finds between the dolphins, the more stress
  that person is experiencing.
                                         Ready?


                 Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                      29
Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul   30
                                               3. Why does it take so long for everyone else to “get it”




   Did you want to ask “where’s Mary?” when
    you saw or heard my name?
   Do you know what a pull tab is?
   What do you call a small, portable device that
    plays music?
   What slogan comes to mind when you think
    of McDonald’s?
   What do the following mean: ASAP, RSVP,
    LMK, LOL, LMAO
              Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                      31
                                             3. Why does it take so long for everyone else to “get it”




What and Why?
 Identify what a “difficult” person is
 A difficult person is _______________
 Why do you believe difficult people need to
  be “handled”?




            Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                      32
                                                3. Why does it take so long for everyone else to “get it”




   Be proactive
     Analyze the stakeholders in advance i.e.,
      personality types
     Structure the event with techniques that minimize
      the disruption
     Be familiar with (and practise if necessary)
      performing an intervention



               Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                      33
                                    4. Being both facilitator and SME in the same event




 4. Being both
 facilitator and
SME in the same
      event
   Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                   34
                                                    4. Being both facilitator and SME in the same event




Meeting styles vary based on:
 Never met / worked together                                                        Established



  How long the team has been working together

 Out of the Box                                                                     Established


                    The Content of the event

  Different Perspectives, Consensus required                                        Established



                    The Purpose of the event
                   Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                   35
                                                                                     4. Being both facilitator and SME in the same event

Facilitation Strength


                        Never met / worked together                                                                  Established


                                                                     Team
                             Hardcore




                                                                                                                                   Warm-up
                                                                           Trainer
                        Out of the Box                                                                               Established


                                                                  Content

                        Different Perspectives, Consensus required                                                   Established


                                                                  Purpose
                                          Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                             36
                                               4. Being both facilitator and SME in the same event




   Ask yourself if you bring more value to the
    event as a subject matter expert or as a
    facilitator
   If being a SME brings more value, consider
    asking someone else to facilitate so that you
    can be fully engaged



              Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                   37
                                                4. Being both facilitator and SME in the same event




   If your meeting requires strong facilitation,
    you will wear yourself out “switching hats”
   Participants will start to get confused if you
    change “hats” too often
   Participants may perceive bias in your
    facilitation even if there is none



               Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                   38
                                   5. If an event goes out of control




5. If an event
 goes out of
    control
  Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                 39
                                                                       5. If an event goes out of control




Teams typically go through these four phases:
 Forming
 Storming
 Norming
 Performing




           Tuckman, B.W., “Development sequence in small groups”, Psychological Bulletin, 1965, 63, 384-399
            Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                              40
                                                 5. If an event goes out of control




   It’s perfectly natural for teams to enter storming
   Teams can get stuck in storming phase because
    they:
     don’t recognize the signs because they’re in it
     keep comparing the now to “forming” when everyone
      was playing nice
     have no strategies to move past storming

   Keep in mind: you can’t move into the norming
    or (better yet) performing phase(s) unless you
    move through the storming phase

                Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                 41
                                                                5. If an event goes out of control




   Identify the situation
     Intervention (if team is spinning out of control)
     Refer back to planned part of agenda
   Assure them
     a natural part of team-building
     “knowing is half the battle” – G.I. Joe
   Solicit feedback
     What’s happening?
     What can we do to get past this?

   If the team is unable to provide feedback, suggestions include:
       Use the parking lot to capture items
       Remind the team to attack the problem, not the person
       Remind the team of the group norms (you do have norms right?)
       Suggest a tool or technique such as brainwriting, Ishikawa (fishbone) diagram,
        force field analysis, 2 x 2 matrix, 9 boxes (Triz) that can get them to
        collectively analyze and act

                       Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                         42
                                              5. If an event goes out of control




An event can spin out of control when
participants have different interpretations of
words

Example: what’s your definition of “event”?

For this presentation, an event is “a facilitated
  duration of time such as a meeting or a
  workshop”
             Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                 43
                                                        5. If an event goes out of control




This exercise targets the development of:
 A resilient epidermis,
 Unnecessary combat skills

How to do it:
 As a team, decide upon a working definition that everyone agrees
  to for the following:
       Consensus
       Alignment
       Responsible
       Accountable

   Be prepared to present your definitions to the other teams
                            Exercise time: 10 minutes

                      Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                  44
                                                  5. If an event goes out of control




   Understand that conflict is neither a good nor bad;
    in fact it:
     demonstrates “engagement” or “passion” about the topic
      at hand
     indicates a deeper issue at hand i.e., root cause
     may be symptomatic of another problem or issue that’s
      impacting the team i.e., personalities or communications
      styles
   The idea is to manage through the conflict to a
    positive resolution

                 Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                 45
                                                                      5. If an event goes out of control




    What is it?
     An intervention is an opportunity to take corrective or
      preventative action when a situation occurs that does not bring
      value to the event
     An intervention should be fact-based, not opinion-based
    Symptoms of a problem that might require an intervention:
     Polarizing viewpoints between two individuals (teams) with no
      intention of changing their respective positions
     Emotional rather than fact-based discussion
     Individual or collective body language convey boredom, anger,
      frustration
    When do you intervene?
    Ask yourself the following question:
    “By allowing this situation to happen (continue), does it help or hurt
      what we have accomplished (trying to accomplish)?”
Bens, Ingrid: “Advanced Facilitation Techniques”

                                     Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                 46
                                                  5. If an event goes out of control




Intervention steps:
 “I observed x saying / doing…” (action)
 “I observed y saying / doing…” (reaction)
 “The result was z…” (impact)
 What should we do about this? (obtain feedback from
  group)
 In the absence of feedback, have some options
  available to the team:
     Take a break
     Is this relevant / important to what we are trying to do?
     Can we put this in the parking lot?
     Should we carve out time from the agenda to address this
      specific issue?
                 Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                 47
                                              5. If an event goes out of control




 Music breaks
 Countdown timer: http://www.online-
  stopwatch.com/online-countdown/
 Shhhing
 Charity collection e.g., $1 if you’re late
 Time check announcement and begin
  countdown from 10 seconds
 Gongs, chimes, Tibetan singing bowl (for
  workshops)
     Note: they can get annoying if overused;
                  mix them up!
             Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                 48
                                   6. Facilitation and Business Analysis




6. Facilitation
 and Business
   Analysis
  Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                   49
                                                                     6. Facilitation and Business Analysis




There are many tools used in analysis and
facilitation for identical purposes:
Purpose                                            Technique

Idea gathering                                     Brainstorming
                                                   Brainwriting
Sharing or discussing guiding                      Norms
principles

Grouping or sorting ideas                          Clustering

Organizing and prioritizing                        2 x 2 matrix
                                                   Dot Voting
Root Cause Analysis                                5 why’s
                                                   Ishikawa (fishbone) Diagram

                      Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                 50
                                               6. Facilitation and Business Analysis




This exercise is targets the:
 Cranial capacity
 Fine motor skills of arms

How to do it:
 Adding only a single line, transform this into a




                          IX
  “6”



              Exercise time: 5 minutes
              Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                   51
                                   7. Facilitation and Project Management




7. Facilitation
 and Project
Management
  Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                    52
                                             7. Facilitation and Project Management




Current methodologies recognize facilitation as
a core skillset and critical across the entire
project lifecycle:
 JAD
 Six Sigma
 PMBOK
 exCITE!
 Lean
 Agile
            Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                    53
                                                                     7. Facilitation and Project Management




There are many facilitation tools that lend
themselves to project management:
 Purpose                                             Technique
 Project Charter, Risk Planning,                     Brainstorming
 Project Plan development                            Brainwriting
                                                     Visioning
                                                     PERT
 Project Status meetings                             Norms

 Crashing the schedule                               Clustering (tasks, resources)
 Organizing and prioritizing, risk                   2 x 2 matrix
 response                                            Dot Voting
 Root Cause Analysis                                 5 why’s
                                                     Ishikawa (fishbone) Diagram
                    Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                                    54
                                              7. Facilitation and Project Management




What is it?
• PERT stands for Program Evaluation and Review
  Technique
• PERT is derived from fairly complex
  mathematical models and simulations but is
  simple to use
• An invaluable tool for building out realistic
  project plans and timelines
• More accurate than “best effort” or “happy path”
  project plans and less pessimistic than “standard
  interval” project plans

             Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                    55
                                                   7. Facilitation and Project Management




How to use it?
 Basically, you need to ask the same three questions but in
  creative and non-repetitive ways to get honest answers
 The basic three questions are:
   How much time does it take normally?
   How much time does it take on a good day i.e., when the stars and
    planets are aligned
   How much time does it take on a bad day when everything seems to
    be going off the rails?




                  Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                    56
                                                        7. Facilitation and Project Management




Now feed the answers into the following
 formula:
                       Optimistic + 4 x ML (Most Likely) + Pessimistic
PERT =
                                                    6
Practice:
1. From group consensus, ask how long it takes to get an oil change
2. Use PERT to calculate an oil change
3. Compare answers and see if PERT is useful!



                   Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul                                        57
1.   Tuckman, B.W., “Development sequence in
     small groups”, Psychological Bulletin, 1965,
     63, 384-399
2.   Goldman, M. “Facilitators Flipchart”, June
     2009
3.   Bens, Ingrid: “Advanced Facilitation
     Techniques”


              Facilitation Fitness - P. Paul        58