Burden of Chinese farmers Burden of Chinese farmers Peasants is a historical category. China&#39;s rise and fall of dynasties, the problem with the peasants have a very close relationship. Since the founding of New China, there has always been peasants, but rural areas and society as a hot issue of concern, but since the late 80&#39;s thing. Over the years, the state attaches great importance to reduce the burden on peasants, adopted a series of important measures to develop a series of laws, regulations and rules, the burden of solving the problems farmers have played a key role. Now, with the rural areas of the socialist market economic system reform, peasants is still a very prominent issue, in order to fundamentally solve the task is still arduous. First, what is the burden farmers Generally speaking, we usually imposed on peasants by the government and its departments of all taxes, including taxes (taxes and hidden taxes tomorrow) and township village reserve, rural compulsory labor and labor accumulation as well as fund raising, levy, fines referred to the for the peasants. If further reflection, the burden of farmers has a more profound meaning. First, It is an objective category, also has subjective characteristics. From an objective point of view, peasants are real material expenditures or money spending, not the actual expenses, the burden on peasants impossible. However, from another point of view, the burden of farmers is the main burden of the peasants of a feeling. In this sense, the 80&#39;s Burden on the factors that made the change and the farmers themselves have a great relationship. The people&#39;s commune system, rural land and other basic means of production are owned collectively by the use of collective unity, collective labor organizations, individual farmers only within the collective economic organizations of producers. Then the order of income distribution are: (1) annual harvest of the year net income of the first cost of production, including: seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, fuel, tractor charges, irrigation and drainage fees, agricultural machinery maintenance and purchase costs of small tools, draft animals feeding and other production costs and depreciation of fixed assets during the direct cost of the means of production value; (2) State tax and food purchase and tasks; (3) management fees; (4) Jititiliu; (5) members assigned. Income distribution in this system, the first collective and social net, after the distribution to the members, not directly from the farmers to bear the burden of expenditure. Thus, farmers do not have the burden of personal feelings. After the Third Plenum of the Eleventh CPC, China&#39;s rural areas in general practice based on a household contract responsibility system. Following this, the identity of farmers corresponding changes have taken place. Farmers no longer a simple producer within the collective economic organizations, but relatively independent of the collective economic organization of agricultural production operators. Is natural in a market economy and the main market of the main property, enjoy full management of land use rights, directly enjoy the profits of business. Therefore, changes in agricultural management on the concept of property caused by the change of farmers, peasants awakened consciousness, so that the burden of farmers to increase the sensitivity to external. Second, it provides both volume, which also has the connotation of quality. The so-called quality of content, that is, the relationship between government and farmers. Only bring tangible benefits for farmers social changes and economic reforms in order to win real support for farmers. Civil war in China, Sino-Japanese War, the War of Liberation, farmers not only to provide and guarantee the supply of war materials, and paid a tremendous sacrifice, the burden is quite a light. But the liberated areas of the masses, especially the poor peasants, without any complaints, but rushed, active input food inputs, so farmers burden sometimes can not quantify the problem. The fundamental is whether the government and fully consistent with the interests of farmers, is the people&#39;s support or opposition. Third, not only has the economic attributes, but also political attributes. &quot;Three rural&quot; issue is the issue of farmers. Peasant farmers nature of the problem is the material of interest. Protection or damage to their material interests, outstanding performance burden on farmers. Jiang Zemin pointed out: &quot;reduce the burden on farmers, or certainly not much less take take some money, but to protect or dampen their enthusiasm for the issue, is to promote or hinder the development of productive forces in rural areas the problem is to enhance the farmers or the loss of trust and support issues. must be to reduce the burden on peasants that such a political issue to understand, that the purpose of the Communist Party and the rural high stability of the regime to understand the rural is the cradle of the Communist revolution, farmers are the main force of revolution. not the peasant masses great sacrifice, it is impossible to achieve revolution. Serving the people wholeheartedly is the consistent aim of the Communist Party. 80% of China&#39;s population in rural areas, and the Peasa ntry handled well has a direct bearing on whether the Chinese Communist Party has the people support and endorsement, if this is a problem, to say that we have lost the most general and most reliable allies, the foundation of our country will be shaken, our cause is likely buried. &quot;Therefore, the farmers not only burden only an economic issue, more important is a political issue. Farmers attribute the burden of not only economic but also political attributes. Second, peasants on the economic life of farmers Peasants to farmers most directly affected the economic life of the reduction in disposable income of rural households, but the specific analysis, its role is multiple. From the production side, farmers increased the burden of representing the elements of agricultural input prices, increasing the marginal production cost of agricultural products. As the market of agricultural products are generally of a perfectly competitive market, so farmers can only market price taker, the face of the market demand curve is a horizontal line, that is, the DD line in Figure 1. DD line also represents the average household income (AR) line and the marginal revenue (MR) line. It is assumed that farmers are rational, that is able to better calculate their costs and benefits. In the case of no burden on peasants, the marginal cost of farmers (MC) and average cost (AC) line shown in Figure 1, the equilibrium price P &#39;. If we consider the burden on peasants, the result is: the farmers in the short run MC line will move up into MC &#39;, the average cost AC line will be on the move to AC&#39;. Then the equilibrium price should be P &quot;, should be a balanced number of Q&quot;, but farmers can not adjust in the short term yield and production scale, and it can only be the market price taker, so this time farmers have to bear a certain amount of loss, the size shown in Figure 1 S □ P&#39;HFP &quot;area. in the long term, farmers will adjust the scale of production and production to Q &#39;swing for the Q&quot;, then if the market price P&#39; constant, loss of rural households will be reduced to S □ P &quot;P&#39;GE, S □ P&quot; P&#39;GE &lt;S □ P &quot;P&#39;HF, but did not solve the problem of losses of production farmers. At this time farmers have three choices: One option is to send hope fluctuations in market prices of agricultural products, that is only if P &#39;up to P &quot;, the loss was gone, then, is the direct result of the burden on peasants increases the farmers market risk; Another option is to find ways to reduce production costs, so that AC &#39;down and the MC&#39; down, then the burden of the role of farmers is to promote farmers improve land and labor productivity; Another option is to transfer the funds to farmers, labor, etc. to transfer to other industries this time, farmers pay for farmers to reduce production of the agricultural production, reduce the potential for further development of agriculture, but other industries have a stimulating effect. Of course, the farmers may also choose some combination of these three. So, just from the production point of view, the role of farmers is a heavy burden. From the consumer point of view, more clearly the role of peasa nts, is to reduce the consumption level of rural households and to a certain extent, changed the structure of household consumption. But their means of subsistence consumption of consumer and capital goods is not the same. Under normal circumstances, would choose to compress the means of subsistence farmers without compression or less compression consumer consumption of the means of production, because the means of production and consumption directly determine the next stage of the consumption level of households. Therefore, the farmers pay the impact on household consumption of the most important means of subsistence farmers to reduce the level of consumption. If the above analysis, taking into account the reduction in the number of agricultural products could lead to rising prices of agricultural products, then the burden of farmers due to reduced household income level smaller than the original. In addition, the amount of uncertainty if the burden on peasants, change every year, farmers will be expected to lead to instability, leading to the instability of household decision- making, leading to the production of household size and production structure in a constantly changing state, the result is to increase production and management of rural households in the &quot;menu cost&quot;, increased the burden on peasants to farmers adversely affected economic life. Burden on the economic life of farmers of farmers mainly in the following aspects: (1) reducing the supply of agricultural products; (2) forcing farmers to improve land and labor productivity; (3) to stimulate non-agricultural industries; (4) major reduce the level of household consumption; (5) increase the &quot;menu cost.&quot; The overall impact depends on a combination of the above five areas. Third, the causes heavy burden on peasants and Countermeasures Real heavy burden on peasants in the rural grass-roots political power over economic power eroded. Under normal circumstances, political power through economic power, military power, cultural power of the role to reflect its existence and the purpose of achieving political power. If the role of political power over economic power, political power constitute the erosion of economic power or excessive erosion. In rural China, the reason why there is political power over economic power eroded, mainly due to: (1) weaken oversight mechanisms of political power; (2) the economic power of farmers with no or only weak protection, or to achieve a certain degree protection, to pay a high cost; (3) The generation of political power from above; (4) leading decision- makers are &quot;economic man.&quot; Policy makers in decision- making, the main consideration is the individual marginal benefits and marginal costs of individual, when the individual marginal benefit equals the marginal cost of individual policy- makers to achieve maximum total utility. Thus, in the absence of effective supervision and other conditions of weak protection, rural grassroots cadres based on personal marginal income and personal decisions based on the marginal cost is likely to be implemented. Conditions in the presence of externalities, the individual marginal benefit does not mean that the social marginal revenue, marginal cost does not mean that individual social marginal cost. Marginal revenue is greater than the individual marginal benefit of society, personal marginal cost is less than the marginal cost of social conditions, making the result is greater than the marginal cost of the social marginal benefit of society, resulting in the loss of social welfare. Therefore, the above four reasons is the fundamental cause heavy burden on peasants by. In addition, the political power to the role of economic power is also a form of irregular heavy burden on peasants led to an important factor. Political power to the role of economic power, which mainly involves two aspects, one system, one is institutional. System includes the existing taxation system and state-related economic laws, policies, etc.; institutions mainly refers to the current national economic management agencies combined. The existing rural political power to the role of economic power in the form of non-standard mainly as follows: (1) rural taxation system is not standardized, the current tax system on the increase peasants in rural areas the burden of encouragement; (2) national policy is unreasonable, without attention to research urban and rural, agricultural and non-agricultural provinces, economically developed areas and underdeveloped areas the difference between; (3) incomplete legal system, weak law enforcement; (4) organizational system is not fully straighten out the country, especially in rural public goods The value of compensation to be solved; (5) county and township institutions are overstaffed, the established institutions do not set up the institutions of the withdrawal of withdrawal does not survive, overstaffing. These five factors constitute the major cause heavy burden on peasants. Third, political power and economic power of the main objectives of the main orientation of the different farmers in the study is important because the burden of a factor to consider when. In the current conditions of the rural household contract responsibility system, farmers in the goal orientation and goal orientation of the government sometimes is not the same, one of the major objectives of the conflict in the following areas: (1) macro-and micro-interests of the conflict of interest; (2 ) collective, national interests and personal conflicts of interest; (3) long-term interests and the current conflict of interest. The goal orientation of different farmers and the government will lead to the same &quot;Loading&quot; have different value judgments. In this case, the burden of the main burden of reasonable sometimes produces a &quot;heavy&quot; feeling. For the above reasons, I believe that in order to fundamentally solve the peasant burden, long-term and arduous task, must be systematically considered in a comprehensive, tackling the problem. First, we must strengthen the grassroots political power supervision. Mainly: (1) Monitoring Group set up at the village level. The resulting approach is by the villagers on behalf of the General Assembly elected directly; its functions is to the overall supervision of the village committee&#39;s work, including the cost of revenue and expenditure. Monitoring group should meet regularly to check the meetings on a regular basis to the higher Party committees and Party branches and village representatives the same level reports on the situation, team members can not supervise other duties as the village. (2) village- level management system should include: the village party branch and village committee, village monitoring group, the villagers Congress. One villager major issues Congress is responsible for the decision of the village and the village committee and the Monitoring Group candidates election of a candidate. Village monitoring group is responsible for supervision and inspection. Village committee is responsible for day to day and specific implementation. Village party branch is responsible for the program to the villagers on behalf of the General Assembly and the overall supervision of the village, including supervision of team work. Branch may be recommended to the village the villagers Congress candidate, but candidates can not recommend monitoring group. Monitoring group shall be chosen directly by the villagers on behalf of the Assembly elections. Monitoring branch mainly in the village should work with the CPC Central Committee and the relevant principles and policies consistent line, which is the general direction is the most fundamental. (3) establish an oversight committee in the township. The resulting approach is the direct election of township people&#39;s congress deputies, should include the community, farmers should be a certain proportion. Its function is the overall supervision of the work of the township government, including income and expenditure of funds. Oversight Committee members should not serve as village level, other duties. Oversight Committee shall meet regularly to the inspection and supervision of meeting regularly to the same level people&#39;s congresses at the same level of party committees and party committee report on the situation. (4) above Oversight Committee Oversight Group and the cost can be allocated a certain percentage of state or be deducted from the fee. Second, to raise the level of organization of farmers, strengthening the economic power of peasant self-protection. Peasant burden is a transaction between farmers and local government issue, or a Game between the two. Game two sides of the political and economic status determine game outcome. Game farmers and local governments, the two sides of the power is asymmetrical. Local government is highly organized, have strong information resources, human resources, even violence resources; while farmers are scattered among the peasants of various conditions have a unified view of the high transaction costs, farmers and local government in the Game at a disadvantage. Local officials will always find a way to grab more than the peasants from farmers afford financial resources, but farmers are unable to resist. Thus, the burden of solving problems to farmers a very important conditions: farmers must have some organizational skills and negotiating ability. Furthermore, among the farmers to reduce transaction costs in order to more easily reach a unified view to the formation of effective pressure and local government checks and balances. This situation means that the authority structure of rural society, farmers have to build the basis of their own authority, authority based on the premise that one of the conditions is organized. Therefore, the focus on improving the level of farmer organizations, to effectively reduce the burden of farmers is important. Third, the real implementation of democratic elections in the country two system. The rural grass-roots cadres appointed by the higher layers, so that cadres at all levels &quot;achievement&quot; of the evaluation depends largely on their superiors ordered the completion of the task targets. Driven by its own interests, at all levels of government officials during his tenure, tend to cater to a higher le vel of Yao Qiu, in the &quot;people&#39;s cause, the people for&quot; under the slogan, despite the capacity of farmers and pursue the so-called achievements. The root causes heavy burden on peasants in the above argument is justified. Therefore, through democratic elections, making appointments and removals of rural grassroots cadres and the right to control rewards and punishments in the community farmers, village leaders to truly make this community the fundamental interests of farmers, the farmers responsible for oversight by the farmers. In this way, can effectively ensure that rural public resources will be used effectively, the burden for farmers to maintain a reasonable range. Fourth, improve the quality of rural grass-roots cadres and policy level. The rural grass-roots cadres should carefully study and fully understand the national policy, the implementation does not compromise, do not lose shape; should be properly explained to publicize the policy, making the conscious action of the masses; should be combined with the actual implementation of policies to encourage creativity, to prevent absolute; should be exemplary in implementing the policy, urging the public to do so must first do their own. To strengthen the training of rural grass roots cadres, establish a sound system of regular rotation. To highlight the policy and the legal system, proper implementation of policies to improve grassroots cadres, adhere to according to law, and doing the people&#39;s capacity. To educate the rural grassroots cadres must sincerely serve the masses, against the masses, no concrete deeds; seek truth from facts, against the false and exaggerated; insist on hard work and oppose extravagance and waste, failing to consult the masses against the compulsory orders; the right to exercise their power against abuse of power; efforts to complete the task and maintain superior interests of the masses, regardless of the overall situation and the damage against the interests of the people. Fifth, the reform of the existing tax system in rural areas. First of all, to further improve revenue- finance system, a clear division of responsibilities of county and township governments. To county and township government&#39;s financial and powers combined to limit the levels of government to issue more than layers of limited financial resources compliance activities of the various upgrades. Second, speed up the local tax system, the implementation of tax reform in rural areas. Specific ideas: the original of all taxes and fees imposed on peasants by a clear division of the taxes, rents, fees for the three large collection, then the nature of their distribution according to their uses. Tax is the state to meet the common needs of the community in general, according to a predetermined object and the ratio of social surplus product to the compulsory, free distribution. Tax is based on political power. In rural areas, rental generally refers to rent, rent absolute rent and differential land rent points. Rent generated on the basis of absolute ownership of the land, differential land rent generated on the basis of land management rights, management rights belong to the broad category of ownership. Therefore, the rent is based on closely linked with the ownership. Tax and rent are the source of agricultural surplus. Enjoy a service fee is the price paid. Although the tax and rent can also be seen as the provision of public access to government products and farming land, the price paid, but the fee is for the local and specific services to pay a price. Fees paid time can enjoy access to a service before or after a service. Fee is based on the service itself. For tax, taxes should be fully considered in the design of China&#39;s national conditions. Reasonable in theory, not practice reasonable. Must fully consider the tax cost. It is recommended to set the land tax, poll tax, agricultural trade tax, land tax, which can be divided into agricultural land and non-agricultural land for different tax rates. Cancellation of the existing special agricultural product tax and the slaughter of livestock. For the land tax, may be appropriate to raise taxes, poll tax may apply for light duty policy. Duty may be in kind or money. This may reflect the overall fairness and efficiency. For rent, as rural land is collectively owned, the rent shall be vested in the collective, including the absolute rent and differential land rent. However, specific numbers, the provinces should set an upper limit, within the limit may be specifically agreed upon in collective organizations and farmers. The specific form of rent in kind, can also be used in the form of monetary or labor, to replace. Rent is mainly used for Provident Fund, the Community Chest, management fees, which is equivalent to village reserve this piece. Townships of the nature of the vast majority of tax should be included in the standard tax system. Fees charged should be based on the specific needs of the situation, the standard should be village or township People&#39;s Congress on behalf of specific decision of the General Assembly, the provinces can set it up on the actual amount each year to prevent arbitrary charges. The original three-year deductions and five can not exceed 5% of per capita net income of the control line, to farmers in rural areas all the tax rental charge can not exceed a certain absolute amount, that is, the relative amount of control into absolute control. Main reasons: First, the current estimates net income of farmers is a difficult thing, and second, the current per capita income of farmers in rural areas on the statistics and can not objectively reflect the real situation, the relative volume of the three is to bring some kind of hidden and sometimes difficult controlled. The use of absolute control (such as the requirement should not be more than 200 yuan per year) are more clear and easy to grasp the situation of farmers, but also conducive to supervision. Of course, this is mainly a response to rent, fees and charges two for absolute control, because the pieces are volatile. For the tax, if enacted, will have its own stability, so there is no need for control. Third, speed up the transfer payment system. To devise a major agricultural district special preferential policies the central and western regions, to increase the financial allocation of the central and western agricultural infrastructure investment; the same time, countries should be financially poor rural areas of the central and western funding grass-roots cadres subsidy system If some poor counties of rural grassroots cadres if wages can be a special burden on national finances, in order to effectively reduce the burden on peasants in these areas. Sixth, government institutions accelerate the pace of reform. The core is to streamline the organization, replacing redundant staff. This is a very complex and difficult task. The key is to control the funds, if funding can be brought under control, county and township officials in more or less no direct impact on the peasants. Seventh, rural legal system. Recommended the development of &quot;peasant burdens Act.&quot; We should actively carry out legal education in rural areas, so that farmers in studying, understanding, law, and can use legal weapons to protect their legitimate interests. Eighth, to establish a rural social security system. For some poor households from the village or township should give some subsidies to alleviate the burden on peasants resulting inequities. Ninth, to develop the economy of rural communities, through to industry to subsidize agriculture burdens, while increasing the income of peasants increased burden of affordability. Economically developed areas built on the operation of grassroots governments based on the collective economy, the emerging main cost of public goods from developed township enterprises and collective economic Zhifu, so well placed industry to subsidize agriculture lighten their burdens. Meanwhile, the farmers get paid from township enterprises income, benefit income, raise &lt;high. The more economically developed regions, the more dependent on the business tax and fee collection operation, resulting in economic backward areas, the traditional agricultural province of the phenomenon of relatively heavy burden on peasants. Learned from some surveys, township enterprises and collective economic developed areas, lighten the burden on farmers, and agriculture-dominated areas, relatively heavy burden on these farmers. Therefore, to develop the rural economy, strengthening the collective economy, can be an ease the burden on peasants and increase their income and effective measures. Tenth, to pay attention to education for farmers. To educate farmers interested in politics, concerned about the state affairs, to enhance the political awareness of farmers, national consciousness, the development of consciousness. Farmers should be &quot;three balanced&quot; (state, collective and individual interests into account) education, so that farmers can correctly handle the state, collective and individual interests among, can correctly handle the personal wealth of labor relations and common prosperity. 11th CPC organizations at all levels must take the burdens on the peasants as a political task, and to adopt effective concrete measures. Assessment of cadres and peasants to work closely together to implement the responsibility system at various levels. Above 11, the summed up in four dimensions: (1) establish an effective mechanism for restricting political power; (2) increasing economic power of the main self-protection; (3) political power to regulate the role of forms of economic power; ( 4) integration of political power and economic power of the main subject of both values. In short, in the long run, solve the fundamental way to the development of peasant burden. Economic development, political democracy and social symbol of modern civilization is also the burden of long-term solution to ensure farmers. Promote the development of an integrated process; development is the last word. From the country, quickly developing the socialist market economic system, the establishment and improvement, rapid deepening of economic reform and democratic institution-building and raising the level of social civilization in order to fundamentally solve the real burdens on the peasants.
Pages to are hidden for
"Burden of Chinese farmers"Please download to view full document