Brahmaputra Canyon by fdjerue7eeu

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									Brahmaputra Canyon
Brahmaputra Canyon
The world's largest (depth, length) canyon
【Introduction】
Tibet Brahmaputra downstream Brahmaputra Canyon is the deepest gorge on Earth.
Grand Canyon river valley bed core no man's land there is the rare four
large waterfalls, some of the main waterfall drop in 30-50 meters. Snow and ice from
the mountains into the valleys with tropical monsoon forests in river valleys and other
low-9 vertical natural zones, elk set a variety of biological resources, including the
Tibetan Plateau known species of higher plants 2 / 3 of known mammalian 1 / 2, has
been known insect 4 / 5, and large-scale fungi known in China 3 / 5, called the world.
It migrated to the north canyon crossing card Mainling large village (elevation 2880
m), south to Medog County Baxika village (altitude 115 m), 504.9 km long
Brahmaputra Canyon, the average depth of 5000 m, maximum depth of 6009 meters,
is the world's first Grand Canyon. The entire Valley area glaciers, cliffs,
steep slopes, landslides, and the overwhelming river intertwined, the environment is
very bad. Still no one involved in many areas, called "Earth's
last of the Fam" is a blank area of geological work of one of the few.
"Brahmaputra Canyon National Nature Reserve master plan"
was in April 2000 approved by experts. This marks the Brahmaputra Canyon will
become a National Nature Reserve. In the "master plan" in
Tibet, experts and the Chinese Academy of Sciences of the scientists on the
Brahmaputra valley of the animal and plant protection, protection of geological
features are all given a very detailed plan, divided into various protected areas and
protected species to develop the perfect protection measures, the proposed
Brahmaputra Canyon Nature Reserve, with a total area of more than 9600 square km,
population 1.49 million. Brahmaputra Canyon not only for its depth and width of the
canyon ranked first in the world, but also its rich scientific content and valuable
resources and attention of scientists has created world, the world's largest
rain belt located in the Brahmaputra River - Brahmaputra Basin the world's
most northern tropical climate zone and the distribution of natural band migrated to
the Grand Canyon; the world's endangered species lives and breeds in old
Brahmaputra Canyon; the world's most abundant water resources,
biological resources, distribution of scarce migrated to the Grand Canyon ... ...
Discovery and naming】 【
Brahmaputra River, the river bypass Namjagbarwa, winding paths, for large
horseshoe bend, forming a huge gorge. In 1994, Chinese scientists had scientific proof
the Grand Canyon, a comprehensive index, confirmed this on the Yarlung Zangbo
River Grand Canyon Grand Canyon for the world. According to data released by the
State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping: the Grand Canyon north of datogka
Mainling village (altitude 2880 m), south to Medog County Baxika village (altitude
115 m) length of 504.6 km, the deepest 6009 m, with an average depth of 2268 meters,
is no doubt that the world's first Grand Canyon. Was highest in the world
as the United States Grand Canyon (2133 m deep, 370 km long), and Peru Colca
Canyon (depth 3203 m, length 90 km), can not equate with the Brahmaputra Canyon .
Xinhua News Agency reported promptly to the world the news, the world by storm.
September 1998, The People's Republic of China State Council officially
approved:       Grand       Canyon      science      named       "Brahmaputra
Canyon," fight for the Roman alphabet Yarlung Zangbo Daxiagu.
】 【Guide
Transportation:
Take the train to Lhasa, Nyingchi start, shuttle starting at 8:00 am, Lhasa to Bayi town
633 km Linzhi, fare 155, and from Aug. 1 to a row of long, after the long walk to the
Sapporo song by the row Great turn around the Brahmaputra and the deepest canyon
in the world, ranked by the Sapporo song to Long, the way you can access Monba
village, enjoy the jungle, the last dragon can travel from the row to Millington, from
Millington to increase search Shannan , passers-by view Brahmaputra Grand Canyon
scenery.
Brahmaputra Grand Canyon Travel Tips
Appropriate travel time: May to October
Foot regional climate: Nyingchi is located in southern Tibet, by the sub-tropical and
cold climate with so many types and different climate zones are also different. Wrong
spring high lake relatively humid cold, cool in summer, autumn is the most beautiful
season.
Best hiking time: early June -10 mid is able to walk along the Brahmaputra time 10
months later because the snow, Medog will close off the mountains to the next year in
June, can not access. April and October are the best seasons to enter Medog, which
two months less in the rain around the Grand Canyon, no landslides, debris flow
hazards. The June to August in the rainy season, and out of Medog some path is
perilous.
Recommended lines: six lines Brahmaputra Grand Canyon can choose beauty tips!
(Grand Canyon hiking expedition to Tibet with a certain degree of risk, introduced the
following itinerary for your reference.)
1 route: Mainling County School District - more than male pull - take Georgia - Khan
secret - Magnon - baibung. This is a traditional road, is a plateau from the northern
slope of the Grand Canyon downstream to river valley road. Usually subject to three
days walking in the middle with about 4,200 meters above sea level to climb
multi- male La Pass, had to take Georgia to pass through dense Khan, Magnon is the
way downhill. Among them, the following Lao Huzui Khan dense area, hanging cliffs
on the mountain is very steep going difficult. Transportation incidents over the years
are Here. Magnon came from the steel iron chain suspension bridge to reach the other
side of the baibung area, about 700 meters above sea level has dropped.
2 routes: from Mainling County School District by a large crossing card, Gega to the
gala, along river trail into the Grand Canyon. Down into no man's land by
the Gala, no way out. Walk along the river about one week before they reach the
White Horse Bear, like the bedrock along the river are all sliced steep. New China
was founded, the traditional white horse black bear from the mountain pass, leaving
Valley through the West Hing La Pass (elevation 4,400) meters along a Chlh-kou
straight down, to reach the Grand Canyon, through into the Great Bend of the River
Rouge after the village, over cliffs, overhead cable to Gan generation (East Coast),
from Gan on behalf of the smooth and straight under the heated area Medog Sa.
3 routes: from the Sichuan-Tibet highways Pallone trip along the lower river valley
Palongzangbu down, three days of the mule road can reach the top of za qu Grand
Canyon Village, through the new chain bridge (formerly the cliffs, overhead cable ) to
wave, left the Grand Canyon, cross-cutting in the past, all the way through forests and
mountain ridge, three days may be turning to the Grand Canyon river below the
village of eight jade, and by Lu Gu, Gan generation, heating and Samoa to Medog.
4 routes: from Bomi County, the ancient village through the ancient village
Palongzangbu River Lake, crossed the mountains with the pull-Pass (elevation 4400
meters or so), Southwest, the direct heating of the Grand Canyon River Mesa area.
Along the winding mountain road, travel for three days.
5 routes: from the Town, Bomi County line along the Galong La Zamu merits, on the
North, over 4,200 meters above sea level the Galong La Pass, southwest, the river by
64 km along the Galonglanan, 86 km ("64 km "," 86
km "Mexican wave on the road are all dedicated site name, also known as
64 classes, 86 classes, reaching the bank of the Grand Canyon Dam. This line
repeated construction, better to go walking trails, mountains season can even drive a
car along the road directly along the 63 km. well, then, generally two days into the
Grand Canyon can be reached Medog.
6 routes: from the far east of Bomi reach Xing, Guo Xing River Palongzangbu up
along the river dates back to the source, from the winding lanes, Kim Ju La Pass
(elevation 5,030 m), pull over along the Jin Zhu Jin Zhu song down by the violin to
Kim Joo area (grid when), Kim Joo area by the mountain down through leech Dam to
the grand canyon by river, walk normally take 45 days time.
【】 Scientific exploration
Grand Canyon area is the most mysterious Tibetan Plateau region, because of its
unique tectonic position, by scientists as a "history of the earth to open the
door to the keyhole." Therefore, the Grand Canyon re gion of geological
survey geological survey of the Qinghai- Tibet Plateau important part. Qinghai- Tibet
Plateau Geological Survey of Henan Province is one of the main force of geological
survey. Since 1999, has undertaken and completed a comprehensive surve y of Tibet
Journal of Remote Sensing Project and Qinghai- Tibet Plateau blank area geological
mapping, the Qinghai- Tibet railway inquiry and evaluation of mineral resources in the
southwest Sanjiang non- ferrous metal base portion of the project investigatio n and
evaluation of subprojects. Which areas in the Grand Canyon 1:20 10 000 Bomi pieces,
Medog increase regional geochemical survey project has been community concern.
Brahmaputra Canyon discovery by the scientific community called humanity in this
century one of the most important geographical discovery. It is the hard work of
generations of scientists over a long period after the suddenly discovered. Prior to this,
20 years, many Chinese scientists have discipline has 8 times into the area to
undertake a comprehensive scientific investigation.
In late October 1998 to early December, scientists, journalists and mountaineering
expedition team composed of scientific expedition, which lasted 40 days, walking
through nearly 600 km, in the mountain forests, steep cliffs, fast- flowing Brahmaputra
Valley region had abnormal hard scientific expedition activities, access to a large
number of scientific data, enjoy and explore the wonders of the world's
largest canyon, to achieve the first human foot through the Brahmaputra
Canyon's historical feat.
In the 40 days of walking through the inspection, the experts in Grand Canyon, Grand
Canyon, the accurate mapping of the bottom of the depth and width, very important to
master the measured data. Geology, hydrology, plants, insects, ice, landscape and so
on, also have made a wealth of scientific information and thousands of samples of
samples of resources for the treasury of the Grand Canyon added new content.
Particularly noteworthy is that this study not only confirmed the existence of the
Brahmaputra River Falls group and the number and position, and found a large area of
rare and endangered plants - Taxus, insect family "living fossil"
- wingless insects.
Scientific investigation confirmed that the Brahmaputra valley is the
world's most biologically diverse mountain, is a "natural
museum of plant types," "biological resources, genetic
treasure." Meanwhile, the Grand Canyon in the Indian plate and Eurasian
plate subduction crowded northeast corner, a variety of geological phenomena, called
a rare "geological museum."
Brahmaputra Canyon has a magical charm to the world, the unique environment and
rich natural resources are precious wealth of our country, all mankind's
precious natural heritage.
CPC Central Committee and the western region development strategy, the Grand
Canyon area of scientific investigation, resource investigation formally on the agenda.
In 1999, China Geological Survey open tender situation of the country, opened a large
scale in the region, in-depth, comprehensive resources survey off. Henan Institute of
Geological Survey of its more than ten years in Tibet fought the good reputation and
high altitude experience and strong technical talent, in the middle and took first place
a number of bidders to undertake major projects of national geological work -
Tibet's Brahmaputra Canyon core part of "1:20 10 000 Bomi
rate, the regional geochemical survey Medog County Sheet."
Henan Institute of Geological Survey consisting of 38 geologists went Brahmaputra
Canyon expedition from March 20, 2000 expedition, the spirit of "the
Glory", "four special" spirit to overcome
unimaginable difficulties many hardship, with a high sense of responsibility and
rigorous scientific approach to the Grand Canyon region was grid-type full
investigation. They travel 26,000 km, complete the measurement area of 7938 square
kilometers, all kinds of geochemical samples were collected from 2102, testing of
chemical elements in 42 different kinds, access to basic data, 63252, for the first time
received the highest degree of geological data. This was the first time in human
history and even the Grand Canyon for large-scale, deep- level, grid-style, systematic
geological survey of the national scientific investigation.
By examining the new integrated geochemical anomalies discovered by. And
preliminary identification of the Grand Canyon ecological geochemical background
for the prevention and control endemic diseases, the promotion of social development
in ethnic minority areas and the development of the Grand Canyon development plan
provided the basis for nursing.
Henan Geology athletes expedition successfully completed the task, it is also captured
more than 4,000 Da Valley landscape photo, job site photos and dozens of rare video
footage and screens out the best parts, edited and published "into
Yaruzampbo Grand Canyon "exquisite album. Album a true record of the
geological expedition team members in the Grand Canyon's life, work
situations and the Grand Canyon region's natural and geographical
landscape unique to the unique geological team from the artistic point of view of the
Grand Canyon region made an important scientific expedition report added.
】 【Geographical
Why Qinghai- Tibet Plateau formed the young so strange and beautiful, magnificent
Grand Canyon? Brahmaputra Canyon direct cause of the formation of the crust in the
region 3 million years of rapid uplift and deep geological effects. 15 million years,
rising speed of the Grand Canyon area of 30 mm / year, is one of the
world's fastest lift. Field trip to obtain the latest evidence that the
fundamental principle the formation of the Grand Canyon out of existence in the
region, upwelling asthenospheric mantle body. Brahmaputra Canyon and the
geological features and the United States similar to the Grand Canyon. Brahmaputra
Canyon bodies in mantle upwelling water vapor channel may be the formation of the
Grand Canyon is an important factor, it might be the center of the region's
southeastern Tibet as a so-called "climate promoter region," the
reason may be the area of biological zonal distribution of 3 to 5 degrees north of the
major reasons. To upwelling of mantle lithosphere is characterized by body material
and structural adjustment on the Earth's outer circle restraining effect on
long-scale areas in the Grand Canyon has a very clear expression, so here is the
middle circle the Earth system, the ideal coupling of the field laboratory.
Combination of peak and valley bend in the river valley development in the history of
the world is very rare, that in itself is a natural wonder. In fact, the Great Bend Gorge
is composed of a number of corner connected. The north side of Niagara gorge white
base peak is the center of the glaciers, the east slope of the column is a large curved
valley glacier glaciers, from the snow line elevation of 4,700 meters above sea level
until 2850 m.
Water vapor channel in the Grand Canyon when the mouth parts of the North line of
eastern North Slope Nyainqentanglha Mountains, glaciers have Caccin, up to 33 km;
Palongzangbu upstream to Kou glaciers, up to 35 km. Which China had a maritime
temperate glacier in the long valley glaciers, ice stuck to the last paragraph of the
subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, the minimum can reach an altitude of 2,500
meters of the place, constitutes a peculiar natural landscape.
【Cause】
Quaternary, the development of many times where mountain glaciation, left behind a
complete U-shaped valley of ancient glaciers, valley plain, like a dense ice hill graves,
this is the water vapor channel specific circumstances the accumulation of ancient
glaciation remains. Qinghai- Tibet Plateau in the world-famous roof of the world, there
is a green channel along the Brahmaputra River has been a southeast extension of the
Brahmaputra valley, Brahmaputra Canyon is the important part of the green channel.
Deep Brahmaputra Canyon like a green gateway to the southeast Tibetan Plateau,
facing the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean and warm air from the Indian Ocean
provides a natural channel.
】 【Climatic conditions
This natural water vapor channel to the Indian Ocean's warm and humid air
from the southeast region in Qinghai- Tibet Plateau formed the world's
largest rain with annual rainfall of 4,500 a 10,070 mm; it is that the water vapor
channel to the Grand Canyon a huge water savings energy resources; it is that the
natural passage of water vapor to the tropical climate zone in the southeastern
Qinghai- Tibet Plateau over the five latitude north; it is that the development of natural
water vapor channel great maritime glaciers; it is that the natural water vapor channel
narrowing the North-South significant difference between the natural zones, it is that
promote the many natural hot water vapor channels driven, plant distribution shift to
the north; it is that the natural water vapor channel to promote the Himalayas north
and south mixed with biological exchange that is this channel for many of the natural
moisture paleontological species provides a safe haven, not to extinction. The role of
water vapor channel caused the Brahmaputra Grand Canyon region with complete
integrity of the natural distribution of the vertical, from high to low, snow and ice
from the mountains into the lower valley of the tropical monsoon rain forest be lt, like
the equator from the poles to the north-east to Hainan Island or from the same
country.
Below the snow line is the alpine meadow, alpine shrub, and then down that mountain,
subalpine evergreen coniferous forest, continue down the mountain is the evergreen,
semi-evergreen broad- leaved forest and evergreen broad-leaved forest, into the low
mountains, valleys, is the monsoon rain belt. The monsoon rain here is different from
the equatorial rain forest, it is the wind in the tropical oceans of hand- formed under
conditions of significant seasonal variation in rain forest ecosystems. Here is the
world's mountain with the most complete vertical natural wealth, and is a
microcosm of global climate change, land.
Brahmaputra is the largest river in Tibet, ranking fifth in China's rivers, but
its potential hydropower resources in China after the Yangtze River ranks second in
the reserves of water per unit area ranks in the world.
】 【Rich flora and fauna
Grand Canyon is the Tibet region where the most abundant biological resources. Area
of about 3,500 species of vascular plants, including use of the economic value of no
less than 1000 kinds of plants, concrete can be divided into: medicinal plants, oil
plants, fiber plants. Special mention is delavayi, because the Grand Canyon of the
alpine shrub composed mainly of evergreen azaleas. This area has 154 species
rhododendrons, azaleas of the world's total number of species (600 species)
of 26%.
Grand Canyon area of dense forest and alpine shrub and grassland habitat for a wide
variety of animals, many of them state protection of rare animals. As fur animals, otter,
stone marten, clouded leopard, snow leopard, blue sampan, ferre ts, leopard cats and
red pandas; medicinal animals, musk deer, black bear, pangolin, flying squirrels,
snakes Clear, coral snake, king cobra; medical animal monkey ; Watch Animals:
Long-tailed leaf monkey, Rufous- necked hornbill, red-breasted pheasant, red ventral
horn difficult, Pai pottery parrot, large-breasted Parakeet, Blue-throated Sunbird, Huo
Wei Sunbird, Red-billed Leiothrix, White-breasted Pheasant, Tibetan Enrichment and
black-necked cranes, pythons, and antelope. Since a large number of killed was a
long-term, many have been endangered.
【Features】 Environment
Grand Canyon region of its kind in the natural zone, except for the altitude above the
4200 Millington, snow and ice desert shrub meadow, the almost occupied by forests, a
large natural forest area is broad, rich in forest resources, second only 10 in China two
forest areas in Northeast and Southwest, ranking second in China.
Grand Canyon has two basic characteristics: exotic Great Bend and the Tibetan
Plateau the largest water vapor channel, these two features in itself constitute a rare
plant in the world of natural wonders, constitute the most characteristic plant
eco-tourism resources. Spectacular, strange, magnificent, beautiful, original, natural,
clean, unique environment, rich in resources unmatched. The former best
three-dimensional view from the air to it, particularly the opportunity to see it in the
air that the spectacular and beautiful panoramic view of the latter's water
vapor and heat as the Grand Canyon area of eco-tourism to bring mountain range of
vertical natural zones, biological diversity and the monsoon Type maritime temperate
glaciers, alpine lakes and the magical charm and infinite variety of unique and strong
show of thousands of spectacular weather.
Years of research study shows that: Brahmaputra Canyon is the direct cause of the
formation of the crust in the region in the last 3 million years of rapid uplift, and with
deep geological processes. Fission track method was used 15 years since the uplift of
the Grand Canyon area speed 30 mm / year, is the world's fastest- growing
region of uplift. Climate evidence that the Grand Canyon region is a "hot
spot" is similar to the mantle plume inferred heat source exists, but the lack
of direct geological evidence. Recent field trip to obtain a complete petrology and
structural geology evidence that the underlying causes of the formation of the Grand
Canyon is the existence of the region, upwelling asthenospheric mantle body.

The most significant is that in the degeneration of high-pressure granulite terrane and
the two engagement with the mainland near the toughness along the EW tectonic belt,
invaded the set of ultrabasic alkaline complex - full of rock composed of carbonate
rock series (Zhong Dalai (lài), etc., 1998). Intrusive rocks in the rock cylinder, dike
occurrence, width 30 cm -12 meters. Ultrabasic alkaline complex phase margin of
vein or small tube for the amphibolite rocks olivine rock, the central phase olive
amphibole phlogopite pyroxenite. Phlogopite, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and
amphibole, spinel and other major mineral phase, and to discover aragonite, nepheline,
and olivine and so on. Carbonate rock in the mantle appear strong hydrothermal
alteration or explanation, in the central veins of massive carbonate rock inlaid with
crystals. The main carbonate minerals aragonite, with content ranging from nepheline,
phlogopite, olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, garnet and so on. Also found that
identification with the meaning of igneous carbonate rocks, minerals have been
reported over the past astrophyllite. This combination is usually derived from the
mantle rock, and more in response to asthenospheric upwelling and thermal effects,
lithospheric thinning occurred in the mantle rock formation decompression melting
temperature. Carbonatite is a crystallization of mantle melt the late differentiation
stage, and carbonate rocks and ultrabasic alkaline complex composition and mineral
content of the transition characteristics were also illustrates this point. They inferred
the formation of geological time very young, the initial isotopic dating results proved
the formation of 5-8 million years. The combination of rock found in the formation of
the Grand Canyon for the argument is due to existence of mantle upwelling in the
region caused by body heat to provide sufficient uplift petrological evidence.
Therefore, the Brahmaputra Canyon Canyon area and related geological features and
the formation of Grand Canyon similar to the United States is the body or mantle
upwelling mantle hot the result of, caused lithospheric thinning and similar
magmatism, corresponding crust The rapid uplift of the formation of the Grand
Canyon.
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From: http://baike.baidu.com/view/38822.htm
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