BIOS settings Manual We use the computer are composed by a number of hardware devices, which are hardware devices will be different because the needs of users in the brand, type, properties are very different. For example, the hard disk, there may be capacity on the size and other aspects of the different interface types, and different hardware configurations corresponding parameters are also different, therefore, we are using the computer, be sure to determine its hardware configuration and parameters, and They recorded into the computer so that the computer starts to read these settings, ensure the normal running. Usually, we set the program to the hardware system by setting parameters. As the ROM (read-only memory) has only read, can not be changed and even after power-down features ensure data is not lost, so these settings are normally placed in ROM, we are often called BIOS settings. In addition, after running setup program to set parameters of the CMOS RAM chip on the motherboard, this is due to update with the system components, the settings may need to modify the parameters, while the RAM is characterized can read, can write, with CMOS with battery-powered, it can maintain the parameter is not lost for long, but the battery if you use a longer time, power shortages, power-down phenomenon may also cause the system to set parameters will be lost, then only need to replace a new battery and re-set on it, we can see from the above, BIOS settings and CMOS settings are not identical, the two should not be confused. 1, BIOS setup program&#39;s basic functions BIOS setup program there are a variety of popular version, as each set is for one or more classes of hardware systems, so there will be some differences, but the main setting options for most of the same, generally divided into the following items: * Set the basic parameters Including the system clock, display type, start time of the self- test error handling approach. * Disk drive set Including automatic detection of IDE interface, the boot sequence, floppy drives and other models. * Keyboard Settings Including whether the detection of hard power, keyboard type and keyboard parameters. * Memory settings Including memory capacity, read and write timing, parity, ECC check, 1M or more memory tests, and stereo. * Cache Settings Including internal / external Cache, Cache address / size, BIOS Graphics Cache settings. * ROM SHADOW set Including ROM BIOS SHADOW, VIDEO SHADOW, SHADOW various adapter cards * Security Settings Including hard disk partition table protection, boot password, Setup passwords. * Bus cycle parameter Including the AT bus clock (ATBUS Clock), AT Cycle Wait State (AT Cycle Wait State), memory read and write regularly, Cache write wait, Cache write regularly, DRAM refresh cycle, the refresh methods. * Power management settings On the system of green energy saving settings, including access to energy-saving state to wait for delay time, wake- up function, IDE device power-off mode, the display power modes. * PCI Local Bus parameter The feature set on the Plug and Play, PCI slot IRQ interrupt request number, PCI IDE Interface IRQ interrupt request number, CPU to PCI write buffers, bus byte merging, PCI IDE trigger, PCI burst writes, CPU and PCI clock ratio. * Board integration interface settings Including on-board FDC floppy drive interface, serial parallel port, IDE interface, enable / disable status, serial and parallel, I / O address, IRQ and DMA settings, USB Interface, IrDA interfaces. * Other parameter settings Quick Power On Self Test, including, A20 address line options, the Power On Self Test failure prompted, boot speed. Second, BIOS setup utility to enter method Enter the BIOS setup program usually have three ways 1. Boot press hotkey At boot time by pressing a specific hotkey to enter BIOS setup program, different types of machines into the BIOS setup utility of different keys, some tips are given on the screen, some silently, some common BIOS setup program entry as follows: Award BIOS: Press Ctrl + Alt + Esc, Screen with prompts; AMI BIOS: press Del or Esc, screen prompted; COMPAQ BIOS: upper right corner of the screen cursor appears Press the F10, silent screen; AST BIOS: Press Ctrl + Alt + Esc, no screen Tips. 2. With the system software Many motherboards now available in the DOS into the BIOS setup program and set of procedures for the control panel in Windows 95 and the registry already contains some of the BIOS setup items. 3. With some applications that can read and write CMOS Some applications, such as QAPLUS provides CMOS read, write, modify function, through which some of the basic system configuration can be modified. ? AWARD BIOS settings Manual AWARD BIOS is compatible is widely used in a BIOS, but since all the inside information in English and requires the user to the relevant understanding of the relative depth of expertise, so some users find it difficult to set up great. If the information set properly, it will greatly affect the overall performance of the host computer. Here&#39;s what the AWARD BIOS setup options in the meaning and set methods, AWARD BIOS main menu, some dishes have the following individual: Standard CMOS Setup (Standard CMOS settings): In this menu, the user can modify the date, time, the first primary IDE device (hard drive) and the IDE device (hard disk or CD-ROM), a second primary IDE device (hard disk or CD-ROM), and from the IDE device (hard disk or CD-ROM), floppy drive A and B, shows the type of system, what went wrong state to cause the system to start and pause. Description: (1) Users can Type (type) and Mode (Mode) is set to Auto, BIOS automatically detects the hard disk so. Can also be in the main menu of the IDE HDD Auto Detection operation set. Users can also use the User option, and manually set the drive parameters. You must enter the number of cylinders (Cyls), number of heads (Heads), write pre-compensation (Precomp), head landing zone (Landz), the number of sectors per cylinder (Sectorxs), operating mode (Mode) and so on several parameters. Hard disk size is automatically generated after setting the above parameters. (2) shows the types of optional EGA / VGA (EGA, VGA, SEGA, SV GA, PGA display adapter optional), CGA 40 (CGA graphics card, 40 ways), CGA80 (CGA graphics card, 80 ways) , MONO (monochrome display, including high-resolution single card) and other four types, the user should be selected according to the situation correctly. (3) Suspension of the error status options are: All Errors (BIOS detects any error, the system starts were suspended and gives an error message), N o Errors (BIOS detects any error did not make the system boot pause), A ll But Keyboard (BIOS detects an error in addition to the disk outside of the system boot after the suspension, disk error suspended), All But Disk / Key (BIOS detected in addition to the keyboard or disk error other than to suspend the system starts. BIOS Features Setup (BIOS feature set) The list used to set system configuration options, some of which option is determined by the board itself is designed, and some options the user can modify the settings to improve system performance. Mainly as follows: (1) CPU Internal Cache: The default is Enable (on), which allows the system uses the first-class CPU Internal Cache. 486,586 within the ge neral grade CPU with Cache, unless the set is turned on when the system is not working properly, this generally do not easily change. That if set to Disabl e (closed), will reduce system performance. (2) External Cache: default set to Enable, which is used to control the board on the second level (L2) Cache. According to whether the motherboard with the Cac he, select the settings. (3) Quick Power On Self Test: The default is set to En able, the main function of the power to speed up the system self- test process, it will skip some self-test. To speed up the boot process. (4) Hard Disk Boot From: Select the main disk, boot from disk or SCSI hard drives. (5) Boot Sequence: Select the machine to open the boot sequence when the power is. When the machine was electric, there are four boot sequence: C, A system will be the hard disk, floppy boot disk in order to find A, C system will be floppy, hard drive in order to find startup disk CDROM, C, A system according to CDROM, hard disk, floppy boot disk in orde r to find C, CDROM, A system according to the hard disk, CDROM, floppy boot disk in order to find Please note that some older motherboards do not support boot from the CD-ROM. The new board is now adding more boot sequence, such as D, A; LS 120, C; ZIP, C and so on. (6) Swap Floppy Drive: (the exchange of floppy disk drive) by default is set to Disable. Disable time when it, BIOS floppy drive connected to the access terminal twist the floppy drive as the first drive. When it is turned on, BIOS will connect docking terminals are connected floppy drive floppy drive as the first drive, that is, DOS, A dial plate as B, B A disk drive as used. (7) Boot Up Floppy Seek: When Enable, the machine will boot floppy for BIOS Seeker operation. (8) Floppy Disk Access Contol: When the election in the R / W state, the floppy drive can read and write, other states can only be read. (9) Boot Up Numlock Strtus: This option is used to set the default state of a small keyboard. When set to ON, the system starts, the default for the number keypad state; set to OFF, the system starts, the state of the arrow keypad state. (10) Boot Up System Speed: This option is used to determine the speed of system startup HIGH or LOW. (11) Typematic Rate Setting: The optional Enable and Disable. When set to Enable, if pressed on the keyboard to a key, the machine as you repeatedly press the key treatment; When set to Disable, if pressed on the keyboard to a key, the machine key into the key once treated. (12) Typematic Rate: If (11) option is set to Enable, you can use this option to set when you press a key on the keyboard for a second, then press the key equivalent to 6 times. The optional 6,8,10,12,15,2 0,24,30. (13) Typematic Delay: If (11) option is set to Enab le, you can use this option to set the press a certain key, after long delay as a repeat type of the key. The optional 250,500,750,1 000 milliseconds. (14) Security Option: Select System, every time the boot will start when you are prompted for a password, select Setup, the only access to C MOS Setup will prompt you for a password. (15) PS / 2 Mouse Function Control: When the set to Enable, the machine provides for the PS / 2 type mouse support. Otherwise, select Disable. (16) Assign PCI IRQ For VGA: Enable selection, the mac hine will automatically set the IRQ to a PCI graphics card in the system DRAM to improve the display speed and improve system performance. (17) PCI / VGA Palett Snoop: This is used to set the PCI / VGA card can with MPEG ISA / VESA VGA cards together with the. When PCI / VGA cards with MPEG ISA / VESA VGA cards when used together, which should be set to Enable, otherwise, set to Disable. (18) OS Select For DRAM&gt; 64MB: This allows you to OS / 2 operating system, using 64M or more memory. The alternative is NON-OS2, OS2. (19) System BIOS Shadow: This option is the default setting default to Enable, when it opened, the system BIOS will be copied to the system Dram in order to improve system speed and improve system performance. (20) Video BIOS Shadow: The default is set to open (Enab le), when it opened, the display card&#39;s BIOS will be copied to DRAM in the system to improve the display speed and improve system performance. (21) C8000-CBFFF Shadow / DFFFF Shadow: The memory area used for other expansion card ROM mapped area, is generally set to ban (Disable). If there is a need for expansion card ROM map, the user should clear the ROM address and scope of the map can be above several memory regions are set to Enable; but this would result in waste of memory space. Because the mapping area occupied by the system address space will be somewhere between 640K ~ 1024K section of memory. Chipset Features Setup (chipset feature set) The chip board is used to set the system properties. It has the following options: (1) ISA Bus Clock frequency (PCICLK / 4) ISA transfer rate of rate setting Settings are: PCICLK / 3; PCICLK / 4. (2) Auto Configuration (Enabled) automatic status setting When set to Enabled under optimal conditions when the BIOS settings, then BIOS will automatically set the DRAM Timing, it can not modify the DRA M will be a breakdown of timing, we strongly suggested the use of Enabled, DRAM timing for any possible change cause the system unstable or not boot. (3) Aggressive Mode (Disabled) Advanced Mode Settings When you want to get better performance when the system is very stable and the state can try to Enabled in order to increase system performance of this function, but must use a faster DRAM (60ns or less). Power Management Setup (power saving function settings) That the power management settings, used to control the board&#39;s &quot;green&quot; features. This feature is regularly shut down the video display and hard disk drives to achieve the energy saving effect. Specifically, to achieve power saving mode there are four: 1, Doze mode when the set time is up, CPU clock slows down, the operation of other equipment as usual; 2, Standby mode when the set time is up, the hard disk and display will stop working, the operation of other equipment as usual; 3, Suspend mode when the set time is up, in addition to all devices other than the CPU will stop working; 4, HDD Power Down mode when the set time is up, the hard disk stops working, other equipment as before. The menu items to choose from the following contents of the following: (1) Power Management power-saving mode of the master key, there are four settings: Max Saving (maximum power saving) systems in a shorter inactive period (Doze, Standby, Suspend, HDD Power Down mode the default value of four was 1 minute) after the system into power saving mode, which maximum power saving mode. MIN Saving (minimum saving) in the system for a longer period of inactivity in this case, (Doze, Standby, Suspend three models of the default values are 1 hour, HDD Power Down mode the default value 15 minutes) after the system into power saving mode. Disable shut down power saving feature is the default setting. User Defined (user defined) allows users to set their own needs saving mode. (2) Video Off Method (video off) the option can be set to V / H Sync + Blank, Dpms, Blank Screen of three. V / H Sync + Blank will close the display card horizontal and vertical sync signals output ports, write to the video buffer blank signal. DPMS (Display Power Management System) to allow BIOS to set the display card has power saving features, energy saving information on the display card initialization. Green features only graphics card support, users can use these settings. If there is no Green function, the lines should be set to Blank Screen (off screen). Blank Screen (off screen) when the management turned off the monitor screen, the default display settings through the closure of the vertical and horizontal scan to save more power. Green function does not display the default setting can turn off the screen and can not terminate the CRT scan. (3) PM Timers (power management timer) the following number of overtime, respectively, set the power management control. Doze, Stand By and Sus pend Mode key to set the modes were activated before the machine idle time, the MAX Saving mode, which activate each time a minute later. In MIN Sa ving mode, activate it in an hour. (4) Power Down and Resume Events (to conserve power and wake- up from power saving state events). The following events set out in the hard disk can be located in the most low-power mode, working, waiting and suspension systems, if non-active mode events, such as the hit any key or IRQ wake- up, the mouse moves, MODEM ringing, system from power saving mode automatically recover. (5) Soft-Off By Pwr-Bttn: ATX chassis design is different from the traditional box, press the switch for more than 4 seconds to shut down the system; selection method will ins tant-off ATX machine is equivalent to the traditional machines, but if set to de lay 4 sec mode, you press and hold the switch for less than 4 seconds when the system will enter Suspend Mode. PNP / PCI Configuration Setup (Plug and Play and PCI state set) The menu item is used to set the Plug and Play devices and PCI devices the property. (1) PNP OS Installed: If the software system to support Plug-Play, such as Win 95, can be set to YES. (2) Resources Controlled By: AWARD BIOS support &quot;Plug and Play&quot; function, can detect all the support &quot;plug and play&quot; device, this function is similar to the like operating system designed for Win95, you can set the Auto ( automatically) or Manual (Manual). (3) Resources Configuration Data: The default value is Disabled, if you select Enabled, every boot, Extend Syst em Configuration Data (Extended System Configuration Data) will be reset. (4) IRQ3/4/5/7/9/10/11/12/14/15, Assingned To: by default, all resources in addition to IRQ3 / 4, PCI devices are designed to be occupied, if a Some ISA cards to occupy a resource can be manually set. Intergrated Peripherals Setup (external device settings) The menu item is used to set the integration of external devices on the motherboard&#39;s property. (1) IDE HDD Block Mode: If you select Enable, you can use the fast block mode to allow the hard disk (Fast Block Mode) to transmit data. (2) IDE PIO Mode This setting depends on the speed of the system hard drive, a total of AUTO, 0,1,2,3,4 five options, Mode4 large hard disk transfer rate was 16.6MB / s, less than the rate of other models . Do not choose more than the hard disk speed mode, it will lose data. (3) IDE UMDA (Ultra DMA) Mode: Intel 430TX chipset provides Ultra DMA Mode, it can transfer rate to a new level. Load BIOS Defaults (load BIOS default value) Motherboard&#39;s CMOS has a factory set value. If the CMOS contents are damaged, they should use that to restore. As the BIOS default settings may turn off all used to increase system performance parameters, so it is easy to find motherboards using the security value and remove the motherboard&#39;s error. The settings only affect the BIOS and Chipset features of the selected item. Will not affect the standard CMOS settings. Move the cursor to the scree n and press the y button, the screen shows whether or not to load BIOS default settings, answer Y or into, the answer N is not mounted. After selection, return to the main menu. Supervisor Password And User Password Setup (the password management and user settings) User Passowrd Setting feature to set a password. To set the password, first enter the current password should be to determine the password and press y, the screen automatically return to the main screen. Enter User Passowrd can use the system, but can not modify the contents of CMOS. Enter Supervisor Password can enter, modify CMOS BIOS values, Supervisor Password is to prevent unauthorized changes to the content of CMOS settings. Users If you use IDE hard drives, which feature hard drive parameters can be automatically read, and they are automatically entered in the standard CMOS setup, it is up to four IDE drives can read the parameters. Award BIOS Setup described above commonly used options to set the meaning and methods. Change the settings, select Save and Exit Setup item to save the contents of the amendment so that the contents of the amendment into effect. The Editor: AWARD BIOS is a common BIOS, the major motherboard manufacturers are carried out on the basis of its revised and added, so this is only a reference, the reader is best able to read the instructions included with the motherboard. -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ Latest AMI BIOS settings Manual This article is taken from &quot;Computer News&quot; BIOS is in English Basic Input / Output System (basic input / output system) stands for the program stored in the on-board EPROM or Flash ROM, the role is to test the installed components on the motherboard can work and pro vide the driver interface set associated with the system configuration. When your system components do not meet the original CMOS parameters, or CMOS parameters lost, or system instability, you need to enter the BIOS setup program to re-configure the right system configuration. Enter the AMI BIOS setup program 1. Open the system power supply or restart the system, the display screen will appear self-test information; 2. When the middle of the screen appears &quot;Press &lt;Del&gt; to enter setup&quot; prompt, press &lt;Del&gt; key, you can enter the BIOS setup process. 3. With the arrow keys to move to the option you want to modify, press &lt;Enter&gt; key to enter the option of sub- images; 4. Use the arrow keys and &lt;Enter&gt; button changes the value of the selected projects, the mouse can also be used (including the PS / 2 mouse) to select and modify the BIOS options. 5. &lt;Esc&gt; Any time press the button to return to the previous screen; 6. In the main screen, press &lt;Esc&gt; key, select the &quot;Saving Changes And Exit&quot; can save your new settings and restart the system. Select &quot;Exit Without Saving&quot;, your changes will be ignored out of the setup process. Standard Setup (standard settings) window Date / Time: displays the current date / time to modify. Floppy Drive A, B: Set the floppy drive type None/720K/1.2M/1.44M/2.88M. Pri Master / Slave and Sec Master / Slave: This option can be set: HDD Type (hard type): Auto (automatic detection), SCSI (SCSI HDD), CD-ROM drive, Floptical (LS-120 high-capacity floppy drive) or Type 1 ~ 47 and other IDE devices. LBA / Large: Hard LBA / Large mode is turned on. More than the current 540M hard drive should leave this option open (On), but Novell Netware 3.xx or 4.xx version of the network operating system such as the case may be it off (Off). Block Mode: this option is set to On, will help to speed up disk access speed, but some of the old hard drive does not support this mode, you must set this option to Off. 32 Bit Mode: this option is set to On, will help in the 32-bit operating system (such as WIN95/NT) to speed up hard disk transfer rate, some of the old hard drive does not support this mode, you must set this option to Off. PIO Mode: support PIO Mode0 ~ Mode5 (DMA/33). Automatically check the hard disk with the BIOS program, it will automatically set the hard disk PIO Mode. Note: When you connect a IDE system equipment (such as hard drives, optical drives, etc.), it is best to enter BIOS, it automatically detected. If you are using a drawer-type hard disk, it can be Type set to Auto, or both Primary and Secondary of the Type can be changed to Auto. The so-called Primary refers to the first IDE interface, corresponds to the socket on the motherboard IDE0, Secondary refers to the second IDE interface, corresponding to the IDE1 connector on the motherboard. Each IDE interface can accept Master / Slave (master / slave) two IDE devices. Advanced Setup (Advanced Settings) window 1st/2rd/3rd/4th Boot Device: boot device order, choose from the IDE0 ~ 3, SCSI, CD-ROM, floppy, Floptical (LS-120 high-capacity floppy drive) or by Network (network) boot. SMART For HardDisk: Open (Enable) hard disk SMART function. If the hard disk support, this feature provides hard drive self monitoring function. Quick Boot: open this feature, make boot faster. Floppy Drive Swap: If this function Enable, enable A drive and B drive swap. PS / 2 Mouse Support: whether to open PS / 2 mouse port, if set to Enable, then boot, IRQ12 will be reserved for the PS / 2 mouse to use, if set to Disable, then leave the system uses IRQ12. Password Check: Set when to check the Password (password), if set to Setup, the BIOS settings, each entry will be asked to enter a password, if set to Always, the boot into the BIOS or system, will be asked to enter a password , but the prerequisite is you must set a password (Security window in the User option). Primary Display: Set the type of graphics card. Internal Cache: whether to open the internal CPU cache (L1 Cache), should be set to Enable. External Cache: whether to open the motherboard cache (L2 Cache), should be set to Enable. System BIOS Cacheable: whether to copy the system BIOS program into memory to speed up the BIOS access speed. C000-DC00, 16K Shadow: The eight is the main memory UpperMemory (upper memory area) to open, all the card ROM program into memory to speed up the CPU efficiency of the BIOS implementation. Disable: do not turn this feature; Enable: to open, and can provide functionality to read and write section; Cached: open, but does not provide read and write capabilities. Chipset Setup (chipset settings) window The function of the options in the help system, improved efficiency, it is recommended to use default values. If certain Chipset, DRAM / SDRAM or SRAM part of the Timing value is set too fast may cause the system to &quot;crash&quot; or run unstable, then some of the options may try to slow the rate value setting. USB Function Enabled: This option opens a USB interface features, such as there is no USB device, it is recommended this option set to Disable, or an IRQ resources will be wasted. DRAM Write Timing: Set DRAM write timing, the proposed values are as follows: 70ns DRAM: X-3-3-3; 60ns DRAM: X-2-2-2. Page Mode DRAM Read Timing: Set DRAM read timing, the proposed values are as follows: 70ns DRAM: X-4-4-4; 60ns DRAM: X-3-3-3. RAS Precharge Period: Set DRAM / EDO RAM to Precharge (pre-charge) time, the proposed set to 4T. RAS to CAS Delay Time: Set DRAM RAS to CAS delay time in the proposed set to 3T. EDO DRAM Read Timing: Set EDO DRAM read timing, the proposed values are as follows: 70ns DRAM: X-3-3-3; 60ns DRAM: X-2-2-2. DRAM Speculative Read: This option is set to read the guidance of speculative DRAM timing, the proposed set to Disable. SDRAM CAS Latency: set the SDRAM&#39;s CAS signal delay timing, the proposed settings are as follows: 15ns (66MHz) / 12ns (75MHz) SDRAM: 3 10ns (100MHz) SDRAM: 2. SDRAM Timing: set the SDRAM (synchronous memory) the timing, it is recommended settings are as follows: 15ns (66MHz) / 12ns (75MHz) SDRAM: 3-6-9 10ns (100MHz) SDRAM: 3-4-7. Note: If the system uses SDRAM instability, it is recommended to slow the speed of SDRAM. SDRAM Speculative Read: This option is set to read the guidance of speculative SDRAM timing, the proposed set to Disable. Pipe Function: This option is set to open Pipe Function (channel function), the proposed set to Enable. Slow Refresh: set the DRAM refresh rate, there 15/30/60/120us, proposed to be located in 60us. Primary Frame Buffer: This option is retained, the proposed set to Disable. VGA Frame Buffer: VGA frame buffer setting is turned on, the proposed set to Enable. Passive Release: Set Passive Release (passive release) is Enable, the CPU and the PCI bus to ensure that the main chip (PCI Bus Master) can always regain control of the bus. ISA Line Buffer: whether to open ISA Bus Line Buffer, the proposed set to Enable. Delay Transaction: set is turned on chipset inside Delay Transaction (delayed delivery), the proposed set to Disable. AT Bus Clock: set the ISA bus clock, the proposed set to Auto. Power Management Setup (Energy Management) window Most of the energy management feature allows peripheral devices to enter power-saving features when in idle mode display, reducing power consumption, achieve energy savings. In normal operation, the computer is working at full speed mode state, the power management program monitoring system graphics, serial and parallel, hard disk access, keyboard, mouse and other equipment working state, if the equipment is at a standstill, then system will enter power saving mode, when any monitored event occurs, the system instantly return to full-speed state. Power-saving mode is divided into &quot;full-speed mode (Normal), nap mode (Doze), Standby mode (Standby), sleep mode (Suspend)&quot;, the system power consumption in the order: Normal&gt; Doze&gt; Standby&gt; Suspend. Power Management / APM: APM power saving feature is turned on. When turned on (Enable), you can set the power saving features. Green PC Monitor Power State / Video Power Down Mode / Hard Disk Power Down Mode: set the monitor, graphics card and hard disk is turned o n power saving mode can be set to Standby, Suspend, and Off (which does not enter power saving mode). Video Power Down Mode: set the monitor power saving mode in the state: Disable: not set; Stand By: standby mode; Suspend: sleep mode. Hard Disk Power Down Mode: Set the hard disk in sleep mode state. (Ibid.) Standby Timeout / Suspend Timeout: This option can set the system to idle a few minutes, and then to enter the Standby Mode / Suspend Mode and other power-saving mode. Display Activity: When the system enters Standby Mode, the display is said to enter power saving mode, Ingroe: ignore whatever; Monitor: Open. Monitor Serial Port / Paralell Port/Pri- HDD/Sec- HDD / VGA / Audio / Floppy: When the system into power saving mode, it monitors the serial and parallel ports, master and slave hard drive, graphics card, sound card, floppy drive dynamic ? ? ?