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?【Chinese pinyin】 pijiu

【Chinese】 beer entries

Foreign entry】 【beer

﹑ Hops to malt, water as the main raw materials, brewing yeast fermentation of
low-carbon saturated alcohol wine. Now most of the international beer add auxiliary
materials. Some countries provided a total amount of supplementary materials no
more than 50% malt content. But in Germany, in addition to manufacturing export of
beer, domestic beer sales not and will not use the auxiliary materials. Supporting the
international raw materials used: barley, corn ﹑ ﹑ ﹑ rice, wheat and sugar syrup,
starch ﹑ substances. According to the yeast and the process used by the
international beer fermentation beer and the above points the following two major
categories of beer fermentation. Beer has a unique bitter taste and aroma, rich in
nutrients, containing various amounts of amino acids and bowel all vitamins such as
vitamin B ﹑ ﹑ B B, niacin, pantothenic acid and minerals.

A Brief Introduction to the world beer industry beer in the origin of the origin and
closely related cereal. Human use of alcoholic drinks to cereal manufacturers have
been 8000 years of history. The oldest known alcoholic literature around 6000 BC
The Babylonians used clay sculpture of a sacrificial plate method of beer production.
4000 BC Mesopotamia region has barley ﹑ ﹑ honey wheat production of 16 kinds
of beer. In use since 3000 BC bitter agent. 18th century BC, King Hammurabi of
Babylon (Hammurapi? ~ BC 1750) promulgated codes have been documented on the
beer. Around 1300 BC, Egypt's beer as the country's best
managed by a highly developed industry. Napoleon's Egyptian expedition
in Egypt discovered the Rosetta Stone's hieroglyphics that around the year
196 BC, the local beer has been popular banquet. Although the long bitter agent to use,
but for the first time explicitly as a bitter agent to use hops in AD 768. Beer brewing
technology is transmitted by Egypt in Western Europe through Greece. 1 to 2 century
AD, Roman statesman Pliny (AD 62 to 113) has mentioned beer production methods,
including the use of hops. Middle Ages ago, more than beer brewed by the women in
the family. To the Middle Ages, brewing beer from home production to the monastery
village ﹑ workshop production, and become an important part of monastery life.
Abbey's main diet was bread and beer. Medieval monastery, improved
brewing technology, at the same time also established trade relations with beer and
lies in the hands of priests. Middle Ages in Europe, beer is available to pay the church
tax ﹑ Nash a transaction and pay taxes to the government. In medieval Germany,
beer brewing to form a strong stubborn owner's association. Use of hops
for beer bitterness agent has also been exported abroad in Germany, Bremen,
Hamburg and other cities are so ﹑ flourished. 17th-18th century, German beer, the
prevalence of depression at one time to make wine. The early 19th century, the British
production of large-scale industrialization of beer, annual output 20Ml. Mid-19th
century, Bavaria began the following fermentation, lest the taste of beer as well,
gradually popular in the country. Currently in Germany, 92% of the beer is produced
by fermentation of the following. Germany issued a decree in the 19th century, strict
rules to keep the tablet alcohol beer purity of raw materials, and because the
implementation of the following conduct regular fermentation and pure yeast culture
to enhance the quality of beer, became the foundation of modern Munich beer
reputation. New World in the Americas, early 17th century by the Protestant Dutch,
UK technology into the beer, in 1637 in Massachusetts the first beer factory was
established. Soon beer as the rapid development of modern industry, making the
United States than in Germany beer producer. The 19th century, scientists have
explained the brewing brewing technology. 1857, L. Pasteur established fermentation
theory; 1845, CJ Bahrain clarified fermentation degree theory; 1881, E. Hansen
invented the pure culture of yeast, the beer brewing science advances by leaps, by the
mystery of ﹑ to scientific empiricism. The application of the steam engine, 1874 the
invention of Linde refrigeration machine, the beer's industrialized
production a reality. The current world annual production of beer ranks first in all
kinds of liquor, has exceeded 100000Ml. In 1986 the world production of beer
101588.7Ml. Production in the top 10 countries shown in Table 1 in 1986 beer
production in the top 10 countries.

China's beer industry late 19th century, imported Chinese beer. 1900
Russians in Harbin Brewery, established first 乌 卢 布 列 希 夫 Gaussian; 1901,
Russians and Germans jointly established 哈盖迈耶尔 - Liu Celmen brewery; in
1903 in Harbin, the establishment of the Czech Republic the East Bavarian brewery;
in 1903 the Germans and the British Anglo-German joint venture set up in Qingdao
Beer Company (Qingdao Brewery, formerly); 1905 German shuttle built in Harbin
Brewery, avoid anger. Since then, many foreigners in the Northeast and Tianjin,
Shanghai, Beijing, and factories, such as the Oriental Brewery was built in 1907, Gu
Luo Liya brewery was built in 1908, the Scandinavian Brewery Shanghai (Shanghai
Brewery predecessor) was built in 1920, Harbin Brewery was built in 1932, the South
and Brewery (formerly Huaguang Brewery) was built in 1934, Shenyang Brewery
was built in 1935, Asia Brewery, built in 1936 , Beijing brewery was built in 1941 and
so on. The winery by Russia and Germany and Japan, ﹑ ﹑ wave businessmen.
Chinese people first self-built brewery was established in 1904 in Harbin, Northeast
China brewery, established in 1914, followed by beer, soft drink Continental (Harbin),
the establishment of the Beijing 1915 Two-Hop Shing brewery, established in
Shandong in 1920 Yantai Sweet Spring Brewery (formerly Yantai brewery),
established in 1935, Guangzhou Five Rams Brewery (formerly Guangzhou brewery).
China's beer industry was slow, are not widely distributed, not production.
Production techniques hands of foreigners, the production of raw materials imported
malt and wine flowers. Before 1949, less than 10 breweries nationwide, the total
output less than 10,000 tons. After 1949, China's beer industry developed
rapidly, and gradually freed itself from dependence on imported raw materials and
backward state. 1979 annual production reached 510Ml, 1986 annual output 4000Ml.
China's beer in 1954 entered the international market, then export only
0.3Ml, 1980, has soared to 26Ml (Figure 1, the growth in beer production in China
(unit 10Ml)).

Beer Beer raw materials for the water brewing barley ﹑ ﹑ ﹑ hops and yeast
starch auxiliary materials (rice, maize ﹑ ﹑ ﹑ wheat, barley) and sugar auxiliary
raw materials.

Barley used in brewing barley suitable for the two-rowed or six-rowed barley. The
leaching rate of two-rowed barley, good solubility; six-rowed barley higher
agricultural yields, energy stubborn, but the leaching rate of low solubility of malt is
not stable. The quality of beer barley requirements for: a small shell composition
leather, high starch content, protein content is moderate (9 to 12%); yellow, shiny;
moisture content of less than 13%; germination rate above 95%.

Brewing water generally, soft water suitable for brewing ale, hard water with high
carbonate content of concentrated color suitable for brewing beer. Ale water
requirements for: colorless, odorless, transparent, non-floating objects, taste pure, no
biological pollution; hardness is low; iron, manganese content is low (high color of
the beer taste ﹑ harmful and can cause spewing phenomenon) ; without nitrite.

Hop, also known as hops. The beer has a unique bitter taste and aroma and is
corrosion and the ability to clarify the wort. Hop started for Germany, the scientific
name hop, Humulus cannabis Division trailing herbaceous perennial, dioecious,
female flowers are used in brewing. China has cultivated hop history for half a
century, began in the Northeast, currently in Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang ﹑ ﹑ ﹑
Gansu and Liaoning, Heilongjiang ﹑ has established a large hop raw material base.
Mature fresh hops dried pressed to use whole hops, or crushed after the sealed
package to suppress particles can also be made of hop extract, and then stored at low
temperature storage. The active ingredient for the hop resins and hop oils. Hops beer
consumption per Kl of about 1.4 ~ 2.4kg.

Yeast Yeast is used for beer fermentation of microorganisms. Beer yeast is divided
above and below the fermentation of yeast fermentation of yeast. Beer factory in order
to ensure the purity of yeast, for a single-cell culture method as a starting point of the
pure culture. To avoid contamination of wild yeast and bacteria, cleaning must be
strictly sterilized beer factory work.

Corn starch corn and barley starch similar nature. However, the quality of corn germ
oil more influence beer foam durability and style. Remove the germ, can remove most
of the corn oil. Corn Germ fat content should not exceed 1%. Secondary raw materials
for the brewing of maize beer, mellow taste. Corn is the largest amount of
international aid material.

High content of rice starch, leaching rate was also high, low quality oil. But the rice
starch gelatinization temperature higher than corn. As auxiliary raw materials, rice
brewed beer pale in color, taste fresh. Rice is the most amount of auxiliary materials.

Most sugar-producing areas sugar application in general use as raw materials 10 to
20%. Add the main types of sucrose, glucose ﹑ ﹑ invert sugar syrup, etc..

Germany's white wheat malt beer, the main raw material in small, Lan
Bike Belgian beer is accompanied by wheat malt brewing with local characteristics of
the top fermentation beer. Hard wheat varieties of wheat and soft wheat, beer industry
should adopt the soft wheat.

Beer production beer production can be divided into ﹑ brewing malt beer
manufactured, filling three main processes (Figure 2 beer production process).

There are six malt manufacturing process. Barley Storage: recently harvested barley
has dormancy, germination power is low, the need for storage of ripening. Selected
Barley: ﹑ screen machines used to remove debris wind, according to kernel size of
the secondary screening as an ﹑ ﹑ 3. Steeping: soaked in water for steeping tank 2
to 3 days, at the same time washed to remove floating wheat, barley water to (steeping
degree) to 42 ~ 48%. Germination: After soaking the barley in the air temperature
under the conditions of germination, the formation of all kinds, so that the content of
substances dissolved kernel. Optimum temperature for germination of 13 ~ 18 ℃, the
germination period of 4 to 6, bud elongation of the grain length of 1 to 1.5 times.
Grow into the wet malt called green malt. Baked dry: the purpose is to reduce the
moisture, to terminate the growth of green malt and the decomposition for long-term
storage; to form a given beer, malt color flavor ﹑ ﹑ Hong material; easy to remove
the bud, dry roasted malt after the water is 3 to 5 %. Storage: dry roasted malt after, in
wheat roots removed, selected, and cooling into the concrete or metal in the storage

There are five beer brewing process. Saccharification fermentation ﹑ ﹑ mainly
cooked three course for drink storage.

Material Crushing: The rice malt ﹑ by jet milling to grinding degree suitable for
saccharification operation. Glycosylation: to crush the malt and starch quality
accessories with warm water in the paste pot were mixed ﹑ saccharification pot,
adjust the temperature. Saccharification pot first maintained at a temperature suitable
for the role of protein degradation (45 ~ 52 ℃) (protein ending). The paste pot full of
liquefied mash Duiru after saccharification pot and maintained at suitable
glycosylated (β-amylase and α-amylase) the role of temperature (62 ~ 70 ℃)
(saccharification ending), to produce wheat mash. Increase in wheat mash temperature
leaching method and the cook and French. Albumen, resting time and temperature
increased saccharification method, according to the nature of beer are used as raw
materials, equipment and so decided to use the filter tank or filter, filter out the wort
after the boiling pot boiling, add hops, wort concentration adjusted to the appropriate
After settling into the swing slot thermal coagulum separated to clarify the wort into
the cooler to cool to 5 ~ 8 ℃. Fermentation: Add yeast after cooling the wort into the
fermentation tank or cylinder conical fermentation tanks for fermentation, with a coil
or jacket cooling and temperature control. For the following fermentation, the highest
temperature at 8 ~ 13 ℃, the fermentation process is divided into foam, high-bubble
period, low-bubble period of the general fermentation 5 to 10. Fermented into a beer
called soft beer, bitter stubborn, tastes rough, CO content is low, not suitable for
drinking. After fermentation: In order to tender beer ripening, be sent to storage tanks,
or continue to the end of the fermentation tank and cone cooled to 0 ℃ and regulate
pressure in the tank, so that CO integrated into beer. Wine storage duration of 1 ~ 2
months, during which the remnants of yeast ﹑ cold coagulum was increased in
precipitation, beer gradually clarified, CO within the saturation in the wine, taste of
alcohol, suitable for drinking. Filtering: In order to clarify the transparency becomes a
commodity beer, beer at -1 ℃ to clarify under the filter. On the filtering
requirements for: filtering large ﹑ good quality, and loss of alcohol and CO does not
affect the wine's flavor. Diatomaceous earth filtration methods are
ultrafiltration, ultrafiltration, cardboard and other microporous membrane filtration.

Beer filling beer bottling is the final steps in maintaining the quality of beer, giving
the appearance of the image of beer has a direct impact goods. After filling the beer
should be consistent with health standards, to minimize the CO loss and reduce the air
content in sealed containers.

Barrel: barrel is made of aluminum or stainless steel, capacity 15, 20, 25, 30, 50l.
Where 30l is commonly used specifications. Bottled beer is generally the draft beer
without pasteurization. Draft beer tastes good, low cost, but not a long shelf life,
suitable for local sales.

Bottled: In order to maintain the beer quality and reduce the impact of UV-XIAN,
generally brown or dark green glass bottle. Empty bottle by the dip tank (alkaline
liquid 2 ~ 5%, 40 ~ 70 ℃) soak, then wash by washing machine, and then poured
beer by the filling machine, capping machine pressure on the cap. By sterilizer
pasteurization, the inspection and approval can be packing factory.

Cans: cans of beer in the United States beginning in 1935. World War II munitions
and a result of rapid development. After the war through a series of technological
transformation, requirements gradually increased. In 1966, the United States, bottled
and canned ratio has been 52:46. Tank material is aluminum or copper. Canned light
beer body, transport to carry and convenient to open drink, so popular with consumers,
has developed rapidly.
PET (polyethylene terephthalate) plastic bottles: put on the market since 1980, the
number increasing every year. The advantage for the high degree of transparency,
light weight, sealed again after unsealed at reasonable prices. The main disadvantage
of gas for the protection of poor, in the storage process, CO decreased. Additional
coating can improve the protection gas, but not too long storage time. PET bottles can
not find time or pre-pasteurization, requires the use of a special filling process to
avoid intake of contaminated air and bacteria.

Beer production technology mainly 7. Gravity fermentation: applied to 1967
production. High concentrations of wort is fermented, and then diluted into the
concentration of finished beer in the method provided. It can be increased without
increasing or less under the conditions of production equipment to increase
production. Original wort concentration is generally about 16 ° P. Rapid fermentation:
by controlling the fermentation conditions, while maintaining the original flavor basis,
shortening the fermentation period, improve equipment utilization, increase
production. Rapid fermentation process control conditions: a stage in the fermentation
process to improve the temperature; increased yeast inoculum; mixing. Continuous
fermentation: in 1906 the program has been continuous fermentation of beer, but until
1967 only by industrial applications. Main applications are New Zealand, the UK and
other countries. As the bacteria strain variation and pollution prone, and beer flavor
and other issues, so that a continuous fermentation of beer promotion is limited.
Immobilized beer yeast production Study: Start of 70 years, aims to dramatically
reduce the fermentation period. Essentially to overcome the strain variation ﹑
bacterial contamination, but also to more rapid continuous fermentation process. The
results have been achieved: from the traditional method before fermentation 5 to 10
reduced to 1, continuous and stable operation of 3 months. Cylindrical cone open
fermentation: applied in production since 1966. The main advantages are: to shorten
the fermentation cycle, saving investments, CO and yeast recovery simple, is
conducive to automation. Currently the single tank volume has been very common in
600Kl, the material is generally stainless steel. The development of draft beer: With
aseptic packaging sterilization ultrafiltration, the success of the development since the
beginning of the 70s without pasteurization and long-term preservation of the pure
draft beer. Because the food is good, very popular with consumers. At present some
countries beer accounts for 50% of the beer production. No low-alcohol beer alcohol
﹑ development: women as car drivers ﹑ ﹑ children and the elderly to drink a
cool beverage. It is characterized by low alcohol content. Non-alcoholic beer alcohol
content of 0.5 to 1%, foam, cool light taste, with good hop aroma, and maintained the
characteristics of beer.

There are many types of beer, beer classification.

By fermentation sub-divided into above and below the fermentation of beer
fermentation beer. China and most countries have adopted the following production of
beer fermentation.

Above the fermentation of beer: at a higher temperature (15 ~ 20 ℃) for fermentation,
from the hair faster. Most post-fermentation yeast floating in the surface, fermentation
of 4 to 6 days. Short production cycle, equipment turnover is quick, beer has a unique
flavor, but a shorter shelf life. Top fermentation beer with the famous Albert Division
Stout Beer ﹑ ﹑ Porter dark beer such as stout.

Following the fermentation of beer: the main fermentation temperature is low (less
than 13 ℃), the slow fermentation process (fermentation of 5 to 10 days). The use of
the following yeast fermentation in the latter part of the main fermentation, the yeast
most of the settlement in the bottom of the container. Following a longer fermentation
period after fermentation, to clarify the good liquor, bubble exquisite taste, good
flavor, long storage. The following are the famous Pilsen beer fermented ale ﹑ ﹑
Dortmund, Munich dark beer such as ale.

By color sub-divided into three kinds. Beer: golden color, taste fresh Shuang,
prominent hops flavor. Beer concentrated color: red brown color, mellow taste, less
bitterness, malt flavor concentration. Dark beer: dark red brown and even
black-brown, high concentrations of the original wort ﹑ taste mellow, malt flavor
outstanding. Under German tax law wine, beer varieties of the original wort
concentration (the concentration of wort before fermentation, the alcohol content of
beer or less proportional to this) to differentiate (Table 2, the German original wort
concentration category). In addition, the tax rate is based on annual production and
varieties of beer with a progressive tax rate.

There are several well-known beer.

Pilsen Pilsen beer produced in Czechoslovakia. Good ﹑ local water hardness is very
low, excellent aroma hops. High quality two-rowed barley, to produce the following
fermentation. Characterized by light yellow color, good foam, floral Sauvignon wine,
bitter taste without long, cool taste of alcohol, are representative of ale.

Borussia Dortmund beer produced in Germany. Local water quality extremely hard.
Produced by fermentation using the following. Characterized by light color, bitter
light, refreshing taste of alcohol, with the characteristics of German ale.

Munich beer produced in Munich, Germany. Moderate hardness of local water quality.
Dark malt used to produce the following fermentation. Characterized by deep color, a
strong focus of malt flavor, bitter light, mellow and sweet taste, is representative of
black beer.

Ale produced in the United Kingdom. Extremely hard water. Produced by
fermentation using the above. With light and color of the points concentrated. Pale ale
pale in color, bitter taste, full of hop aroma, taste fresh Shuang; thick deep color color
ale, malt flavor, slightly sweet and mellow taste.

Secretary Stout stout produced in the United Kingdom. With light malt and 7 to 10%
of the coke malt, produced by fermentation with the above. Dark brown color, bitter
taste of hops, there is clear malt flavor, sweet taste of alcohol, alcohol content is high,
good foam.

Qingdao beer produced in Qingdao, China. Local water quality is good, low hardness.
Qingdao beer pale in color, with fresh hop flavor, moderate bitterness, taste mellow,
refreshing palatability, unique style.

China's premium beer brand are special harvest Beijing Beijing Brewery
beer (the Paris 1988 13th International Food Fair Gold Medal), Shanghai Swan
brewery beer brand 12 degree special Shanghai, Hangzhou West Lake brand brewery
beer special Lake , Shanghai Shanghai Huaguang brewery beer brand 12 degrees
Shanghai, Shanghai Swan Brewery beer brand ordinary Shanghai, Beijing,
double-sheng five-star brewery's special five-star five-star brand of beer,
Shenyang Snowflake Brewery Plum brand beer.

Beer in many ways typical of the performance. In the color area, divided into pale
color and black thick ﹑ 3, regardless of color depth, should be transparent and no
turbidity Qingliang ﹑; into the cup when the bubble should be fine white ﹑ ﹑ ﹑
durable hanging cup; has a unique hop aroma and bitterness, the more obvious light
beer, and wine rather than cool light, soft taste and bitter taste of beer less dense color
with a rich malt flavor, more mellow wine; with saturated solution of CO, from the
help of beer bullous After drinking, there is a comfortable feeling stimulated; to be a
long time to maintain the transparency of its smooth, save in the specified period,
suspended solids should be obvious.

Different countries of beer quality standards, China's beer quality standards
are as follows: The People's Republic of China national standard (11 °
﹑ 12 degrees superior level light beer, GB 4927-85) applicable to malt as the main
raw material, add hops after fermentation brewing yeast crafted with CO of ﹑ ﹑
﹑ foaming of the advantages of low-level alcohol ale.

Sensory index: Table 3 should be consistent with the provisions of the sensory beer.

Physical indicators: Table 4 should be consistent with the provisions of physical and
chemical indicators of beer.

Shelf life: 12 degrees 11 degrees ﹑ beer, save of ≧ 120 天.

The quality of beer mainly in the following three questions.
Non-biological stability: that is not as muddy sediment microbial contamination
arising from the possibility of the phenomenon. Beer is not stubborn stability of the
colloidal solution in the preservation process is easy to produce turbidity precipitation
phenomenon, the most common non-biological turbidity of beer is called protein

Flavor exception: As the raw material, production process ﹑ ﹑ yeast production
management issues in the micro-organisms, can cause abnormal flavor of beer.
Mainly as follows: taste stuck into the top, bitter is not correct, there is oxidative
double-acetyl taste taste ﹑ ﹑ Hui yeast flavor or taste and so on.

Spewing phenomenon: the cover of beer took place at Kai abnormal phenomenon of
channeling foam. In severe loss of most bottles of beer, sprang, the main reason for
the raw materials of barley at harvest infected with mold and other moisture.

Drinking beer after beer after bumpy train, automobile transportation, not to drink
immediately, subject to stand for about 2 days to remove the physical factors that may
cause gushing. Beer is not subject to direct sunlight, should be kept in the shade,
storage temperature of 7 ~ 9 ℃ suitable, below or above this temperature the
detriment of beer aroma and flavor. Temperature is very important to drink beer in the
proper temperature for drinking beer in the coordination of many elements balance
each other, giving a cool ﹑ comfort. Suitable for drinking beer temperature is
12 ℃.

Why not use plastic beer bottles install it?
Because the plastic bottles that have not yet reached the domestic level, put a beer
bottle as the special beer must be fresh pressure and can therefore generally dark
bottle of beer bottles, plastic and glass bottles are higher than fresh performance, So
now with the pressure they are glass, plastic abroad now have the bottle, but not many,
because the plastic bottles because of technical problems still can not completely
replace the glass.

Following categories of people should not beer: gastrointestinal disorders, such as
suffering from gastritis, gastric ulcer, colitis patients; liver patients with acute and
chronic liver disease, his liver function is not perfect, it can not timely perform its
detoxification and other functions, prone to alcoholism, and alcohol will damage liver
cells directly; cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and pregnant women
should not drink beer. Professor Xiong also specifically mentioned, some people are
allergic to alcohol, a beer allergic skin rash occurs, these people drink cautiously. In
addition, infants, the elderly, the infirm, and some patients should not be drinking beer
Must pay attention to the following nine:
1. Drink beer should not be excessive; 2. Digestive system were not drinking beer; 3.
Not to beer delivery service medicines; 4. Should not smoke while eating salted foods;
5. Not with the same drink liquor; 6. Profusely after not suitable for drinking beer; 7.
should not be stored in bulk with thermos beer; 8. should not be drinking beer
extended Jiucun; 9. not suitable for drinking chilled beer

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