Authoritarian and totalitarian journalism similarities and differences between journalism test

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					Authoritarian and totalitarian journalism similarities and differences between
journalism test
Abstract: This paper of authoritarianism and totalitarianism with the definition of a
clearly defined concept, the combined analysis of news media in the history of the
two systems were the characteristics of journalism under the conclusion that under the
two systems similarities and differences between journalism.
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Keywords: authoritarian system of totalitarian Nazi censorship
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First, authoritarian and totalitarian definition of
Authoritarianism and totalitarianism in two words, it is not strange. However, in
practice, people often confused both the connotation and extension, even equating the
two interchangeable. Therefore, it is discussed in this paper similarities and
differences between the two before the news business, it is necessary to define the
boundaries between the two that are not. Be noted that, in the academic community on
authoritarianism and totalitarianism are no uniform definition, there is some
controversy. This choice of definition will be discussed as a theoretical basis for the
next.
Authoritarianism (authoritarianism) mainly refer to the political system of feudal
dynasty. Authoritarian root is "authorize", stressed the authority
of the minority, they have also translated into Chinese to authoritarianism.
"Authoritarian the organization of society as a hierarchy, a single ruler or
ruling group under the leadership of a single dominant chain specific. Domination,
obedience and order more than freedom, unity and participation value." [1]
Totalitarianism (totalitarianism) was born in the 20th century, 20 years, first proposed
by Mussolini used to describe his leadership of the fascist state. From its roots
"total" view, totalitarian emphasize comprehensive, that is,
complete control of the power of the community. "It's based on
a comprehensive ideology to mobilize and organize the public as a means, a complete
denial of personal freedom, independence and creativity." [2] Most
scholars believe that the earliest of the works of totalitarianism from the
German-American          Jewish     woman       scholar   Hannah     Arendt     (Hannah
Arendt       ,1907-1975)      1951       published      "The     Origins     of
Totalitarianism" (The Origins of Totalitarianism). In the book, Arendt
totalitarian anti-Semitism as the source, after a transition form of imperialism that
evolved into a new form of government - to totalitarianism, it is characterized by
ideology and terror. Most scholars today accept totalitarian samples Hitler's
Nazism, Mussolini's fascism and Stalin's socialism.
J · political scientist Jennifer Kirkpatrick (Jeane J. Kirkpatrick ,1926-2006) that the
authoritarian and totalitarian regimes significantly different between. The former is
reform, but the totalitarian regime, when implemented, the system can not reform
itself.
There is also need to define the "totalitarian" concept. Chinese
use of "totalitarianism" is a high frequency, but if back in its
original form, then the most from totalitarian or authoritarian. If exploring its context,
will be found that "totalitarianism" in almost all the countries
pointed to the former Soviet Union. This is because the United States and other
capitalist countries during the Cold War the Soviet Union at the time wrote about the
"totalitarianism" and "authoritarianism" is
also often confused with the use, in order to facilitate the harmonization of concepts,
the Chinese translator kept it all translated as "totalitarian." For
example, in "Four newspapers theory" (Four Theories of the
Press), by the "authoritarian theory of the press" translated as
"totalitarian theory of the press"; the Slovenian writer Slavoj
Zizek (Slavoj Zizek) of "Did Somebody Say Totalitarianism?"
translated as "someone said totalitarianism it? . " The real and
the    "totalitarian"         to   correspond      to    the    English
"capitalist" was seldom used in academic.
In summary, this comparison in the next, the main contrast to the feudal monarchy
system of journalism and the Nazi and the former Soviet Union, similarities and
differences between journalism.
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Second, authoritarian journalism
Journalism was born in the authoritarian context of the social system, but first there is
no access to power from the public in which the authoritarian characteristics of
journalism foundation. Authoritarianism is not opposed to human freedom, but its
philosophical foundation built on human values depend on the community can reflect
on this idea. That person's freedom does not exceed the
authority's control. Growth of journalism values in this context, gradually
forming a number of unique attributes, the following will be through the media
ownership, censorship and penal system to recover the three described the nature of
authoritarian journalism.
In the authoritarian system, the media are private. This is more in line with
authoritarian characteristics, does not limit the power of freedom within. However, in
order to allow the media needed to comply with the ruling class interests of the
community, will also need the power to control the media. In authoritarian societies,
the most effective vector control should be practiced in the 16th century, published in
the British concession system. The system relies on controlling the printing industry
to implement. Not developed in the early printing industry, printing costs with a high
stage, this method is effective, in the 16th century, the British organization formed a
publishing monopoly Association (Stationers' Company), all need to print
books need to The Association of registration issued by the union members, whose
main purpose is to inspect the contents of the class of the publication to be controlled.
But by the late 17th century, with the printing industry, printing apprentice to master
more and more publishers have been unable to license these apprentices job,
combined with universal education so that those who can not have more by reviewing
the contents of the large market, so publishers and publications of various illegal
growing number of countries gradually lose the ability of the publishing monopoly.
News Review System (censorship) is the cause of authoritarian control of the press a
way. "It is sometimes the publishing license or monopoly agencies play a
role, sometimes it private, the official print and publishing sector management in
place." [3] This system requires that all publications must go through
before the official release of the contents of review. The content is also very much
consistent with the review criteria the characteristics of authoritarian She Hui
"authoritarian usually do not oppose the use of general philosophical terms
to Taolunzhengzhi Zhi Du, Ta Men's communist modern Butong Yu, Bu
Yuan Ze asked Wanquan Zuncongyitao theory, As long as the media to avoid direct
criticism of the current political leaders and their planning, they satisfied. Moreover,
they have not found a kind of fascist measure, that is their system that they can
tolerate the political principles on which the various opinions of different . they can
not tolerate is a blatant attempt to overthrow its regime. can challenge the political
machine, but can not question the people who control the machines. "[4] in
the publication of such a system is feasible with less in the 16th century, but to the
17th century, with the increase of publications, news timeliness requirements increase,
and the spread of democracy and free thought, censorship was finally abolished.
With the publication of the concessionaire and the decline of censorship, authoritarian
control of the media to implement another method, that is, measures that punished
after it. "Dissemination of information or opinion is not conducive to the
Administration, the communicator would have been accused or suspected of, such
action is based on two traditional areas of the law - of treason (treason) and sedition
(sedition)." [5 ] This litigation proceedings usually very casual, the famous
British star Tribunal (Star Chamber) is one such arbitrary cruelty of the institution.
The 18th century, with the rise of political parties and the spread of democratic ideas,
not a trial jury in the decoration and can influence the real decision, no longer able to
arbitrarily interpret the law authorities have lost control of the media punished after it.
In the authoritarian end of the authorities also tried to use some other way to control
the media. Such as taxes and subsidies to buy private newspaper, the official secrets
used However, these practices after the rise of capitalism with more color, and can not
be regarded as typical of authoritarian journalism.
In short, authoritarian Marxist journalism background for the Times Shiyi feudalism
to monarchy and the government have absolute power of philosophy as the theoretical
source of power to support and promote the Government's policy and
national services for the primary goal, to private as the main form of and strictly
controlled by the government to prohibit criticism of monarchy, religion and power
officials in journalism.
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Third, the totalitarian journalism
In the discussion before the totalitarian journalism, the paper quoted
German-American political scientist Karl J · Friedrich (Carl J. Friedrich ,1901-1984)
and Polish-American scholar 兹比格纽布 heat-chun Ski (Zbigniew K. Brzezinski,
1928 -) in 1956 published the "authoritarian and totalitarian
dictatorship" (Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy) outlined in the
totalitarian system of six characteristics:
1. A totalitarian ideology, covering all aspects of life from the official doctrine of form,
everyone must comply, he designed a final state of the human good.
2. Usually led by a single political party who, from a small part of the composition of
the population, the ideology of service.
3. By a political party or secret police to use modern scientific methods to form the
terrorist (arbitrary, despotic violence) system.
4. Then the party and government for all the effective ways of mass communication
technology, is almost complete dictatorial control.
5. For the effective use of weapons, fights, for the same technology, is almost
complete dictatorial control.
6. From the central to the economy as a whole, and virtually all other social
organizations to control and guide.
If the authoritarian control of the cause for its news is negative, that is in violation of
the contents of those in power will be prohibited; then the cause of totalitarian control
of the news is positive, which require a variety of media and how to say what should
be said. In totalitarian countries, is liberalism that is a violation of the objectivity of
news "propaganda" is its most important function of journalism.
Publicity is also tightly around the contents of the above six characteristics of
totalitarianism, propaganda and the sole and absolute ideology, propaganda and
imagined the ultimate good of society, propaganda is idolized or deified leaders,
advocacy with national pride, promote violence and so on. Totalitarian state of
journalism is often the state, there is no business or sales pressure, complete service
for the ideology.
Above in the form of publicity, with the totalitarian regime of Hitler's
Nazism and Stalin, there are differences between socialism. Nazi ideology stressed the
art, which many cultural products during the German Nazism, although the content of
propaganda, but from an artistic point of view is of the best works, such as the
German women directors 莱尼里芬斯 Rosenthal (Leni Riefenstahl ,1902-2003)
directed the documentary "Triumph of the Will" (Triumph of
the Will), which won the 1935 Venice Film Festival and the Paris Film Festival for
best documentary. The former Soviet Union is more emphasis on the politicization of
art. The former Soviet Union propaganda and art works have a strong political brand
name of. With the brand, would work very easily become a model of the creative
process and ultimately reduce the value of works of art.
In addition, the cause of openness in the news, is the strict totalitarian control. Outside
interference that could cause totalitarian news spread in the domestic effect of the
information blockade in the heavy, almost impossible to internal circulation in the
totalitarian state.
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4, authoritarian and totalitarian journalism similarities and differences between
journalism
After the foregoing analysis, two kinds of journalism has basically described the
similarities and differences, and now to do some summing up.
Two kinds of journalism the same point is relatively simple, the two have absolute
power of a person or organization, as completely subordinate individual interests and
collective interests, journalism is not for the personal service, but consistent with
those in power will, freedom of the press is also subject to power restrictions.
The difference between the two, is relatively complicated. First to compare the
authoritarian and totalitarian difference between the two systems:
1. As the times are different levels of science and technology vary greatly,
authoritarian rulers can only be concerned about the general direction of society as a
whole are still in their hands, as long as their decision makers or, if society is no
problem As to the lives of individual citizens, thoughts, etc., those in power can not
and intend to control. The totalitarian system, the rulers not only to possess supreme
power, they also called for the entire society that everyone from thinking to action 上
这种 power to support any individuals inconsistent with the idea Du Shi Tong Zhizhe
power are not allowed.
2. Authoritarian rulers only to political and religious control, but in the ideological
and cultural aspects and not restrictive. As long as the unwavering power of the rulers
and the status of the social basis of religious waver, the discussion on the pros and
cons of specific policy, or even philosophy on the political system, can all be released.
This is the bourgeois ideology of freedom and democracy to authoritarian society in
the cause. In the totalitarian system, the leader is supreme and absolute right, all the
utilities is the service of politics, so the correctness of any of the policy speech and
thought inconsistent with the current system, are to be strictly prohibited.
3. Acclimation authoritarian use of religion to the people, seek social and political
stability. The totalitarian nation are promoting violence and confrontation, for
countries with different ideologies aggressive.
These are the difference between the two systems, and establish two systems on the
distinction between two kinds of journalism is derived from the difference between
the system's.
1. Media ownership. Authoritarian, the majority are privately owned media, the
government awarded the concession by, censorship, taxation and subsidies system to
control the media. Totalitarianism is mostly state-owned media, more convenient and
strict control.
2. Content control. Authoritarian introduction of negative control, the use of prior
review and after it takes measures to punish those in power do not want to see the
contents of the regulation. The totalitarian control is to implement a proactive,
pre-release content requirements.
3. The purpose of journalism. Authoritarian journalism designed to support and
promote the policy of the government in power, to serve his country; the goal of
totalitarian journalism is by controlling people's ideas to achieve the
purpose of all the rulers manipulate.
4. Journalism open. The suppression of authoritarian rulers only to the national or
religious unfavorable content, comments and ideas for foreign no more restrictions.
The totalitarian alien information is strictly limited in its spread, because it is beyond
the tight control of the rulers under the scope of the news business, political stability
is the potential risk.
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References:
[1] Frederick ? S ? Siebert, Theodore ? Peterson, Wilbur ? Schramm: "four
kinds of media theory", the Chinese People's University Press,
2007 Edition;
[2] Hannah Arendt: "The Origins of Totalitarianism", life SDX
Joint Publishing, 2008 edition;
[3] Slavoj Zizek: "It has been said totalitarianism it? "Jiangsu
People's Publishing House, 2005 Edition;
[4] 劳伦斯麦耶: "Comparative Politics: the changing world countries and
Theory", China Press, 2001




[1] Fair Jiang: "Translators Preface", "four kinds of
media theory", the Chinese People's University Press, 2007
edition
[2] Exhibition Jiang: "Translators Preface", "four
kinds of media theory", the Chinese People's University Press,
2007 edition
[3] Frederick S · Siebert, 西奥多彼得森, 威尔伯施拉姆: "four kinds of
media theory", the Chinese People's University Press, 2007
edition
[4] Frederick S · Siebert, 西奥多彼得森, 威尔伯施拉姆: "four kinds of
media theory", the Chinese People's University Press, 2007
edition
[5] Frederick S · Siebert, 西奥多彼得森, 威尔伯施拉姆, "four kinds of
media theory", the Chinese People's University Press, 2007
edition

				
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posted:8/31/2010
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