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					Artificial Intelligence
Speaker Introduction
Zhong Yixin, Jiangxi long Southern Man, born in 1940, 1962, Beijing University of
Posts and professional radio communications and broadcasting graduate, professional
graduate school in 1965, Information Theory, 1979 to 1981, University of London
Imperial College is a visiting scholar, has been returned to China in Beijing Posts and
Telecommunications a university professor, former Head of the Department of
Information Engineering, Principal Assistant, Vice President, Beijing University of
Posts and intelligence is now research professor, PhD supervisor, School Academic
Committee.
Introduction
Familiar with the historical development and scientific advancement of human friends
all know that thousands of years human beings have a very strong desire is to keep the
shackles from the forces of nature to free themselves, beyond their own. Ancient and
modern has many similar examples, such as Chinese classical novel
"Romance of Three Kingdoms" Zhuge Liang recorded in
manufacturing wooden ox transport fodder, Shen Huan novel "Journey to
the West," which takes a hard stone to imagine a
"Monkey" as Tang Seng Western Paradise learn Xiangyao
slayer, wiped away the way of obstacles. Overseas, a novel, "love
all" description of a number of robots to serve mankind, to help people
achieve the desired story.
To a modern human with more ideas. We hope that the robot can not only help the
production of human labor, and even housework can help humans and some other
trivial things. These reflect the development of human beings in the whole process,
hoping to use external things to strengthen themselves, get rid of the shackles of the
liberation forces of nature.
To obtain the liberation of human beings must rely on a variety of tools, and the most
wonderful human beings with an intelligence tool is a tool. Dear viewers, this
program will introduce artificial intelligence in all the different development times,
and display of artificial intelligence in the past, present and future.
Full text
Today we talk entitled "AI and Modern Society." Familiar with
the historical development of human society and the history of science and technology
people who know that human beings have a very strong desire is to keep to the
constraints from the natural forces to liberate itself, this is a can be said through the
ages, wonderful dream.
Great read, "Water Margin" people know, there is a character
called Dai Zong, he is relying on a horse tied to a pair of legs, he can day trip miles;
the same, "Yue Fei Biography" inside, there is a Niugao, we
may also be familiar with, he wore a pair of boots can be in the Dongting Lake
Rulvpingdi; similar to many of these legends, for example, Zhuge Liang is to create a
wood flow oxen and horses, using them to transport food supplies;
"Journey to the West" is more a piece of inside Monkey thought
to be a hard stone to the Journey to the West, neutralize the road barriers, Chu Yao,
open. The same is true abroad as there is a son of very famous novel "love
all", where describes a lot of robots, as humans do all sorts of things,
So modern, of course, have more imagination and longing. Is a wide range of
intelligent robots to help humans continue to produce crafts, and even help their own
housework and so on. These would reflect the development of people in the whole
process wants to use external things to strengthen itself, so get rid of the shackles of
the forces of nature, can be liberated from the human, so is the eternal dream, a dream
should be very beautiful, and very reasonable dream . Gonna do it this dream can
become reality, there is a secret that people want from the bondage of the forces of
nature, we must rely on a variety of tools, use tools to achieve this objective. So we
know that human tool, mainly to a variety of materials, so there is materials science
and technology help, material resources can be through processing, manufacturing
Chengren power tool, you can make the function of the Human Body has been
strengthened. Power tools too! We must rely on energy resources, science and
technology to the energy converted into power tools, so do people's
physical features can be greatly enhanced. So the most exciting is a human want to
have an intellectual of the tool, which we must have information science technology
to the information resources into a party to this tool, helping people to expand their
messaging capabilities, Zhili function, so that you can put heavy human Conghen Duo
labor. Including manual and intellectual labor, in addition to creative work than to
liberate. Therefore, resources, science, technology, tools, this is from the natural
forces for the liberation of humanity a very important way.
From a historical perspective of the development. We can see from this table to write
out what kind of time on what kind of resources; to create what kind of tools; So what
kind of capacity expansion; what kind of social civilization.
We look at ancient times, mainly using material resources, so it can only create the
main tool for human, so the physical expansion of human capabilities, it can support
the agricultural society of civilization. Modern it? Then you can use energy resources
to create power tools, power tool itself, and thus can extend the person's
physical features, support for the industrial society of civilization. Perhaps we are
most concerned about is the modern, modern society? The development of
information science and technology, it can transform into a knowledge of information
resources, manufacturing a wide range of intelligence tools. So people can make the
expansion of intellectual function well, this way will lead to a new generation of
social civilization, that is, information society,
We can use all familiar with a tool or a science and technology achievements, to
reflect just such a process. For instance, the first robot, it is only the use of materials
to create, then this robot is not dynamic, so very little to do, then to modern times too!
It can give the robot dynamic, so the robot can do all kinds of things. For example,
transportation or production of certain fixed-line action, and now we see a more
modern, more advanced robots, it will have some kind of intellectual function, so it
can complete the more complex functions . Recently on television we can see a lot of
robots, including robot soccer in our country is a wonderful, human football, we have
been looking forward to them out of Asia to the world, the experience of a relatively
difficult course, but the robot Cup of China's achievements are very good,
has won several world titles. Then this number of machines to be able to do this a
number of labor, so some of the work, then here is a kind of artificial intelligence,
science and technology achievements
Well, then do what is artificial intelligence? Let's simply look for.
Intelligence can be said of people different from other animals, not to mention plants,
and different from other animals, one of the most important of all, so the people called
the crown of creation. Spirit on the soul in its intelligence. The so-called smart, that is,
like how to scheduling your knowledge as a strategy to use this strategy to solve
various problems, so it is a scheduling strategy for the formation of knowledge,
problem solving, scheduling, knowledge is what? This, of course everyone is familiar
with, but from the technology that perspective, we have the knowledge as information
derives from a product, the information is specific things, but later refined into a
knowledge, it reflects some fundamental law, then the information is it? Information
is the variety of things, its state of movement and the way these state changes, so that
the knowledge we have from the information to the intelligence these concepts. We
put it through there with a very clear concept of the intelligent,
We can know how to be able to create these smart tools? Various forces of nature to
human beings from the bondage to be more complete liberation of the next. Here we
see that this model, we humans have to solve the various problems which exist in the
outside world, then the outside world, therefore the movement of various things
change, it will offer a variety of information,
People smart creatures, higher animals, and his intelligent model can be following
such a process to demonstrate. First of all, we see people through the senses, the
information can be obtained outside world, so he has access to information. So get
this message after it! He can be a part of this information through the next is the
person's nervous system, this information is passed to the following. For
example, passed to the brain, then this place in the human brain, thinking through the
human brain, that is, information processing, so that information can be refined into
knowledge. We have just mentioned, tell us is a natural evolution of human
intelligence and hundreds of years, and even some estimate thousands of years, or
even a result of hundreds of millions of years of evolution, so the intelligence is very
subtle, it seems very mysterious, very unfathomable. But we say that intelligence is
not monolithic, either intelligent or not intelligent. It is not the case, now we see that
such a model, we see it as a smart space. The space inside, intelligence level from low
to high can be divided into various levels, so as we can see the bottom of the lowest
intelligence level, we regard it as among the inorganic nature. Stones, soil, these
things are smart, the intelligent equivalent of zero intelligence is not intelligent, is not
the lowest. Then a little higher than it, then that plant, we all know plants are
intelligent, or else such as sunflower plants, the sun from east to west transfer,
sunflowers follow the sun's rotation it can be to turn toward the sun has
been, so plants is intelligent, this can make a better plant growth. In addition to plants
other than, of course, more advanced creature that animal. Animal intelligence, we
can see that in the model a higher level of intelligent space. Then of course the highest
level is the human intelligence, so we can use that intelligence is divided into many
grades.
This therefore provides a possibility that we use machines to do the hope to become
an intelligent tool, it may not reach the intelligent human intelligence is so high.
However, plants may be greater than clever, it's smart in animals to humans,
it depends on your machine has been well prepared. In this smart space to tell us,
smart or not as there is not, in fact it can be divided into many levels, artificial
intelligence in a sense, we put it to understand a system of intelligent machines. It is
the variety of knowledge to solve the machine scheduling problem of a capability, if
the machine has this capability, this machine can help people to do many, many things,
even very complex issue. Then the machine intelligence, obviously be in the range of
plants and humans, it can also form a knowledge and solve problems, and even
abstract knowledge about the world, optimizing the world, it can do, only with people
different is the way it does not able to move for creative thinking. So artificial
intelligence is to make the mechanism of such intelligence and information science
and technology, the combination of the two specific technologies, so we are talking
about artificial intelligence is a biological science with information science and
technology as a cross.
If we are more familiar with it, will be heard many called expert systems, artificial
intelligence systems on the face of a specific problem, it can be to the level of experts
to solve. Such as weather, if you make a weather expert system, then the system is
forecast to achieve the accuracy level of meteorological experts. If you use this
system as a medical doctor, then the medical expert system that doctor's
ability to achieve the expert level. If we want this artificial intelligence system, the
formation of a large community of such a system becomes a tool of society, then it
must have many, many have such expert systems integrate with the communications
network. Because the communication network is covering the whole of society, so the
expert system integrates with the telecommunications network once, then it becomes a
social system is available, we see such a large-scale artificial intelligence system,
many experts have talked about the special intelligent system , it just said expert
system, you see this is a, then its relationship with the communications network,
through the electromagnetic wave or if it is fixed, then it can be wired, via cable, via
optical fiber to connect. Thus, while it would have specialized areas for the problem,
but it is the source of information and instructions to place it can cover the whole of
society through the communications network. Sometimes we have to this expert
system expert system for a unit called the Intranet, which is relative with the Internet
Internet, is a network and network Intranet, is an Internal web. It's such a
smart tool Internal, which is specialized in the field for the problem.
But while the resolution specialist theoretical issues, the source of its information, it
comes from a community and around the world, its impact to the whole society Jie
Guo also the world, so it use to accomplish this through a communication of
information sharing. Then this model is a tool of social intelligence, each of which is
intelligent, but also covers the whole of society. Well, we talked about here, it may
cause a problem, you can automatically minds of many of the machine to complete
some operation, it may feel smart tools with these automatic machines, may be
considered the same thing. In fact different, with intelligent automatic machines are
very different machines, automatic machine is automatic machine. For example, we
use the washing machine at home Ye Hao, refrigerator, or some of these operating
systems Yehao your family, or, as we are more familiar with the program-controlled
switchboards, communication network inside of all of these are automatic machines.
Any automatic machine, its features are the people who design the machine, prior to
the machine do the work of becoming a variety of procedures. So this machine can
only step by step to complete these procedures, it can not do anything else, no matter
the program inside the machine will not do, so it is a strictly limited by the design of
the contents of the designer in advance, and can only be resolved Teding of these
problems.
So intelligent machine, it is not the case characteristics. Intelligent machine it does not
have a pre-fixed, this step by step process. Designer prior to its input so only a few
things: one is the necessary knowledge; the second is your problem; third is your rules;
the fourth are your goals or criteria for success and failure, these input into what is
really a question of the future, this machine to address this problem, in which to
search for knowledge, can solve this problem this knowledge into a rule, and then to
solve the problem. So you see the machine specific strategy to solve the problem is
the formation of the machine itself, rather than one pre-arranged. People only gave it
the necessary knowledge and rules, and target the problem environment and so on. So
it is very different, so if there is a problem, it should be said that the general problem,
the machine did not know in advance, but it can find a way to resolve. Of course this
problem, some knowledge of them in the knowledge base to contain the problem. If
this issue was beyond the knowledge base beyond the scope of this machine will
eventually find ways to solve this problem, but it is not a step by step, according to
the procedures specified in advance of mankind so stiff walk, and this is where
it's smart. Obviously very useful, you may have heard the first two years a
very exciting, a report - that IBM's Deep Blue computer, it is called
Deeperblue, since the defeated world chess champion, then this is not a programmer
prior design good. How to get the computer first, second how to get, not so designed,
because if you design such a "dead", the world champion of his
moves are flexible often change, and that the steps you are so dead, you definitely can
not win, so it is to walk against each other, the machine itself to find a strategy to win
at, this is the smart host. Less obvious than the automatic machines of such a machine
should be used much more valuable.
This is what we talked about artificial intelligence with us, in the end what is artificial
intelligence? Since then this machine so well, so wonderful, as did a man can play
chess world champion, why we do not study it before? To come and go now
concerned about the artificial intelligence research. Here, it is very important point, or
why we have to this artificial intelligence.
Is the example, we rely on modern computers, can be enough, we say enough. Must
be smart not only faster, more importantly, smart, and we give an example to tell you
this truth. High-speed computer is not enough to solve complex problems, many
people may have heard of ancient India, a fable to say there is a rich man, in fact he is
a chief. One day birthday gift so many people come to congratulate him on his
birthday, including a beggar, the beggar is a very intelligent person, the
congratulations of course to get a lot of birthday gift, this beggar nothing. Then the
chief said, what you give me a gift? The beggar said, I will give you a wise, if guests
do get a gift, then the chief should be let's ceremony, so the chief asked. If
you gave me a gift, what should I pay you? The beggar and do not say anything yet, if
you could do a game with me, then all are satisfied. What does he do game? Such a
game. We see such a box, the above eight horizontal, vertical 8, out of 64 sub-lattice,
then so what. The beggar called the chief, he said you put in a grid inside a valley;
second tartan, up to twice the first grid millet, which is two; the third grid is also
placed second twice, is four. So 1,2,4,8,16,32,64, this has been put down full of 64
format, which is the beggar told him he wanted him to do this game. If these 64 lattice,
in accordance with the law just to put that would be what result? The chiefs did not
think that is very simple, put one up two, if you want to really filled, we can work it
out. This number would be tantamount to 2 plus 2, has been Jiajia Jia, added 2 63,2 0
is one. One is on this 2 2 64 63 2 grid is, the sum of the 2, 64, roughly equivalent to
10 to 19 so many grains, then to put so much grain, we have no specific concept.
I give you a specific concept much clearer. If you do not say people go up, more
slowly. If we use a computer to put it faster. For example, the speed of the computer
put the grain can be 3 × 109 per second up so much grain, which is equal to 3 billion,
you can put 3 billion a second, so fast, so speed up the computer to the results If the
whole should be filled, to put 3 × 10 in 9 seconds. Because these two numbers is the
number one take, it is easy to count 3 × 10 9 seconds, how much time? Exactly a
hundred years, so the Chiefs take the game to finish off the case, take a century. Then
the chiefs can not live up to this time? Is a big question mark. So the result was a
beggar chiefs wisdom with such a problem to be lived, so this is a much-told story.
Become a problem? Despite the fast pace of your operation, but a little face complex
problems, you still can not solve. If we imagine that just talked about the
"Chess", this has a statistics, a total of chess is possible if the
various moves, statistics up to it 123 times, 10 of various moves, so if the computer to
play chess with each other, it does not have an intelligent, but rather that you go one
step further, it should be possible to try both. After the test finished, come the best
strategy to walk. In this case, it put all the possible steps should test times, then
theoretically use 104 10 century, it is absolutely impossible. So fast will not do alone,
there are a lot of problems but also fast but also smart, be smart for the job so
invented the computer is not enough, have to go to study artificial intelligence, the
truth is here.
So why just said, so capable machine, why not noticed before? Until now to study. Of
course, we encountered the problem before the one hand, are relatively simple or
complex problems encountered on the care. Complex issues now have to do it, so
have the needs. Another problem is that our people know there is a process we have
just mentioned that it must start from a simple place, people know the law from
simple to complex, from the intuitive to the abstract.
We look at this table that we just look at the table, this history from ancient to modern
times to the modern, the so along. It can only be the first, more intuitive human
knowledge, this material resources, it will lead to the agricultural community, and
then compare the relative abstract understanding of the energy resources, resulting in
the modern industrial society. To now be able to deal with this very abstract
information, so as to promote the information society is gradually coming. The
current progress, intelligent systems can have more intuitive thinking in images with
abstract logic combination. And deep from the surface of intelligence to the smart
move in this direction, there is simulation of a person's individual
intelligence to simulate the collective intelligence. Or social intelligence to this
direction, which is its progress, present all fairly standard issue, are now met.
Better at this level, for example, we know that fingerprint identification. This can be
very accurate. Iris recognition, is also can be done very satisfied. Then the more
specialized areas, like just talking to a machine to do a doctor, an expert consultation
to do this specialized field, the more specific areas, they still can do quite satisfactory.
However, to do more in-depth, for example, simulation of human understanding, there
is still more difficult, is not particularly pleased. That we may have the experience,
machine translation, many translation machine can be used as a dictionary, dictionary
no problem. If an entire article, translated, you will find a lot of mistakes. So although
this is the state, but we can look ahead at the prospects of artificial intelligence,
because the present theoretical and technological advances, we can see it's
prospects are very good. Generally speaking, access to information, and impart
information and advisory information, these links could be even stronger than a
man's ability, but creative thinking, it was the better man. The reason is
very simple, because themselves are not quite sure, the process of human creative
thinking, how to's? Insight, inspiration how kind returned? Description
does not come out. Description does not come out of people, so there is no way to let
people have the ability to machine, then this too! A more advantageous position than
the one hand, there are weaker than the one the one hand, we can naturally think of
people with the intelligent system should have a division of labor. Any transmission of
information that access to information, control the machine to do, any creative
thinking dignitaries to do, so another man-machine cooperation in human-computer
division. So this way, the person with the machine as a symbiosis, human-driven
machine to service. , That would make a very strong human capacity, then this is the
future of the human machine co-operation with a way to a pattern. Such a model is
very clever, and we entirely from the perspective of science and technology down.
There is such a conclusion, future work in such a manner. Then Max wrote in a
hundred years ago, "Capital" of the time, they wrote that such a
passage. This is Max on the future development of human society as a prediction, a
vision. He so speaking, he said that with the full development of big industry, words
of the sentence is for us. So by this time would look like? Workers is no longer a part
of the production process. You see workers here, the process here, the production
process here. It is no longer part of a process unit, but standing next to the production
process, to stand here. Manage the production process and oversight, we say one is
just management, to give its next mission, give it a title, the title and the get creative,
so that meaningful social progress. And supervision, said earlier acceptance of its
products. So you see Max predict the future of society, human productive labor in
such a manner, and this description of it! That we have just seen such a process, it can
be said to coincide. Then such a prospect, of course, very beautiful. We are
China's own research in artificial intelligence, through the efforts of
scientific workers, it can be said has made great achievements. In the application it!
Should be said that Chinese people have made so many wonderful applications.
For example, CIMS is in the industry, agriculture, many agricultural expert system;
business, education, national defense, until recently. For example, on the language of
information technology, machine translation has a lot of progress. While it is not
satisfied, but now made good progress in using machines to do summaries of the
articles can be done with the people to do as good a summary. We need to go up in the
network information retrieval, called intelligent search engine, we have done quite
beautiful. There is online now we see a lot of good content, now we can do a system
to filter out those bad elements, but to retain good content, it can be capable of
distinguishing between what is good which is well, that is to understand the content of
this article, and so on. I also talked about robots, our robot can play football in China
and can get kicked the World Cup champion at this level, so the Chinese people in
artificial intelligence. We are a general concept of independent innovation to embark
at this stage of. Typical applications, the problem should be said that intelligence is
everywhere, where someone would want to have artificial intelligence system where
to help people.
Doctors have talked about the machine, there was a machine simulation of Beijing
Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute of Beijing to see an old doctor of hepatitis
disease, called Guan Youbo. The results of the machine diagnosis of hepatitis patients,
actually can be shared by Mr. Kwan. He said that a patient arrived, the machine test
results to judge the results of a prescription for Kwan to see. Mr Kwan said that if I
look at this disease, as well. So this is significant, this result just mentioned chess
machine Game that everyone is clear, flexible form processing, agricultural expert
system, have also mentioned the safety issue, there are information stations. Now that
war is not within 200 meters as in the past see the hard effort, fight bayonets, but by
information, such a deal about the operation of the battlefield, talent up. We have
recently put a 2008 Olympic Games, many people do not speak the same words, it is
difficult to understand each other, we propose a virtual volunteer, is to use artificial
intelligence to do a variety of systems. It will take the initiative to talk to him with the
Olympic Games players to chat, and then give him advice, to provide many such
services. Will make the participants feel that the Chinese Olympic artificial
intelligence system, is very exciting, will leave a very lasting impression, this is being
done.
I want to say about the last of our modern intelligent and our country are now
advancing information technology, meaning it is very large. One is the model tells us
that social progress, it is dependent on science and technology provides advanced
production tools, which people use this tool to talk to a variety of objects dealing with
labor, the formation of advanced productive forces, advanced productive forces and
this too! Requirements of advanced relations of production it is saying adapt, thus
leading to an advanced economy in the form, produce a good product to meet the
needs of the community. Meet the needs of old, new demands will arise, so always
keep circulating, continuously to a higher stage. Therefore, the progress of science
and technology can be said for society is very important, That is why Comrade Deng
Xiaoping, science and technology are primary productive forces. It is important then
intelligence Xitong, in addition to other systems because it is outside, it has a smart
while intelligent machines can help people do more, better, more complex, more
important things.
So now our country in promoting the concept of information in this message, you are
familiar, and I will not say. However, it is information technology, intelligence
technology, the most exciting and most important of this part, is its core. So if there is
no intelligent information, that we have done many years of information is an
elementary information. They must be in the promotion of information technology in
the process of vigorously wide, the widespread use of smart technology, whether in
the information process, vigorously push forward the process of information in all
fields 智能化. Will directly affect the quality of information and capability, this is
because the capacity of its intelligence technology decisions. And only the full use of
intelligence tools can make the traditional industrial and agricultural production, to
make its industrial upgrading. The following specific about some of the elements, that
is, to upgrade a number of signs, but these signs may only use intelligent tools to
achieve it. Not only the industrial and agricultural production industry can be
upgraded, but also to optimize the structure of national industry. The industrial
structure, the most important indicator is that industrial agriculture because it made
use of. Intelligent tools, it's working population can be greatly reduced, the
machine can do more, then more people shift to tertiary industry. Information
economy, knowledge economy, high-tech economy, we will optimize the economic
structure. And to a higher level of development of a comprehensive modernization, so
intelligent with the information with the modern, this relationship is very close, and
extremely important. In the past, that intelligence did not notice the problem before.
But now we have the ability, artificial intelligence, it is necessary to give full play to
the role of science and technology, making our information, really high, really high
level of our modernization.
Finally, I would say we should think of ways to efforts to integrate human wisdom,
science and technology to help humanity through the gradual liberation from the
shackles of the forces of nature of such a goal.
Mentioned artificial intelligence, and its important role in the core of modern
technology, so great efforts to develop artificial intelligence to continuously improve
the level of machine intelligence, and gradually realize the human-computer division
of labor "who host auxiliary" - are the theme of
machine-assisted people to such cooperation, so that human beings can be liberated,
the matter should be said that thousands of years, the great dream of the ideal of
mankind. Information age can not do in the past, but the information age is because it
has information science and technology development, so the realization of human
liberation, so that the millennium dream era. So all the ideals and ambitions of
peoples and individuals can be in a really full of dreams full of opportunities, full of
innovation and cause them to show their talents, but also promising.

				
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