Master Class on the Circle of Security Project ACWA 2006 Conference, Sydney, Wednesday 16th August 2006, Robyn Dolby, PhD, and Naomi Iliffe, The Benevolent Society Marvin, R., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K. & Powell, B. 2002. The Circle of Security Project: Attachment-based intervention with caregiver-preschool dyads. Attachment and Human Development, 4(1) 1-17. www.circleofsecurity.org The Circle of Security Project A twenty week, group-based parent intervention program designed to enhance relationships between young children and their parents Effective in facilitating a shift from disorganised attachment back to organised patterns Features of COS Intervention Based on individual attachment assessments Uses video review Review process is designed to give parents a secure base from which to learn about the attachment needs of their children and explore their own internal obstacles to meeting those needs Features of COS Intervention ctd Looks at where parents struggle (their underdeveloped capacities) instead of a strengths based model Helps parents to develop relationship capacities rather than learn techniques to manage their children’s behaviours COS aims to enhance five relationship capacities Coherent understanding of children’s relationship needs Observational and inferential skills Reflective functioning Emotional regulation Empathy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Professionally Orientated Learning Current Personal & Family Issues Family of Origin Issues Ref: Kent Hoffman, Adelaide COS Workshop 2006 Review of COS materials designed to help parents to: Develop a coherent understanding of their children’s relationship needs Foster emotional regulation in their children The Path to Security First, I need a map, a way to clearly identify and understand the I must then learn to stand back and observe what the Next I need to talk with someone about what I am doing (and not yet doing) to meet the children’s needs children’s emotional needs children are doing and what I am doing I want the children in my care to experience security with me Experience of safety and security for the children © 2003 Cooper, Hoffman, & Powell First, I need a map, a way to clearly identify and understand the children’s emotional needs. • The Circle of Security Graphic Circle of Security Parent attending to the child’s needs Exploration Attachment © 2000 Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin & Powell Circle of Security Parent attending to the child’s needs Exploration Attachment © 2000 Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin & Powell Circle of Security Parent attending to the child’s needs I need you to Support My Exploration © 2000 Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin & Powell Circle of Security Parent attending to the child’s needs I need you to Watch over me Delight in me Support My Exploration Help me Enjoy with me © 2000 Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin & Powell Circle of Security Parent attending to the child’s needs I need you to Watch over me Delight in me Support My Exploration Help me Enjoy with me I need you to Welcome My Coming To You © 2000 Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin & Powell Circle of Security Parent attending to the child’s needs I need you to Watch over me Delight in me Support My Exploration Help me Enjoy with me I need you to Protect me Comfort me Delight in me Welcome My Coming To You Organize my feelings © 2000 Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin & Powell Review of COS materials designed to help parents to: Improve their observational and inferential skills Facilitate empathy - a shift in focus from children’s behaviour to their inferred emotional needs (from my child wants attention to my child wants connection) I must learn to stand back and observe what the children are doing and what I am doing. The process of “Seeing and Guessing” Seeing: Observation Questions 1. Can the child use the attachment figure as a secure base for exploration and a safe haven for comfort? What is the child’s pattern of emotional regulation? 2. Seeing: Observation Questions response to separation and reunion 1. Does the child show signs of missing the parent on separation? 2. Does the child greet the parent actively on reunion? Does the child settle with the parent, then return to play? 3. Seeing: Observation Questions - relating to emotional regulation 1. Are there moments of shared delight? Can the children just be themselves when asking for help or connection? Can they stay engaged with the caregiver when distressed? How do they receive the adult’s help? 2. 3. 4. Guessing: Reflective Dialogue Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. Where is the child on the Circle? How is the child feeling? How are you feeling? What does the child need? How might the COS map appear for an Older Child? Young children look for physical proximity or contact from the adult Older children look for co-operation or partnership Professionally Orientated Learning Current Personal & Family Issues Family of Origin Issues Ref: Kent Hoffman, Adelaide COS Workshop 2006 Review of COS materials designed to help parents to: Enhance By reflective functioning providing parents with a metaphor for State of Mind MESSAGES FROM CHILDHOOD We will get through Don’t embarrass this together me Don't leave me You have to work it out yourself Don’t be angry, that’s not like you You don't do it like that This is too big for me to manage You are worth it I’m lucky to have you (Adapted from STEEP program, Martha Erikson) You are such hard work Don't bother me We can sort this out together It's too hard for me when you are sad I enjoy being with you Keep me happy I am here to help Sort it out yourself Hurry up, quick Next, I need to talk with someone about what I’m doing (& not yet doing) to meet the children’s needs. The reflective dialogue “encourages parents to acknowledge their shark music while containing, rather than acting out their affect” Cooper et al, 2005, pp 137-138 Questions when viewing video-clips of insecure patterns Do the children openly express their needs all the way around the Circle of Security? Which side of the Circle are they most on? Look for miscues when the child is expressing a need on the less-used side of the Circle. Miscues A miscue is a misleading or contradictory cue used to protect the child from the pain of having a specific need exposed and/or unmet. www.circleofsecurity.org Exploring painful moments Reassure the child that they are not in trouble; you can stay connected to them Explore what went wrong. Do this when they are calm and you are confident that you can convey curiosity not judgment Starting points: Eg, when you hit your friend, “what was that about? Can you you help me to understand; Can we make sense of it together?” Exploring painful moments ctd Guess motives (eg “hitting is big mad”) If they say something negative about themselves, (eg my friend didn’t like me), be empathic rather than reassuring “Now I understand” - that would be a reason why you would be “big mad”. You help them to make sense of their feelings, not excuse their hitting. Exploring painful moments ctd End by helping them to plan what they could do next time. “Let’s think together what you could do. I’m sure together we can come up with something”. The solution should include you as a secure base. “Come and tell me when you are feeling sad and we can go off and do something together”. Reference: Daniel Hughes 2005 Professionally Orientated Learning Current Personal & Family Issues Family of Origin Issues Ref: Kent Hoffman, Adelaide COS Workshop 2006 Partnerships In Early Childhood Developed from evaluated program (20012005) at two preschools in collaboration with The Benevolent Society (TBS) and KU Children’s Services. Integration of an attachment and community development models. Successful outcomes of evaluated program resulted in Federal Government funding under the Invest to Grow strategy. Partnerships in Early Childhood cont. Central Coast – TBS in partnership with Wyong Council to run PIEC in five childcare centres. Eastern Sydney – TBS in partnership with KU Children’s Services and Lady Gowrie Child Centre to run PIEC in four childcare centres and preschools. South West Sydney – TBS in partnership with Campbelltown Councill to run PIEC in six childcare centres. Partnerships in Early Childhood – The Model Provide hands-on training to increase understanding of children's behaviour & relationship needs. Support, consultation & reflection time. Classroom observation & support offered. Work with children, parents & staff at the childcare centre to identify & support vulnerable & high need children & families. Run a supported playgroup, open to families at the centre & families living locally whose children are not enrolled at the centre. Group may be held in a community location. Partnerships in Early Childhood Program Organise parent gatherings (both formal & informal) focusing on needs & strengths of parents, grounded in daily interaction between parents & children. A Child & Family Worker alongside staff & families Listen & respond to community inside & outside the childcare centre. Offer individual support & counselling to parents informally or by request. Develop & maintain links with other local service providers, & connect families to those services. Offer practical & emotional support. Attachment Matters – from Relationships to Learning at Preschool International collaboration based around case studies Utilising video review of children’s interactions Attachment Matters Preschool Project Current Early Childhood Practice Reflective Practice Innovation in the Attachment Matters Preschool Project Layered support for reflective practice and mentoring (with a psychologist on-site). Each person in the preschool community has someone to turn to if they are unsure about what the children need. Video review is used for mentoring. Attachment Matters Preschool Project cont. Current Early Childhood Practice Training that gives a broadbased coverage of many developmental and educational theories and which includes behaviour management strategies and learning about group social interaction Innovation in the Attachment Matters Preschool Project Specific training in attachment theory that underscores the link between children’s attachmentrelationship needs and learning. Materials from the Circle of Security Parent-Infant Program and the Marte Meo program are incorporated within the training (www.circleofsecurity.org). Attachment Matters Preschool Project cont. Current Early Childhood Practice Planned learning environments for children where staff make a play area inviting and watch how the children use the learning materials and support them as required Innovation in the Attachment Matters Preschool Project Structured “play spaces” that make good emotional links between teachers and children and teachers and parents Attachment Matters Preschool Project cont. Develop model for supported reflective practice for early childhood trainees or practising teachers, in collaboration with Charles Sturt University. Produce resource materials to help teachers prepare for and manage transition to school for children with emotional and behavioural difficulties. Cooper, G., Hoffman, K. & Powell, B & Marvin. R. 2005. The Circle of Security Intervention In, Berlin, L., Ziv, Y., AmayaJackson, L. & Greenberg, M. (Eds) Enhancing Early Attachments: Theory, Research, Intervention. NY: Guilford Press Mann, J. & Kretchmar, M. 2006. A disorganised toddler in foster care: healing and change from an attachment perspective. Zero to Three, May, 2006, p. 2936. Dozier, M. & Sepulveda, S. 2004. Foster mother state of mind and treatment use: different challenges for different people. Infant Mental Health Journal, 25(4), 368-378.