Honoring Culture and Language; Issues for Young Children by Semaj1212

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									Ann Arbor, Michigan May 17-19, 2005
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
Council of Chief State School Officers Middle States Regional Workshop May 17-19, 2005 The Dahlmann Campus Inn Ann Arbor, Michigan Presentation by Lynson Moore Beaulieu Senior Program Director National Black Child Development Institute Washington, DC lbeaulieu@nbcdi.org
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
Children in Foster Care as of 9/30/02d In Care Entered Exited Waiting FY 2002 FY 2002 Adoption
African American White 195,040 37% 205,478 39% 83,585 28% 139,861 46% 84,366 30% 125,114 45% 52,935 42% 45,410 36%

Latino

89,177 17%

51,330 17%

44,931 16%

16,324 13%
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
2004 Federal Poverty Levels (FPL)e $18,850 for a family of 4 (about $9.00 per hour) $15,670 for a family of 3 (about $7.50 per hour) $12,490 for a family of 2 (about $6.00 per hour) • Research suggests that, on average, families need an income equal to about two times the federal poverty level to meet their most basic needs • 27 million children live in low-income families; 11 million live in poor families
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Poverty Trends

Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System • Numbers of long-term employed increased from 650,000 in 2000 to 1.89 million + in 2003 • In 2003, poverty increases were largest among African Americans, from 22.7% in 2001 to 24% in 2002, an increase of between 500,000 and 700,000 individuals. • Poor people are poorer. In 2002, the average amount by which people who were poor fell below the poverty line was greater than in any other years since 1979.
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Poverty Trends

Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
Poverty Trends
• Child Trends reports that 40% of poor single-parent working mothers who paid for child care in 2001 paid at least half of their income for child care. • CDC reported in 2002 that 36.8% of poor adults 18-64 were uninsured vs. 10.8% of adults with incomes above twice the poverty line. For children, it was 14.5% of poor children vs. 5.3% of non-poor children. • In 2001, 44.5% of poor households with children experienced either food insecurity or hunger during that year.
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
2003 NAEP Reading Scores 4th Grade At Proficient or Above African American AL IA IL IN MI 9% 8% 10% 11% 8% White Hispanic Asian/ Pacific Islander N/A N/A 46% N/A 51% Native American N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

30% 37% 42% 36% 40%

N/A 17% 15% 26% 16%

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
2003 NAEP Reading Scores 4th Grade At Proficient or Above African American MS ND TN WI 8% N/A 9% 13% White Hispanic Asian/ Pacific Islander N/A N/A N/A 27% Native American N/A 13% N/A 25%

30% 34% 32% 36%

N/A N/A 27% 20%

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
2003 NAEP Mathematics Scores 4th Grade At or Above Proficient

African American AL 5%

White

Hispanic

Asian/ Pacific Islander N/A

Native American N/A

27%

N/A

IA
IL IN MI

9%
7% 7% 7%

39%
44% 40% 43%

14%
13% 18% 17%

N/A
58% N/A 47%

N/A
N/A N/A N/A

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
2003 NAEP Mathematics Scores 4th Grade At Or Above Proficient African American MS ND TN WI 6% N/A 6% 8% White Hispanic Asian/ Pacific Islander N/A N/A N/A 26% Native American N/A 9% N/A 17%

30% 37% 30% 43%

N/A N/A 14% 13%

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

How do we help African American and other children from diverse ethnic, cultural, language, and life experience backgrounds to rise to their greatest developmental and academic potential?
What are the barriers that stand in their way and how do we surmount them?
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
• Family and Community Connections – authentic, respectful, meaningful relationships and partnerships • Continuous Prekindergarten Program Quality Improvement

The Main Ingredients

• Ready Schools – Quality Improvement in the Primary Grades • Appropriate Management, Assessment, and Accountability Systems

– Effective curriculum – standards-based, developmentally appropriate, exciting, challenging, and accessible to all children – Effective instruction supported by high quality professional development – Enriched learning environments

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

A Continuum of Services for Children Birth to Age 8
Prenatal Infants Toddlers Preschool Ages 3-5 The Primary Grades K-3

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
Moving Along the Continuum...The Preschool Years
Preschool Ages 3 -5 Children and Families Preschool Programs Schools Communities

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System Domains of Development Physical well-being and motor development Social and emotional development Early language and literacy development Cognition and general knowledge Approaches to learning Creativity and imaginative thinking

• • • • • •

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System Physical Well-Being and Motor Development
• Issue: Poor, young children and their families do not have regular access to well-baby care and early health screenings; often the care that they do receive is of poor quality and does not identify early health issues that impact school readiness. • Solution: Early care and education system building must ensure that young children have access to high quality wellbaby care, early health and developmental screenings, and a pediatric health-care system that is informed about your school readiness goals.
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System Physical Well-Being and Motor Development
• Issue: Many poor, young children have limited opportunities for outdoor play in safe parks and playgrounds and with equipment that is needed for the development and coordination of their large muscles. They also have limited access to resources such as pencils, crayons, markers, paper, paint, paint brushes, scissors, lego-type toys, etc., that assist in small motor development. Solution: Providing resources in communities for safe, outdoor play and resources for families and early care and education programs for the development of large and small motor skills.

•

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Social and Emotional Development
Issue: Communities broadly and early care and education programs specifically lack the resources they need to build capacity in both families and teachers to support African American children’s healthy social and emotional development in the early years. Solution: Early care and education system building must ensure that young children and their families have access to culturally and linguistically relevant mental health care and services and that teachers have access to education and training that equips them to work effectively with parents and challenging behaviors in young children within the schooling context.
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Early Language and Literacy Development
Issue: Low-income African American children have limited access to the standard English language literacy-building resources that lead to proficient reading, speaking, and writing skills in standard English by 3rd or 4th grade.

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
Early Language and Literacy Development
Issue: Most low-income African American children learn to speak African American Vernacular English from their families and extended families; in many cases, their early care and education providers also speak African American Vernacular English. African American Vernacular English is their first language, much like Spanish is for children who grow up in Spanish speaking homes and communities.

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Early Language and Literacy Development
Issue: Once children enter school, the language of the teacher, textbooks, and written work becomes standard English. Access to academic learning is through standard English and African American children lack standard English language skills.

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
Early Language and Literacy Development
Solution: African American children who are vernacular speakers must be provided with curriculum that acknowledges and accepts their home language but that teaches them standard English as second language. African American children must be provided with the educational resources that help them to become biliterate.

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Additional Solutions
• Promote and support language and literacy rich home environments in the child’s home language. • Promote and support language and literacy rich early care and education environments that provide exposure to both the child’s home language and standard English whenever possible.

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System Additional Solutions

• Provide an intentional program of standard English language development for children in their early years of schooling.
• Provide resources that enable young children and their families to have a variety of fun, exciting, and new experiences at home and in their communities that provide natural opportunities for increased adult-child communication and meaningful vocabulary development.
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
Early Language and Literacy Development for ELLs
• Bilingualism is an important and valuable skill – multilingualism is the global norm and reality, monolingualism is the anomaly • Support of home language in the early years fosters healthy social and emotional ties to family, culture, and heritage • The development of a child’s native language assists in the development of English language and literacy skills – “…Spanish phonemic awareness, letter identification, and Spanish word reading were reliable predictors of English performance on parallel tasks at the end of 4th grade… where children received formal instruction in Spanish reading.”

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System Cognition and General Knowledge
Issue: Because of the physical and social isolation of poverty, the impact of multiple generations of undereducated adults within the family constellation, and a general lack of access to educationally-focused resources in the early years – whether native born or immigrant, low-income children have significantly reduced opportunities in their years before school to develop the cognitive skills and general knowledge that are valued in the formal schooling environment.

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Cognition and General Knowledge
Solution: Promote and support enriched learning environments at home, broadly in communities, and in early education settings that help children broaden and deepen their domains of knowledge and increase their cognition skills in the early years.
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Cognition and General Knowledge
Solution: Identify and implement developmentally appropriate early childhood development and learning standards for what children will be expected to know and be able to do when they enter kindergarten and share them broadly with the early care and education community.
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
Approaches to Learning Issue: Many young, low-income children do not have enough positive experiences in the course of their early development that result in the attitudes and behaviors that they will need to promote and support their own learning. Issue: Some researchers find that African American children, especially boys, are active learners – they have lots of energy, they use their bodies in very rhythmic ways, and often this energy is not respected or directed into positive development and learning activity.
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
Approaches to Learning Solution: Families, schools, and early care and education programs must provide young children with the experiences they need to develop positive attitudes and behaviors towards their learning. Repeated and frequent opportunities for children to experience success in the learning process in the early years will provide them with tools that will help them to be successful in school.
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Approaches to Learning
Solution: Creating opportunities for active learning
will also promote positive attitudes and behaviors in the classroom. Programs must develop the capacity to work effectively with children that have various learning styles. For example, some children grow up in families where children learn by watching others, then doing, rather than being told and following instructions.

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Approaches to Learning Solution: Provide teachers and families
with the professional support they need to manage and positively respond to children’s challenging behaviors and to create classrooms and routines that prevent children’s challenging behaviors

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System Creativity and Imaginative Thinking
• Key to developing critical thinking skills • Arts, music, and movement (dance) contribute to academic achievement • Helps children make sense of their world • This is the domain of some children’s genius • The meanings, traditions, and practices of many cultures are embedded in their arts

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Effective Curriculum
There are many different curricula that are available for early education programs. As in the myriad K-12 education curricula that are available, research has shown that most research-based curricula can be effective; its effectiveness is in the completeness of its implementation and how well teachers are trained to use it.

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

• Includes a focus on language and literacy development in the context of a child’s native language and standard English language development needs • Includes emergent mathematics • Is aligned with kindergarten standards and assessments

Effective Curriculum

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Effective Curriculum • Is taught using culturally-relevant contexts • Provides options for meeting children’s differing learning styles and needs • Provides developmentally appropriate learning opportunities

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System Effective Teaching
What is effective teaching in the preschool years? There is much debate about what is and who is an effective early childhood educator. Degree mandates require resources to enable committed early childhood educators an equitable opportunity to acquire their degree in a reasonable amount of time.

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Effective Teaching
How do we ensure a continuum of effective teaching from prekindergarten through the primary grade years? How can we improve the primary grade learning experience?

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Assessment
• Assessments should be appropriate for young children and used for the purposes for which they were designed.

• Assessments should be administered to children in their native language and from the cultural contexts to which they are familiar.

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Assessment
• The results of child outcomes-based assessments should be used to develop educational plans for children and to improve educational programming and not result in punitive action against the child, teacher, or program – it should result in additional resources - human, financial, material dedicated to improving performances and outcomes. • Early childhood assessments should gather information from multiple sources including family members and teachers.
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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System

Accountability
• Accountability strategies need to be carefully designed so that they are fair and effective in mixed-delivery systems. • Accountability systems should include resources to support quality improvement in programs participating in a mixed-delivery system.

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
References
•National Center for Children in Poverty, http://nccp.org/printable/printable_state_detail_demographic_DE.html http://nccp.org/printable/printable_state_detail_demographic.DC.html http://nccp.org/printable/printable_state_detail_demographic.MD.html http://hccp.org/printable/printable_state_detail_demographic.NJ.html http://nccp.org/printable/printable_state_detail_demographic.PA.html •Kids Count Pocket Guide – African American Children – State Level Measures of Child Well-Being from the 2000 Census, The Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2003 •The AFCARS Report – Preliminary FY2002 Estimates as of August 2004 (9), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Admiistration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau, www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb •Basic Facts About Low-Income Children in the United States (February 2005), National Center for Children in Poverty

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Technical Issues – Quality Initiatives to Support Successful Implementation of a Universal Pre-Kindergarten System
References Cont’d
Poverty Increases and Median Income Declines for Second Consecutive Year – Ranks of the Poor Increase by Three Million Since 2000, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, News Release, September 29, 2003 National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/reading/results2003/stateachieve-race-g4.asp National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/mathematics/results2003/stateachieve-raceg4.asp Bilingual Acquisition, Fred Genessee, www.earlychildhood.com Articles In Focus: Serving English Language Learners, February 16, 2005, pre[K]now Cultural Diversity and Early Education – Report of a Workship, Deborah Phillips and Nancy A. Crowell, Editors, National Academy Press, Washington, DC 1994, www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/earlyed Ebonic Need Not Be English, Ralph W. Fasold, Georgetown University, CAL Digest, 1999 www.cal.org/resources/digest/ebonic-issue.html What Early Childhood Teachers Need to Know About Language, from commentary by Sue Bredekamp on “What Teachers Need to Know About Language,” by Lily Wong Fillmore and Catherine Snow, EDO-FL-00-07, November 2000, www.cal.org/resources/digest/0007/bredekamp.html

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Ann Arbor, Michigan May 17-19, 2005
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