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Children and Poverty

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					Children and Poverty
Campus Explorations 10.11.06
Diane Studinka, Bob Sasse, Jenny Fererro

Every day in America…
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4 children die from abuse or neglect 8 children commit suicide 13 children are homicide victims 15 children are killed by firearms 95 babies die 237 children are arrested for violent crimes 420 children are arrested for drug abuse 518 babies are born to mothers who had late or no prenatal care 790 babies are born at low birth-weight 2,660 babies are born into poverty 2,833 children drop out 6,042 children are arrested 8,493 children are reported abused or neglected 17, 152 public school students are suspended

What is the Poverty Level for a Family?
Income for Different Levels of Poverty, 2005 Guidelines 2005 Poverty Guidelines for the lower 48 states and D.C. (Alaska & Hawaii have separate, higher amounts)

Family of 2 annual 100% 200% $12,830 25,660 monthly $1,069 2,138 weekly $247 493 annual $16,090 32,180

Family of 3 monthly $1,341 2,682 weekly $309 619 annual $19,350 38,700

Family of 4 monthly $1,613 3,225 weekly $372 744

Family of 5 annual 100% 200% $22,610 45,220 monthly $1,884 3,768 weekly $435 870 annual $25,870 51,740

Family of 6 monthly $2,156 4,312 weekly $498 995 annual $29,130 58,260

Family of 7 monthly $2,428 4,855 weekly $560 1,120

Source: Federal Register, February 18, 2005: Volume 70(33), pp. 8373-8375. Calculations by the Children's Defense Fund, 2/21/05.

What Does Poverty Look Like in California?
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California ranks 40th among states in the percent of children who are poor. Every 5 minutes in California a child is born into poverty. In CA, there are 1.7 million children at or below the poverty level (total population is 9.4 million). In CA, 18.6% of children are at or below the poverty level. In CA, there are 1.1 million adults and children on TANF. Maximum monthly TANF cash assistance for a family of 3 is $679.00. In CA, there are 1.5 million children without health insurance (15.2 %). In San Diego County, there are 113,000 children living in poverty (15.2%).

Effects of Poverty on Development

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Physical Development
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Poor prenatal care and lack of appropriate nutrition during pregnancy increases the likelihood of low birthweight  variety of physical difficulties Malnutrition in childhood negatively impacts brain development Higher risk for accidents and injuries Poor living conditions  higher risks for allergies and asthma Lack of access to appropriate health care Increased incidence of obesity and juvenile diabetes More sedentary lifestyle Increased risk of substance/drug use and abuse

Social-Emotional Development
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Difficulty regulating behavior Higher incidence of childhood and adolescent depression, anxiety, and hyperactivity Difficulty initiating tasks, self-motivating, and lower self-esteem (Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory) Social stigma  desire to find sense of belonging (gangs, teen pregnancy, peer pressure) Children from low SES start off with higher levels of anti-social behavior (bullying, being cruel to others, willful destruction, cheating, lying)- if home remains poor, anti-social behavior becomes worse over time More likely to encounter violence, increased risk for victimization

Cognitive Development
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Fractured education ( due to high mobility) and frequent absenteeism

– Decreased graduation rate, decreased college attendance  continues cycle

Lower developmental scores on milestones for cognitive tasks  Less likely to attend high-quality schools and daycares  Read and are read to less, have less access to books and materials  Watch more TV per day
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When is Poverty Most Harmful to a Child?
Strongest effects of poverty take place during the early childhood years, when children’s growth in all areas is showing greatest progress. Yes, but…  Recent (2005) research actually shows poverty effects children to a greater degree in later childhood (4-9 years old) as compared to earlier childhood (birth to 3).
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When is Poverty Most Harmful to a Child?
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Children from families with chronic poverty showed lower cognitive scores as compared to never and transitory poverty.

When is Poverty Most Harmful to a Child?
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Children from families with chronic poverty also showed higher rates of behavior problems as reported by mothers and teachers as compared to never and transitory poverty.

When is Poverty Most Harmful to a Child?
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findings are not consistent with our previous thoughts that poverty has a greater effect the younger the child. But as we can see there is an effect, maybe not as great as we once thought, but it still remains no matter what the age. More research is needed in this area.

Social Risks and Long-Term Effects
to fewer resources  Increased risk of:
– Criminal behavior – Substance abuse – Being arrested – Teen pregnancy – Poor decision-making – Homelessness – Dropping out of school
 Access

Local Children & Poverty
Downtown Escondido’s residential area reported poverty rate increase of 21% since 1990. Highest rate increase compared to any in San Diego county.  Local Indian reservations report family poverty rates at 27% (Many without electricity or running water)  Average income for all tribal people living on Indian reservations is about $7,942. (About 1/3 of the national average of $21,587.)
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Brainstorm Activity
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What is it like for a child in our area to be poor? Children Above the Poverty Level… Children at or Below the Poverty Level…

Local Resources
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YMCA Child Care Resource Center – Assist with finding quality affordable child care 1-800481-2151 – MAAC Project Head Start 760-471-4210 – Neighborhood House Association Head Start 760-4899855 Housing – North County Lifeline 760-726-4900 – Housing Authority, County of San Diego, 858-694-4890 Homeless – Catholic Charities/St. Francis Center 760-631-4792 – Homeless Assistance Program 1-866-262-9881 School – Monarch School 619 685-8242 x227 or email at
pkelly@monarchschools.org.

So What Can We Do ?
Advocacy and you!

Opportunities for Advocacy
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Get involved in your community:

Donate money and time (and not just during the holidays!)  Write letters to your local political representatives  Take a Child Development class!  You are the community and the community is you- be aware.  Other ideas?
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– Churches, youth group, sports and recreation, local events, service organizations

For more information…
Center for Children in Poverty- www.nccp.org  Children Now- www.childrennow.org  Child Welfare League of Americawww.cwla.org  Children’s Defense Fundwww.childrensdefense.org  Stop Child Povertywww.stopchildpoverty.org
 National

References
Aber, J.L. & Bennett, N.G. (1997). The effects of poverty on child health and development. Annual Review of Public Health. 18:463-483.

Chacon, D.J. (September 1, 2002). Escondido census tract sees poverty rate jump. San Diego Union-Tribune.
Children’s Defense Fund. (2006). Children in California. www.childrensdefense.org Children Now. (2005). California County Date Book 2005. www.childrennow.org Cornell University. (2004). Poor children in U.S. face daunting cluster of environmental inequities… (Press release: April 9. 2004). Federal Register. (2005). Income for Different Levels of Poverty, 2005 Guidelines. Federal Register, February 18, 2005: 70 (33), 8373-8375. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network (2005). Duration and Developmental Timing of Poverty and Children’s Cognitive and Social Development from Birth Through Third Grade. Child Development. 76 (4), 795-810. Sifuentes, E. (January 22, 2005). Study: Casinos help Indian tribes out of poverty. North County Times.


				
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