Agricultural modernization and agricultural land reform by fdjerue7eeu

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									Agricultural modernization and agricultural land reform
Agricultural modernization and agricultural land reform
Books Church 2004/10/25
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Agricultural modernization is the only way for China's agricultural
development
Congress report proposed a dual structure of China's agricultural problems
and speed up China's agricultural development. China is a developing
country, China's backward agriculture and modern industries co-exist, can
not keep up much of China's agricultural development and speed the
development process of industrial modernization. Agriculture accounts for a very
important position in the national economy played a very important role.
Modernization of agriculture is the economic and social modernization component.
Needs in the process of industrialization of agricultural support, a high level of
sustainable development in the agricultural development of modern industry the
process of progressive realization. Relations plan for agricultural livelihood, social
stability and national security. Agricultural production is the production of other
economic sectors can not be replaced, and agricultural production of raw materials for
the industrial sector as part of the development of agriculture as agricultural
machinery, agricultural chemicals, transportation, construction, industrial consumer
goods, such as provision of market and development space. Agricultural surplus labor
force to provide labor for the industrial and service source. Agriculture provided the
national economy and financial reserves accumulated. So to speed up the
development of China's agriculture is of great significance.
A fundamental solution to the dual structure of agriculture in China is to speed up the
development process of agricultural modernization in China. Modernization of
agriculture is the modernization of science and technology and modern industrial
agriculture to provide technical means and material means, modern management for
agricultural production to provide advanced management tools. Modern agricultural
production (scale and specialized production methods) gradually changed and instead
of the traditional mode of agricultural production. Agricultural modernization is the
only way for agricultural development, is to change the dual structure of the
fundamental path. How to develop China's agriculture speed, speed up the
development process of China's agricultural modernization and the speed
of China's sustained and stable growth, wealthy and powerful, well-off as
quickly as possible on major issues.
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To further deepen the reform of agriculture can be more rapid development of
Chinese agriculture
The basic status of China's agriculture are: traditional and backward mode
of production, production organization and production technology mainstream though.
China's lack of capital investment in agriculture, science and technology
content of less. China's low agricultural productivity, agricultural
production and absorb large amount of agricultural population, the overall quality of
the agricultural population is low, low standards of living and way of life behind.
Large proportion of agricultural self-sufficiency, low agricultural commodities. Scale
production and low level of specialization. Objectively speaking, some negative
factors hindered the development of Chinese agriculture, such as: natural conditions
and the impact on agricultural production constraints, the Chinese may be too little
arable land, cities and towns, industrial, transportation, as it developed to occupy
arable land. Regional economic and agricultural development are very uneven.
Environmental degradation, soil erosion, desertification, acidification, etc., but the
impact of China's agricultural development is a major factor in system
problems.
Since reform and opening to the family contract responsibility system based on
China's agricultural reform was a great success. Stimulate the production
of agricultural reform, farmers initiative to mobilize a very rich agricultural labor
resources, improve labor efficiency, and promote agricultural development. The
combination of land and labor resources, incentive mechanisms under the effect of
income is relatively reasonable. However, the incentives of labor income limited to a
certain extent and scope of work. When the labor input to a certain extent, due to the
role of marginal benefit, a relatively slow pace of agricultural growth. Agricultural
reform is also a more superficial level, the promotion of agricultural development is
limited, not enough to completely change the basic conditions of agricultural
backwardness, and promote the modernization of Chinese agriculture. Contracting
system can not only promote the agricultural modernization.
In a sense, the development of agriculture (modern agriculture) is a more effective use
of agricultural factors of production (land, labor, capital and technology). In the
market economy mechanism and the role of national agricultural policy control, the
rational allocation of production factors in agriculture, organic combination. Land
system greatly influence and determine the configuration and integration of
agricultural means of production factors affecting the agricultural production
organization and production, also affect the effective use of land resources and labor,
capital, technology and effective investment. The current system is based on
China's agricultural land-based rural collective ownership of natural
villages. Various drawbacks, land and labor resources are not fully utilized, the slow
development of Chinese agriculture. Due to historical and other reasons, this
collective administration with very obvious color. Collective ownership of equity by
the administration and relatives from the forces of the damage area. Based on the
existing land system in China's agricultural land system reform can not
eliminate the existence of many defects, such defects affect and hinder the
development of agricultural modernization, the main performance in several ways:
1) The analysis of property rights unclear, vague legal definition of land ownership:
Although from the legal and theoretical system for the collective ownership of rural
land, but subject to collective ownership is not clearly defined in the organization.
"Constitution"           and      "Land          Management
Law" is defined as the collective township (town), village and village
group 3. In the Civil Law, the collective is defined as the township (town) and village
levels. In the "Agricultural Basic Law" means in another village
or regional cooperative economic organizations. Ownership in the legal definition of
the fuzzy, causing many problems. Fact that the state has played in some sense the
role of the owner, the state of the collective ownership of excessive interference. With
certain management functions on behalf of the State issued administrative layers of
paper at all levels of a sudden. Collective administrative units in the country and at all
levels of management interference in the enjoyment "of land
ownership." In fact difficult to enjoy the full ownership, it is difficult to
obtain adequate legal protection. As the vague definition of collective ownership at all
levels, all levels of economic contracts signed by its legal validity is also a problem,
Solve the Problems are not clearly defined.
2) Land Property Rights incomplete:
As the national and provincial executive intervention to lead to serious defects
empowerment of rural property is not complete. Farmers to plant crops, land use
options are constrained, farmers rights are infringed. Farmers do not fully dispose of
land rights, land mobile and rational allocation of resources to solidify. Farmers on the
implications of land ownership is not complete, power is limited not clear. Ownership,
use, disposition, income right incomplete. In the development of the transport,
industrial, urban, commercial land requisition, the collective ownership of a very
vulnerable position, using administrative means to harm the process of land
acquisition and land interests of farmers. Land Property Rights is not complete,
ownership of the scope and comprehensiveness were damaged.
3) the right of land use rights and benefits of the period of instability, there is no real
legal guarantees:
Household responsibility system reform since the contract period be long or short, the
policy line is unclear, local grass-roots operation actually has many problems.
Short-term contract is not conducive to long-term investment and development of
farmers, long-term contract with the collective members of another due to natural
causes or other reasons, members of the changes in demand caused by the
redistribution of land use conflict with, the abuse of power, unreasonable contract was
fixed, it is difficult embody the principle of fairness. 而 Subject Definition of
ownership and property rights affect the power Duanquewenti, in fact farmers
contract period is difficult to fully Bao Zheng's.
4) The existing system of collective ownership of land is difficult in practice to ensure
fair and equitable. Fair and equitable principles of collective ownership should be
reflected at two levels:
First, the collective interests of a fair and impartial common problem: As the
definition of property right Zhuti vague definition of a collective group of owners are
also vague, a conflict of interest with different level administrative coordination or
lack of legal basis for the coordination of the principle of equity is difficult to
guarantee. For various reasons, the management of collective ownership is often
controlled by a few grass-roots leadership, coupled with rural-specific interest groups,
the phenomenon of kinship, an economic agreement in the collective ownership of
foreign or internal members of an economic contract, the collective interest is often
compromised. Administrative interference, trading power for money so often harm the
collective interest.
Second, the members of the collective members of the internal interests and power
between the fair question: In theory, the collective interests among its members within
the power and responsibility are equal. In fact not all members within the collective
ownership of land or the proceeds equally, the collective property of land and property
rights without such joint-stock division and organization, management and
distribution mechanism. Within the collective interests of all members of the
coordination and distribution are often subject to various levels of administrative
leadership, power and other relatives about the will find it difficult to demonstrate
fairness. As the group members within the natural and unnatural changes of personnel,
difficult to objectively reflect the fair. The instability of the rural population in
particular, part of the urban population in fact be entirely off the land, how to
participate in the distribution is difficult.
5) farmers to use land for income uncertainty and the instability of agricultural
production pattern and the long-term stability of the agricultural inputs required a
conflict:
Cyclical agricultural production season, long-term characteristics, long-term
agricultural inputs, continuous inputs of a phased return characteristics, but because
farmers can not be stable for a long time, in fact, possession and use of land, mainly
caused by short-term behavior of agricultural inputs, positive long-term investment is
not high. Predatory farming, arable land and do not want to raise, so that the decline
in the quality of land: soil erosion, desertification, compaction serious land humus
content decreased, increased land containing harmful inorganic substances. So reduce
the quality of agricultural products, the cost of increased yields. Agricultural land
property relations are not clear, the right to use the period of instability directly affect
the agricultural labor, capital and technology investment:
6) the current land system is not conducive to rational allocation of resources does not
meet the property rights of the institutional and organizational forms of enterprises,
land resources, the role of market mechanism can not be reasonable under the
configuration. Backward agricultural production, input-output efficiency is not high.
Specialization, scale, enterprise and farm-oriented modern agricultural production
methods and organizational forms difficult to achieve.
We should clearly understand that China is only the primary agricultural reform
success. Household responsibility system reform is only in the mode of operation at
the level of reform, can not fundamentally eliminate the drawbacks caused by the land
system. Agricultural go the road of modern agriculture must be further reform,
especially the need to reform the current system of rural collective ownership of land.

On the reform of the existing land system
How to reform the rural land system is a very major reform issues. Issues related to
China's agricultural development is also directly related to the steady and
healthy development of China's total economy. Related to the state,
collective and personal interests of farmers. But also on other areas of China in the
strategic plan of the reform issue, also related to social stability and social security a
big issue. In a sense it is the most important and most influential of the reform.
Some advocates of land nationalization, privatization has been argued, was not to
change the current context of land ownership, and changes in land management by
improving the search for suitable agricultural development organization and
management method to improve the contracting system. I think it can refer to the
experience of China's industrial reforms, from the clarity of property rights,
separation of ownership and other derivatives of power (the right to use, disposition,
income right) and so consider the issue of land reform in China.
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Taken from the general principle of nationalization of land ownership, separation of
ownership and other derivative power to abolish the land of collective ownership,
collective ownership by the peasants under the principles of due share of foreign parts,
to obtain permanent land use rights, the right of usufruct and disposal and can be paid
transfer of land property rights.
The need for the reform of the general principles involved in some of the major issues
discussed.
A question on the nationalization of land ownership:
China's mineral, forest and water resources are state-owned, urban land is
state-owned. Transportation, defense, water, etc. for the state-owned land. Agricultural
land, the state farm land was state-owned, non-collective ownership of the land,
Barren, alkali beach, desert, state-owned. The collective ownership of land
nationalization of land ownership would have a unified country. State ownership of
land, ultimate disposal of land rights. Use of units and individuals pay the land
transfer to the state (rent) to obtain the right to use certain period of time. As for the
collective ownership of rural land in the original, so farmers should have a perpetual
right to use and earning. Land ownership and the separation of ownership and use
rights and benefits, the State enjoyed its name, "ownership", the
peasants were in fact "a permanent right of use and earning
power." State ownership of land, both to ensure the country due to the
economic development needs (traffic, oil pipe, urban construction, industrial
construction, etc.), land acquisition perfectly justifiable, but also ensure that the State
agricultural land use monitoring and norms, and the implementation of ultimate
disposal of land right on a legal basis. Make the state's macro control over
land use, but also the specific adjustment of national interests and the farmers.
2 on the abolition of collective ownership of land issues:
Cancellation of collective ownership of land, basically eliminating the drawbacks
caused by collective ownership of land. By collective ownership of land property
rights principle of equal distribution of the internal members, sub-field home (to
people). Farmers have permanent land use rights, income rights and the general sense
of     right     of     disposal.     Of     course,    the     land     property     right
"privatization" process, we should fully consider the
effectiveness and duration of the contract, the contractor's interests, and
collective contracts signed under the various economic, parties of interest. How to
solve such problems, to conduct specific research into different categories to make the
proper solution.
3 on the country to gain ownership of the collective interests of farmers and
compensation:
Countries in order to obtain ownership on compensation for farmers and collective
interests, also Weiliaojili agricultural Sheng Chan, Zeng Jia farmers income, Jian
Shao burden on peasants, Zai Yi Ding a longer period of time (Jing research and
evaluate the set) Yuan Ze on land under agricultural production Duiyu 用于 users to
reduce land rent.
4 on the legal changes in land use issues:
State land, urban development, transportation development, industrial and commercial
development of land acquisition, etc., in order to fully ensure the interests of farmers
lost their land, the state and the farmers (land property owners) should be apportioned
in accordance with a land transfer payments and differential land rent. Countries in
order to protect arable land for agriculture, land use and change for the
implementation of norms, supervision and management.
   ?5 on land ownership issues:
In addition farmers have ownership (state) all the property outside the functions and
powers of complete property rights, the most important performance for the right to
use, usufruct and the general sense of right of disposal. Peasant land rights have legal
significance and practical significance of the exclusive nature of the property rights of
farmers on the land issued by the State appropriate legal protection.
6 paid on the transfer of land property rights:
Farmers and state laws and regulations regulate agricultural land use permitted within
the discretion of land property rights can be transferable. Regulation and market
mechanisms determine the transfer price, terms and conditions. The state paid transfer
of land property rights of market behavior to guide, manage and regulate. In order to
avoid speculations, land speculation, the protection of arable land for non-agricultural,
in order to avoid the farmers because of cultural, legal knowledge is limited and is
fraud, the state set up specialized agencies and the establishment of land property
rights registration system. Farmers to transfer land ownership can be paid according
to law, inheritance, gift.
According to the basic principles of land reform, to a certain extent, to eliminate the
drawbacks of the current land system, compared with the existing land system has
obvious advantages, as follows:
Land nationalization of land covering the whole country. The state ownership of land
with unity. Conducive to the overall national strategic development plan, are
conducive to land acquisition will help the national standard management of land use.
The long term, said countries in the future of land reform and adjustment to provide a
more broad selection and legal status.
Land property rights protected by law. Exclusive possession of land farmers to fully
guarantee the farmers on land use and revenue authority. Land and labor resources can
be more reasonable to combine closely, and fully mobilize the enthusiasm of the
farmers produce. Property rights to the land system of agricultural production and
operation activities are included in the scope of civil law and norms among the
regulator. Reduced administrative intervention, the need for administrative
coordination and management to minimize administrative interference, local
grass-roots cadres and relatives such as on the interests of farmers against snobbish.
Farmers occupy the land line long-term stable agricultural production pattern in line
with the long-term agricultural inputs, continuity and partial recovery characteristics.
In favor of agricultural labor input, capital investment and technology inputs to
improve the level of labor productivity in agricultural production. Conducive to
scientific farming, land use and maintenance of land, and to improve soil quality, are
environmentally friendly.
Conducive to the rational allocation of land resources. Land resources and relevant
departments to supervise and guarantee the legal protection, the role of market
mechanisms under the flow, a reasonable configuration. Improve efficiency in the use
of land resources. For agricultural production and operation of modern development
to provide a clear relationship between property rights and the basic conditions for the
allocation of resources. Gradually toward the promotion of China's
agricultural specialization, mass production mode of production, increase the rate of
agricultural production goods. Ownership and use rights, separation of ownership and
earnings, in line with the modern enterprise system, property rights and management
characteristics of the request.
Since there is a market value of land property rights, and can be used as collateral
means to provide some protection for agricultural credit, agricultural credit activity.
With the increase of agricultural productivity, to be released as part of the total
farming population, from the land (purchase or acquisition) for the industry and the
tertiary industry to provide labor resources.
Land reform to some extent, reduce the growth rate of agricultural population, help to
improve the quality of the agricultural population. In the collective ownership, the
new agricultural population in land allocation, household population, have increased
opportunities to participate in the distribution of land (multisection more students).
After land reform, land use rights after distribution of the population the more the less
the share of inheritance (to have more small points).
For various reasons the land requisitioned farmers, farmers can get more appropriate
compensation. Particularly with the state by a certain percentage share of land at
market prices, transfer payments and differential land rent, the farmers lost their land
more fully the interests of the guarantee.
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Of course, land reform is extremely important reform measures include all aspects of
complex systems engineering. Must be careful, after adequate preparation, including
extensive involvement of experts and farmers, land surveys, improve relevant laws
and regulations, monitoring systems of land registration, land transfer, control systems
and so on. Fully prepared and mature conditions during the gradual process of reform
can not be across the board, can be tried first in some areas, and explore the
experience. On the ethnic minority areas, some areas may not be nationalized, and
more appropriate to implement full privatization of land.
Agricultural modernization is the only way for agricultural development, a
fundamental solution to the dual structure of agriculture in China is to speed up the
process of agricultural modernization. The current reform of Chinese agriculture is
not enough to completely change the basic situation of agricultural backwardness, and
promote the modernization of Chinese agriculture. To further deepen the reform of
agriculture, to eliminate the drawbacks of the existing land system. Reasonable and
appropriate to the development of China's agricultural land system, speed
up the process of agricultural modernization in China a necessary condition. The
author believes that the right conditions, according to the basic principles of this
proposed reform of land system, may be able to establish more appropriate to the
modernization of China's agricultural development, the relative suitability
of the land system.
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This       reference      book     "Contemporary           China",
"Development Economics."
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Note This article was written in 2004, and now China's reform and
development strategies and processes and significant changes in policy, the author in
order to maintain the original unchanged. The part of some theorists this year,
economists on China's agricultural reform, especially a new discussion of
the rural land system and began calling for reform of the rural land system. The
foreseeable future, will the reform of rural land system, some of the arguments
presented in this paper to some extent, the implementation will be implemented or
disguised. Wait and see.
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