Agricultural modernization and agricultural land reform Agricultural modernization and agricultural land reform Books Church 2004/10/25 ? Agricultural modernization is the only way for China&#39;s agricultural development Congress report proposed a dual structure of China&#39;s agricultural problems and speed up China&#39;s agricultural development. China is a developing country, China&#39;s backward agriculture and modern industries co-exist, can not keep up much of China&#39;s agricultural development and speed the development process of industrial modernization. Agriculture accounts for a very important position in the national economy played a very important role. Modernization of agriculture is the economic and social modernization component. Needs in the process of industrialization of agricultural support, a high level of sustainable development in the agricultural development of modern industry the process of progressive realization. Relations plan for agricultural livelihood, social stability and national security. Agricultural production is the production of other economic sectors can not be replaced, and agricultural production of raw materials for the industrial sector as part of the development of agriculture as agricultural machinery, agricultural chemicals, transportation, construction, industrial consumer goods, such as provision of market and development space. Agricultural surplus labor force to provide labor for the industrial and service source. Agriculture provided the national economy and financial reserves accumulated. So to speed up the development of China&#39;s agriculture is of great significance. A fundamental solution to the dual structure of agriculture in China is to speed up the development process of agricultural modernization in China. Modernization of agriculture is the modernization of science and technology and modern industrial agriculture to provide technical means and material means, modern management for agricultural production to provide advanced management tools. Modern agricultural production (scale and specialized production methods) gradually changed and instead of the traditional mode of agricultural production. Agricultural modernization is the only way for agricultural development, is to change the dual structure of the fundamental path. How to develop China&#39;s agriculture speed, speed up the development process of China&#39;s agricultural modernization and the speed of China&#39;s sustained and stable growth, wealthy and powerful, well-off as quickly as possible on major issues. ? To further deepen the reform of agriculture can be more rapid development of Chinese agriculture The basic status of China&#39;s agriculture are: traditional and backward mode of production, production organization and production technology mainstream though. China&#39;s lack of capital investment in agriculture, science and technology content of less. China&#39;s low agricultural productivity, agricultural production and absorb large amount of agricultural population, the overall quality of the agricultural population is low, low standards of living and way of life behind. Large proportion of agricultural self-sufficiency, low agricultural commodities. Scale production and low level of specialization. Objectively speaking, some negative factors hindered the development of Chinese agriculture, such as: natural conditions and the impact on agricultural production constraints, the Chinese may be too little arable land, cities and towns, industrial, transportation, as it developed to occupy arable land. Regional economic and agricultural development are very uneven. Environmental degradation, soil erosion, desertification, acidification, etc., but the impact of China&#39;s agricultural development is a major factor in system problems. Since reform and opening to the family contract responsibility system based on China&#39;s agricultural reform was a great success. Stimulate the production of agricultural reform, farmers initiative to mobilize a very rich agricultural labor resources, improve labor efficiency, and promote agricultural development. The combination of land and labor resources, incentive mechanisms under the effect of income is relatively reasonable. However, the incentives of labor income limited to a certain extent and scope of work. When the labor input to a certain extent, due to the role of marginal benefit, a relatively slow pace of agricultural growth. Agricultural reform is also a more superficial level, the promotion of agricultural development is limited, not enough to completely change the basic conditions of agricultural backwardness, and promote the modernization of Chinese agriculture. Contracting system can not only promote the agricultural modernization. In a sense, the development of agriculture (modern agriculture) is a more effective use of agricultural factors of production (land, labor, capital and technology). In the market economy mechanism and the role of national agricultural policy control, the rational allocation of production factors in agriculture, organic combination. Land system greatly influence and determine the configuration and integration of agricultural means of production factors affecting the agricultural production organization and production, also affect the effective use of land resources and labor, capital, technology and effective investment. The current system is based on China&#39;s agricultural land-based rural collective ownership of natural villages. Various drawbacks, land and labor resources are not fully utilized, the slow development of Chinese agriculture. Due to historical and other reasons, this collective administration with very obvious color. Collective ownership of equity by the administration and relatives from the forces of the damage area. Based on the existing land system in China&#39;s agricultural land system reform can not eliminate the existence of many defects, such defects affect and hinder the development of agricultural modernization, the main performance in several ways: 1) The analysis of property rights unclear, vague legal definition of land ownership: Although from the legal and theoretical system for the collective ownership of rural land, but subject to collective ownership is not clearly defined in the organization. &quot;Constitution&quot; and &quot;Land Management Law&quot; is defined as the collective township (town), village and village group 3. In the Civil Law, the collective is defined as the township (town) and village levels. In the &quot;Agricultural Basic Law&quot; means in another village or regional cooperative economic organizations. Ownership in the legal definition of the fuzzy, causing many problems. Fact that the state has played in some sense the role of the owner, the state of the collective ownership of excessive interference. With certain management functions on behalf of the State issued administrative layers of paper at all levels of a sudden. Collective administrative units in the country and at all levels of management interference in the enjoyment &quot;of land ownership.&quot; In fact difficult to enjoy the full ownership, it is difficult to obtain adequate legal protection. As the vague definition of collective ownership at all levels, all levels of economic contracts signed by its legal validity is also a problem, Solve the Problems are not clearly defined. 2) Land Property Rights incomplete: As the national and provincial executive intervention to lead to serious defects empowerment of rural property is not complete. Farmers to plant crops, land use options are constrained, farmers rights are infringed. Farmers do not fully dispose of land rights, land mobile and rational allocation of resources to solidify. Farmers on the implications of land ownership is not complete, power is limited not clear. Ownership, use, disposition, income right incomplete. In the development of the transport, industrial, urban, commercial land requisition, the collective ownership of a very vulnerable position, using administrative means to harm the process of land acquisition and land interests of farmers. Land Property Rights is not complete, ownership of the scope and comprehensiveness were damaged. 3) the right of land use rights and benefits of the period of instability, there is no real legal guarantees: Household responsibility system reform since the contract period be long or short, the policy line is unclear, local grass-roots operation actually has many problems. Short-term contract is not conducive to long-term investment and development of farmers, long-term contract with the collective members of another due to natural causes or other reasons, members of the changes in demand caused by the redistribution of land use conflict with, the abuse of power, unreasonable contract was fixed, it is difficult embody the principle of fairness. 而 Subject Definition of ownership and property rights affect the power Duanquewenti, in fact farmers contract period is difficult to fully Bao Zheng&#39;s. 4) The existing system of collective ownership of land is difficult in practice to ensure fair and equitable. Fair and equitable principles of collective ownership should be reflected at two levels: First, the collective interests of a fair and impartial common problem: As the definition of property right Zhuti vague definition of a collective group of owners are also vague, a conflict of interest with different level administrative coordination or lack of legal basis for the coordination of the principle of equity is difficult to guarantee. For various reasons, the management of collective ownership is often controlled by a few grass-roots leadership, coupled with rural-specific interest groups, the phenomenon of kinship, an economic agreement in the collective ownership of foreign or internal members of an economic contract, the collective interest is often compromised. Administrative interference, trading power for money so often harm the collective interest. Second, the members of the collective members of the internal interests and power between the fair question: In theory, the collective interests among its members within the power and responsibility are equal. In fact not all members within the collective ownership of land or the proceeds equally, the collective property of land and property rights without such joint-stock division and organization, management and distribution mechanism. Within the collective interests of all members of the coordination and distribution are often subject to various levels of administrative leadership, power and other relatives about the will find it difficult to demonstrate fairness. As the group members within the natural and unnatural changes of personnel, difficult to objectively reflect the fair. The instability of the rural population in particular, part of the urban population in fact be entirely off the land, how to participate in the distribution is difficult. 5) farmers to use land for income uncertainty and the instability of agricultural production pattern and the long-term stability of the agricultural inputs required a conflict: Cyclical agricultural production season, long-term characteristics, long-term agricultural inputs, continuous inputs of a phased return characteristics, but because farmers can not be stable for a long time, in fact, possession and use of land, mainly caused by short-term behavior of agricultural inputs, positive long-term investment is not high. Predatory farming, arable land and do not want to raise, so that the decline in the quality of land: soil erosion, desertification, compaction serious land humus content decreased, increased land containing harmful inorganic substances. So reduce the quality of agricultural products, the cost of increased yields. Agricultural land property relations are not clear, the right to use the period of instability directly affect the agricultural labor, capital and technology investment: 6) the current land system is not conducive to rational allocation of resources does not meet the property rights of the institutional and organizational forms of enterprises, land resources, the role of market mechanism can not be reasonable under the configuration. Backward agricultural production, input-output efficiency is not high. Specialization, scale, enterprise and farm-oriented modern agricultural production methods and organizational forms difficult to achieve. We should clearly understand that China is only the primary agricultural reform success. Household responsibility system reform is only in the mode of operation at the level of reform, can not fundamentally eliminate the drawbacks caused by the land system. Agricultural go the road of modern agriculture must be further reform, especially the need to reform the current system of rural collective ownership of land. On the reform of the existing land system How to reform the rural land system is a very major reform issues. Issues related to China&#39;s agricultural development is also directly related to the steady and healthy development of China&#39;s total economy. Related to the state, collective and personal interests of farmers. But also on other areas of China in the strategic plan of the reform issue, also related to social stability and social security a big issue. In a sense it is the most important and most influential of the reform. Some advocates of land nationalization, privatization has been argued, was not to change the current context of land ownership, and changes in land management by improving the search for suitable agricultural development organization and management method to improve the contracting system. I think it can refer to the experience of China&#39;s industrial reforms, from the clarity of property rights, separation of ownership and other derivatives of power (the right to use, disposition, income right) and so consider the issue of land reform in China. ? Taken from the general principle of nationalization of land ownership, separation of ownership and other derivative power to abolish the land of collective ownership, collective ownership by the peasants under the principles of due share of foreign parts, to obtain permanent land use rights, the right of usufruct and disposal and can be paid transfer of land property rights. The need for the reform of the general principles involved in some of the major issues discussed. A question on the nationalization of land ownership: China&#39;s mineral, forest and water resources are state-owned, urban land is state-owned. Transportation, defense, water, etc. for the state-owned land. Agricultural land, the state farm land was state-owned, non-collective ownership of the land, Barren, alkali beach, desert, state-owned. The collective ownership of land nationalization of land ownership would have a unified country. State ownership of land, ultimate disposal of land rights. Use of units and individuals pay the land transfer to the state (rent) to obtain the right to use certain period of time. As for the collective ownership of rural land in the original, so farmers should have a perpetual right to use and earning. Land ownership and the separation of ownership and use rights and benefits, the State enjoyed its name, &quot;ownership&quot;, the peasants were in fact &quot;a permanent right of use and earning power.&quot; State ownership of land, both to ensure the country due to the economic development needs (traffic, oil pipe, urban construction, industrial construction, etc.), land acquisition perfectly justifiable, but also ensure that the State agricultural land use monitoring and norms, and the implementation of ultimate disposal of land right on a legal basis. Make the state&#39;s macro control over land use, but also the specific adjustment of national interests and the farmers. 2 on the abolition of collective ownership of land issues: Cancellation of collective ownership of land, basically eliminating the drawbacks caused by collective ownership of land. By collective ownership of land property rights principle of equal distribution of the internal members, sub-field home (to people). Farmers have permanent land use rights, income rights and the general sense of right of disposal. Of course, the land property right &quot;privatization&quot; process, we should fully consider the effectiveness and duration of the contract, the contractor&#39;s interests, and collective contracts signed under the various economic, parties of interest. How to solve such problems, to conduct specific research into different categories to make the proper solution. 3 on the country to gain ownership of the collective interests of farmers and compensation: Countries in order to obtain ownership on compensation for farmers and collective interests, also Weiliaojili agricultural Sheng Chan, Zeng Jia farmers income, Jian Shao burden on peasants, Zai Yi Ding a longer period of time (Jing research and evaluate the set) Yuan Ze on land under agricultural production Duiyu 用于 users to reduce land rent. 4 on the legal changes in land use issues: State land, urban development, transportation development, industrial and commercial development of land acquisition, etc., in order to fully ensure the interests of farmers lost their land, the state and the farmers (land property owners) should be apportioned in accordance with a land transfer payments and differential land rent. Countries in order to protect arable land for agriculture, land use and change for the implementation of norms, supervision and management. ?5 on land ownership issues: In addition farmers have ownership (state) all the property outside the functions and powers of complete property rights, the most important performance for the right to use, usufruct and the general sense of right of disposal. Peasant land rights have legal significance and practical significance of the exclusive nature of the property rights of farmers on the land issued by the State appropriate legal protection. 6 paid on the transfer of land property rights: Farmers and state laws and regulations regulate agricultural land use permitted within the discretion of land property rights can be transferable. Regulation and market mechanisms determine the transfer price, terms and conditions. The state paid transfer of land property rights of market behavior to guide, manage and regulate. In order to avoid speculations, land speculation, the protection of arable land for non-agricultural, in order to avoid the farmers because of cultural, legal knowledge is limited and is fraud, the state set up specialized agencies and the establishment of land property rights registration system. Farmers to transfer land ownership can be paid according to law, inheritance, gift. According to the basic principles of land reform, to a certain extent, to eliminate the drawbacks of the current land system, compared with the existing land system has obvious advantages, as follows: Land nationalization of land covering the whole country. The state ownership of land with unity. Conducive to the overall national strategic development plan, are conducive to land acquisition will help the national standard management of land use. The long term, said countries in the future of land reform and adjustment to provide a more broad selection and legal status. Land property rights protected by law. Exclusive possession of land farmers to fully guarantee the farmers on land use and revenue authority. Land and labor resources can be more reasonable to combine closely, and fully mobilize the enthusiasm of the farmers produce. Property rights to the land system of agricultural production and operation activities are included in the scope of civil law and norms among the regulator. Reduced administrative intervention, the need for administrative coordination and management to minimize administrative interference, local grass-roots cadres and relatives such as on the interests of farmers against snobbish. Farmers occupy the land line long-term stable agricultural production pattern in line with the long-term agricultural inputs, continuity and partial recovery characteristics. In favor of agricultural labor input, capital investment and technology inputs to improve the level of labor productivity in agricultural production. Conducive to scientific farming, land use and maintenance of land, and to improve soil quality, are environmentally friendly. Conducive to the rational allocation of land resources. Land resources and relevant departments to supervise and guarantee the legal protection, the role of market mechanisms under the flow, a reasonable configuration. Improve efficiency in the use of land resources. For agricultural production and operation of modern development to provide a clear relationship between property rights and the basic conditions for the allocation of resources. Gradually toward the promotion of China&#39;s agricultural specialization, mass production mode of production, increase the rate of agricultural production goods. Ownership and use rights, separation of ownership and earnings, in line with the modern enterprise system, property rights and management characteristics of the request. Since there is a market value of land property rights, and can be used as collateral means to provide some protection for agricultural credit, agricultural credit activity. With the increase of agricultural productivity, to be released as part of the total farming population, from the land (purchase or acquisition) for the industry and the tertiary industry to provide labor resources. Land reform to some extent, reduce the growth rate of agricultural population, help to improve the quality of the agricultural population. In the collective ownership, the new agricultural population in land allocation, household population, have increased opportunities to participate in the distribution of land (multisection more students). After land reform, land use rights after distribution of the population the more the less the share of inheritance (to have more small points). For various reasons the land requisitioned farmers, farmers can get more appropriate compensation. Particularly with the state by a certain percentage share of land at market prices, transfer payments and differential land rent, the farmers lost their land more fully the interests of the guarantee. ? Of course, land reform is extremely important reform measures include all aspects of complex systems engineering. Must be careful, after adequate preparation, including extensive involvement of experts and farmers, land surveys, improve relevant laws and regulations, monitoring systems of land registration, land transfer, control systems and so on. Fully prepared and mature conditions during the gradual process of reform can not be across the board, can be tried first in some areas, and explore the experience. On the ethnic minority areas, some areas may not be nationalized, and more appropriate to implement full privatization of land. Agricultural modernization is the only way for agricultural development, a fundamental solution to the dual structure of agriculture in China is to speed up the process of agricultural modernization. The current reform of Chinese agriculture is not enough to completely change the basic situation of agricultural backwardness, and promote the modernization of Chinese agriculture. To further deepen the reform of agriculture, to eliminate the drawbacks of the existing land system. Reasonable and appropriate to the development of China&#39;s agricultural land system, speed up the process of agricultural modernization in China a necessary condition. The author believes that the right conditions, according to the basic principles of this proposed reform of land system, may be able to establish more appropriate to the modernization of China&#39;s agricultural development, the relative suitability of the land system. ? ? This reference book &quot;Contemporary China&quot;, &quot;Development Economics.&quot; ? Note This article was written in 2004, and now China&#39;s reform and development strategies and processes and significant changes in policy, the author in order to maintain the original unchanged. The part of some theorists this year, economists on China&#39;s agricultural reform, especially a new discussion of the rural land system and began calling for reform of the rural land system. The foreseeable future, will the reform of rural land system, some of the arguments presented in this paper to some extent, the implementation will be implemented or disguised. Wait and see. ? ? ?
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