English: Verbals by dargen

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									Verbals
Grammar Lesson 10 English 10

Is it a VERB or a VERBAL??
• Telling the difference between a verb and a verbal is not done by looking only at the word itself. • You have to see how the word is being used. • In both cases, the word looks like a verb, but if it’s used as something other than a verb…it’s a VERBAL

Is it a VERB or a VERBAL??
• Examples:
– – – – Waxed Flowing Playing Sleeping

• These can be verbs or verbals depending upon how they are used in the sentence.

Is it a VERB or a VERBAL??
• Examples:
– Our butler waxed the floors. – The waxed floors were slippery and dangerous.

• In the first sentence, the word is being used as a verb to tell what action is being done. • In the other one, the word still looks like a verb, but it is being used as an adjective

Is it a VERB or a VERBAL??
• Examples:
– Water was flowing over the rocks in the stream. – Flowing water carries a great deal of potential energy.

• The same thing is true here as in the other example. • The second sentences shows the verb working as an adjective instead of a verb.

Basic Information on Verbals
• Verbals are verb forms (words that look like verbs or could be verbs in other sentences) that are used as one of the following:
– Noun – Adjective – Adverb

• A verbal can never be the verb of the sentence.

Basic Information on Verbals
• There are three different kinds of verbals:
– Infinitive – Participle – Gerund

• Each verbal has a specific purpose and use in a sentence.

Infinitives
• An infinitive is a verb form that is proceeded by the word “to.”
– – – – – – To play To sleep To be seen To steal To have been stolen To speak

Infinitives
• In some sentences (following certain verbs), the “sign of the infinitive” (the word “to) is omitted. • This is done for clarity.
– Help him (to) move the sofa. – Watch the fish (to) snap at the hook. – Can you feel the floor (to) move?

Infinitives
• The verbs which call for an omitted “to” are:
– – – – – – – See Hear Feel Help Let Make Watch

Infinitives
• An infinitive has three possible functions:
– As a noun – As an adjective – As an adverb

• Knowing where an infinitive should go helps make the structure of the sentence more clear.

Infinitives
• As a noun:
– I hate to go. (direct object) – To steal is a crime. (subject)

• As an adjective:
– It’s time to go. (modify time) – There are jobs to be done (modify jobs)

• As an adverb:
– He always plays to win. (modify plays)

Infinitives
• Infinitives can also have modifiers or complements. • This can be done because there is a verb form in the infinitive that (if being used as a verb in another sentence) could take a complement such as an indirect or direct object or a predicate complement.

Infinitives
• Be careful not to create “split” infinitives. • This is done when an adverb is placed between the “to” and the verb form.
– To boldly go…. – To strenuously object… – To always comply…

• It is bad structure for this to be formed.

Participles
• Verb forms that are used as adjectives are called participles. • They will have two forms:
– Present (ending in “-ing”) – Past (ending in “-ed” or “en”)

• These contain action, but they are not used as verbs in the sentence.

Participles
• Examples:
– – – – – – – – Smoking gun Snoring spouse Broken window Elected official Streaming video Buzzing noise Winning touchdown Walking track

Participles
• Participles can appear in several places in the sentence, but they are most commonly found describing / modifying the subject. • Participle phrases can also be made from single participles
– Running along the path

Participles
• Most participle phrases will have commas setting them off. This is especially true when they open a sentence and modify the subject.
– Running at full speed, the back raced twenty yards for a score. – Crying loudly, the baby wanted some attention.

Gerunds
• A gerund looks a lot like a participle because it ends in “-ing.” • However, the gerund is going to be used as a noun. • Gerunds will show up as subjects, direct or indirect objects or objects of prepositions.

Gerunds
• Examples:
– Chewing gum in class is not allowed. (subject) – I liked eating at the new restaurant. (direct object) – Without running very hard I won the race. – Abusing the warm fuzzy kitten is not allowed in this class. (subject)

Practice:
• You will be shown ten sentences with a word or phrase underlined. • Identify the word or phrases as:
– Infinitive – Participle – Gerund

Practice:
1. Sleeping soundly in his bed, Ron was not going to be disturbed by anyone in his house. 2. I wanted to try out for the lacrosse team this spring. 3. The rushing waters of the Colorado River were great for rafting.

Practice:
4. The warm fuzzy kitten, meowing loudly in the hallway, was a nuisance. 5. We tried shooting with the NBA’s new basketball and found it to be challenging. 6. To run a mile in less than four minutes is nearly impossible.

Practice:
7. Charging wildly down the street, the bulls tried to crush the citizens of Pamplona. 8. Cheating on a final exam in English is not an advisable solution to not studying. 9. To sleep, perchance to dream.

Practice:
10. On the sixth day of Xmas, my true love gave to me six geese a-laying, five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves and a partridge in a pear tree.

SURPRISE, SURPRISE, SURPRISE!!
• Now that you can identify these verbals, you have the great privilege of going on to the next great step in verbals……..

DIAGRAMMING!!


								
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