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A program

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					A program
Explore the specific reform programs, start a discussion.
Short-term setback should be adequate, mildly to adjust. Vice drivers to restore the
whole way to increase the number of grass-roots workers, reducing the workload to
maximize benefits. Conditions and poor line speed reduction of long distance.
Scheduling and coordination unit of the whole road from the Board, composed of
scheduling Board, not sales charge level equal to or higher than the Bureau, such as
the establishment of Ministry of Railways, the Post of the total schedule.
Administrative sub-levels, select two to three railway hub control center set up, back
up each other, take turns on duty. Grass-roots operation to return to the original branch
of the case, or even broken down.
Nutrition decompression
Long-term reform to organize first. Gerstner In "Who says elephants can
not dance> in the strong recommendations:" If the leaders want to
fundamentally shift the focus of the organization, it must first power from the current
'king' in the hands taken away from him, publicly transferred to
the new king. " Similarly, the preparation may be superior integration,
familiar with the name of all officials will be transferred to the Ministry of Railways
Ministry      of     Communications       and,     if     necessary    for    them     to
"create" some jobs. Traffic sent from the working group chair
rail reform, to stabilize the primary and technical staff.
Telecommunications and financial reforms have been substantial financial support,
and the major transformation of the original body-profit enterprises, railway finances
weaker, more natural monopoly, is expected to retain more public functions. Higher
level may raise funds heavily in building the railway transport subsidies or greater. A
small central pipe, most of the allocation of places. Provinces share a historical level
of traffic and the backward proportional to long-term remains unchanged. As long as
for railways, local can make their own arrangements.
Lying east and west China was three steps, to be divided into North and South Qinling
Mountain and Huaihe River are two. China Railway has built five vertical and three
horizontal lines 8, planning to expand to eight vertical and eight horizontal. Can make
use of local and trunk, divided into several areas, take a different institutional
arrangements. The following discussion based on five vertical and three horizontal,
the next reference to the adjacent lane into the trunk.

Eastern low-lying, economic development, follow the telecommunications industry to
profit as the goal. The Northeast geopolitical independent, is seeking to revitalize, to a
single uniform zone. Apart from outside the Northeast, including Shanghai,
Beijing-Kowloon and Beijing-Guangzhou three vertical lines, three cities Beijing,
long bead group Intercity Express Line. Recognized trend of separation of passengers
and cargo, but also long-term planning rail 15 programs and one of the key, here, and
the following discussion points in the Eastern line of passenger and freight route
entirely premised on independent passenger and freight companies is possible.
East and Northeast all set up a passenger and a freight company. Between different
areas can be mutually heterogeneous enterprise leased lines, such as the Northeast
Transportation Company leased the eastern freight line providing basic homogeneous
and eastern passenger services. Other transport industry is highly developed eastern
part, constitutes a heterogeneous competition with the railway. High-end customers to
go air, short-distance customers away roads, bulk cargo by sea. In short there is no
monopoly of railway advantage. Four companies should be allowed free pricing. The
appropriate officials of the implementation of the rights of shareholders to be targeted
single. And public non-profit East conflict, but there are hills, there is a relatively poor
areas. Appropriate subsidies to the provinces.
Western package Lan, Lanzhou, Qinghai-Tibet railway three difficult environment,
sparsely populated, are the ethnic minority areas, it is troubled times, its strategic
significance is much greater than economic significance. Should be a separate entity
or incorporated into the strategy of setting up such a name Transport Bureau
companies to continue to rely on the central government, responsibility for the
development and stability in border areas. It may be noted, has great potential for
tourism in the west, huge demand for railway passenger transport.

East and West is relatively simple, three horizontal and two vertical lines the second
step together, the Central Railway, along the significant difference, the more east the
more advanced horizontal, vertical line, coke lines off Jianghan Liu, Po-shing -
Chengdu-Kunming line clearance in the basin and the Chengdu Plain and other
treasure. But mainly service the Midwest, the output workers and primary products,
such as Shanxi coal Jiaoliu line to south. The goal should be public. Relatively weak
competition in the central and western transport heterogeneity, we explore both inside
and outside the railway to establish a market mechanism, reflecting the public and
regional differences, curbing monopolies. First three cross the boundary to Qinhuai
discrete, two vertical merger, the future passenger and cargo separation, six were set
up, we called the company.
As mentioned earlier, the Central Railway Fund, with the central
government's subsidies to the provinces, may also be from the local
financial allocation and also the establishment of the railway fund. China is not a
federal system, but here, the central and local, as a parallel legal Subscription six
Central Railway shares. Not only to public welfare as the goal, the so-called
subscription, is actually willing to pay for all levels of government subsidy. Fiscal
year the company based on the total subsidy, the development of macroeconomic
program, including the total annual transport capacity and the average person / ton-km
costs, minus the average subsidy shall be the average price.
The so-called equity, equal to the proportion of all levels of government subsidy of
the total subsidy and distribution geometric parity transport capacity. In general the
local quota for the origin province, part of the multi-route transit orders may also
subscribe for pipe outside the company's capacity, the designated provinces
of origin. Provinces may also place the quota be divided by time, such as mountain
county quota of fruit production season. But local governments can only spending
part of the operation, the rest of the railway still sell to individuals and businesses
within the tube. Directly under the central body entirely by the quota consumption.
Such shareholders similar to the Group buy broker. Railway Company to the
macro-based consumer plans to introduce micro-economic and production planning,
with greater autonomy, as long as the total and parity on the on-line.
To public and political achievements, expansion funds and local governments could
share. Provided that such access to the right of disposal and proceeds. In 1987 a joint
venture in Guangdong Province and Ministry of Railways to Maoming railway
construction Sanshui, June 1, 1991 the official carrier, has been hailed as the
"three-mao model." Huge amount of investment in Guangdong
Province, but the operations and personnel by the Guangzhou Railway Bureau -
Group Management, the two sides deadlocked over the division of property rights,
poor rail efficiency, debt burden, company restructuring and public listing is frustrated,
finally in 2003 by the Ministry of Railways, "overweight
"recovery.
?
In addition to local finance, we expect to open another source. If the major shippers
and logistics companies to the fund, the quota assigned to geometric parity, than to the
central service cost-effective to buy the railway company, will become strategic
investors. Can be private enterprises or foreign, public opinion less risk because they
can also transport operation can not be transferred overseas. Similarly to rule out
sensitive financial capital.
But the above assumptions, direct injection of additional purchase cost-effective than
cheaper, in doubt. There may be several reasons: the total amount of direct purchases
by regional quotas, prices fluctuate, from this perspective, quotas as futures. More
importantly, is a natural monopoly cost structure: fixed investment, great, a very small
marginal cost. Government subsidies on condition that the majority of fixed
investment, strategic investment to be profitable. Or collect a sufficient number of
strategic investors, provided that the government ensure fair and equitable public.
Scheme can not change. Always a time and place excess or shortage of transport
capacity. To do this open exchange transport capacity. Provinces interchangeable
quotas, but also cash transactions and remittance funds. If the east-west rail transport
is also entering the wholesale energy, the formation of a more transparent
system-wide road pricing, will help public and improve management. If the operation
can exist for a long bias, but also transfer of shares. This is also strategic investors,
especially the second inter-provincial business entrance.
The above is the central railway investment and the market overall system of
micro-management of the following. Two vertical and three horizontal all through the
multi-province, the western share of more subsidies to economically developed east.
For efficiency considerations, the railway transportation capacity off both ends of
roughly equal. In summary the Board is expected to reach balance, not as much due to
the dominance of state enterprises. Provinces may expand the quota, it may maintain
the status quo or decrease. But the return on investment (transport capacity) rate
should maximize consensus.
?
Shareholders Group buy broker is equivalent to large customers, the market is
expected to raise awareness of the central railway. Spending plan reflects the regional
characteristics of the macro. Local financial and strategic investors are seeking the
public welfare and profitability, consumer parts and all the quota. These differences
are implicit in the Fund, the Corporation need not worry about the process, only for
results, maintaining a single goal: return on investment (transport capacity) rate
maximization, and the trunk full.
Management incentives may be weaker than the eastern, lower wages, are not allowed
to retain surplus, will spend the whole budget, the power of large organizations and
honor can be made up to varying degrees. But definitely better than the current system
of constraints of a small number of executives. In our design, the Transit Fund close
to regional markets, each company received a number of fund subsidies. If the
introduction of strategic investors, but also knowledgeable businessman.
The horizontal line vertical line belong to different companies, the road network have
been completed, all the basic crisscross each province, will double the number of
future lines. Accordingly, a fund to subsidize the two railway companies may
subsidize the three provinces along the Huai. Two three companies serve the same
market, performance comparable assessment will help fund the management, but also
as private investors voting with their feet, will be invested into the company from the
inefficient and efficient company, transferred to other modes of transportation from
rail . Eastern Railway in the formation of a common market manager. Are an effective
incentive and restraint.
?
?Although the strengthening constraint, the management still have considerable
autonomy. Information available on the Government, the macro spending plans may
be refined to the county and the month, the management of transport resources
allocation accordingly. Macro-fiscal year plan includes the total labor costs and
average pay, but allow management to reward employees based on individual
performance.
A total of 10 in the eastern part of the railway company, together covering the vast
majority of the population and economy. Both vertical and horizontal lines cross each
province, belonging to different companies. If the shipper in the vertical and
horizontal lines around the small difference between the target market, the two lines
will directly affect their own freight carrier volume. Constitute a homogeneous
indirect competition.
Possible problems, self-Eastern Railway, Central Railway by subsidies constitute
unfair competition against the former. We suspect that the first limited indirect
homogeneous competition, followed by the eastern railway maximize profits, will
"skim" the high-end positioning, the current eastern market has
began to take shape, construction, inter-city express is very dynamic. Central Railway
pursuit of return on investment (transport capacity) rate of maximum towards
low-cost. Western Railway goals decision as well. If the rail service and Midwest East
obvious distinction between the central and western lines may be leased.
Scheduling independent companies, as traffic control for a class of government
agencies. Integration of short-term reform that is making preparations for this
operation. Zhengzhou, Wuhan, or may create the first dispatch center, northeast and
southeast of the company to ensure competition, a second center in Shenyang, the
western three lines intersecting at Lanzhou, the third center. Rotate the three dispatch
centers on duty each other unexpected needs.
?
Early pregnancy and abortion reform in the Passenger Transport Company,
Transportation Company and the station of contradictions. We are not designed for
Railway Transport, most of the stations will be attached to their company in the trunk.
The problem is that Route interchange station, general passenger and freight gathered,
extra cash, if the one allocated to trunk, even if there is no indirect heterogeneous
competition, will give priority to their own business. Interconnection has a warning
for the telecommunications industry. It should be independent of company funds
straight from the railway station of the channel resources can be allocated by
operation or by the company's bid.
The salary system, the Western Railway still clinging to the civil service. Local
governments are also concerned about employment and stability, the central railway
will take benefits of high employment, low pay structure. High employment, low
wages, constraint management autonomy. Many benefits in kind or in services, both
to reflect regional differences, unified company-wide wage level can. Eastern Railway
is to take high-wage low-benefit.
High wages mean downsizing. Vertical and horizontal separation can be used again,
divert to the horizontal line company. In the eastern part of the Railway
Administration today will be split. Easy operation by the front of the trunk segments,
the background of the resources allocated according to Transit Fund subscription. The
program was clearly ahead of the merger flop Railway Administration direct the
company to more trouble, but a better long-term gains. If China Telecom in 1999 the
first split is based on even and odd number rather than by business types, there will be
interoperability, PHS, 3G and so on, it will not have to re-2008. Successful spin-off
premise, the staff recognized.
Usual state-owned company set up trade unions, There is no possible independent
trade unions. Also slightly better arrangement is possible under the local government,
respectively, from the staff closer. The establishment of the Fund at the same level
with the railway, independent company, to some extent constrained both against the
interests of employees. As the Transit Fund, a union, including 23 employees, an
obligation to fight for equal rights. Local railway trade unions to form the railway
trade union, under the Federation of Trade Unions, higher administrative level than
the company's unions.
And so on, set up to protect their rights and interests of the shipper groups. Or can be
further divided into two groups business and agricultural shippers, local governments
will be shipped to the quota by county breakdown, corresponding to two different
degrees, can be entrusted with monitoring implementation. Dispute over railway land
and in rural areas, can be included in the agricultural demands of the shipper groups.
Reform of the system should result in a department that 2010 deadline could also be
elastic, so as not aggressive.
U.S. economist 莱斯特瑟罗 recalls: "As a growth in pre-jet era Montana
boy, rail and placed all my fantasy, when the world's fastest train is the
major north 'empire-building who '... ... like to accomplish in the
future, that the train must cultivate the spirit of the name implies: there has not empire,
only an empty wasteland ... ... "
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                                                 2008.6.10

				
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