Turn the Beat Upside Down

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Turn the Beat Upside Down Powered By Docstoc
					By Michael Bellamy and Jacob Lee
      Mrs. Garrett’s Class
 Phenix City Intermediate School
     Phenix City, Alabama
         2005 Student Symposium
         Phenix City Intermediate
            May 14-17, 2005
        Background Information
• Cardiac output is how many milliliters of blood your
  heart pumps in one minute.
• Blood carries oxygen to your brain and muscles.
  Oxygen is used by your body for movement and other
  functions, such as digestion.
• The heart, lungs, and blood vessels work differently on
  Earth and in space, so this means that the cardiac
  output will be different on Earth and in space.
• The human body needs more oxygen to fuel the
  muscles when it exercises.
                     2005 Student Symposium
                     Phenix City Intermediate
                        May 14-17, 2005
                Objective
• Recording and analyzing data, using the
  scientific method to investigate a problem,
  and multiplying whole numbers.




                 2005 Student Symposium
                 Phenix City Intermediate
                    May 14-17, 2005
   Things that Affect your Heart
• Cardiac output helps determine your heart and
  cardiovascular system’s health.
• Your cardiac output can be changed if you smoke,
  drink, or use any other drug. These things will
  make your heart rate decrease, therefore, causing
  irregular breathing and heart problems.
• If you exercise regularly, your heart will grow
  stronger, and your cardiac output will increase.
  This could have a positive affect on your body and
  you would have less risk of heart problems.

                   2005 Student Symposium
                   Phenix City Intermediate
                      May 14-17, 2005
                Question
• How are cardiac output and exercise related,
  and how does being in space affect your
  body during exercise?




                 2005 Student Symposium
                 Phenix City Intermediate
                    May 14-17, 2005
               Stroke Volume
• Stroke volume is the amount of blood pushed
  through the heart during each heartbeat.
• It is measured in milliliters per beat.
• It normally remains at about 75 milliliters per beat.
• In a head-down tilt position, the stroke volume
  increases to about 90 milliliters per beat, because
  fluids rush to the upper part of the body and then the
  heart has more blood to force out with each beat.
                    2005 Student Symposium
                    Phenix City Intermediate
                       May 14-17, 2005
             Hypothesis
Our hypothesis is that in space, our cardiac
output will be greater than it is on Earth,
because the heart would work with greater
effort and fewer results.




               2005 Student Symposium
               Phenix City Intermediate
                  May 14-17, 2005
                 Materials
•   Watch or clock with a second hand
•   Chair
•   Data sheet
•   Calculator (if wanted)




                  2005 Student Symposium
                  Phenix City Intermediate
                     May 14-17, 2005
        Locating Your Pulse
• To locate your pulse, you put your index
  finger and your middle finger on the carotid
  artery, located on the side of your neck.




                 2005 Student Symposium
                 Phenix City Intermediate
                    May 14-17, 2005
                Procedure (Part 1)
• Sitting in a chair, take your resting heart rate. (Take pulse for
  10 seconds, then multiply by 6.)
• Record resting heart rate in data chart.
• Calculate resting cardiac output by multiplying stroke volume
  times heart rate. Use 75 ml/beat for stroke volume. (Cardiac
  output = stroke volume X heart rate)
• Record resting cardiac output.
• Stand and do 25 jumping jacks.
• Take your heart rate immediately after exercise. Record data.
• Calculate your cardiac output after exercise. Record data.
                         2005 Student Symposium
                         Phenix City Intermediate
                            May 14-17, 2005
           Procedure (Part 2)
• Lay your chair down and take your resting pulse.
• Next, take your pulse and multiply it by six to get
  your heart rate.
• Then take your answer and multiply it by ninety,
  which is your stroke volume, and get your space
  simulation estimate.
• After this, make your exercise estimate by making
  a jumping jack motion twenty-five times in the
  reclining position, take your pulse, and calculate
  as you did before.
                    2005 Student Symposium
                    Phenix City Intermediate
                       May 14-17, 2005
2005 Student Symposium
Phenix City Intermediate
   May 14-17, 2005
                 Ten      10 sec     Heart      Stroke        Cardiac
                 Second   times 6    Rate       Volume        Output
                 pulse    equals one (beat/min) (ml/beat)     (ml/min)
                 count    minute

Michael          22       X6            132          X 75 =   9,990
After sitting
Michael          32       X6            192          X 75 =   15,750
After exercise
Jacob            13       X6            78           X 75 =   5,850
After sitting
Jacob            31       X6            186          X 75 =   13,950
After exercise
                          2005 Student Symposium
                          Phenix City Intermediate
                             May 14-17, 2005
                       Results
• Next, we simulated the activity as if we were in space.
• We did this by calculating in a head tilt position, but
  instead of using 75, we used 90 for our stroke volume.
• These results are exceptionally higher than our last
  results!
• In our simulated space, we used the same methods as
  we did with the normal test. Although it was a little
  tricky to do a head tilt exercise, we got solid results.
• Our results were up to 22 liters per beat in a head tilt
  exercise position than in a regular position.
                      2005 Student Symposium
                      Phenix City Intermediate
                         May 14-17, 2005
                  10 sec   10 sec times 6 Heart rate       Stroke      Cardiac
                  pulse    equals one     (beats/min)      Volume      Output
                  count    minute                          (ml/beat)   (ml/min)
Michael           31       X6=               186           X 90 =      16,740
After head down
Michael           34       X6=               204           X 90 =      18,360
After head down
exercise
Jacob             24       X6=               144           X 90 =      12,960
After head down
Jacob             41       X6=               246           X 90 =      22,140
After head down
exercise

                                2005 Student Symposium
                                Phenix City Intermediate
                                   May 14-17, 2005
          Surprising Results
• It’s surprising how much blood your heart
  pumps a minute. For instance, one of us
  pumped nearly 22 liters of blood in a
  minute after exercising.
• The heart is a very powerful muscle
  indeed!!!


                 2005 Student Symposium
                 Phenix City Intermediate
                    May 14-17, 2005
                 Conclusion
• During this experiment, we learned a lot about
  the heart and how powerful it is.
• We now know that in space your heart has to
  work much harder.




                   2005 Student Symposium
                   Phenix City Intermediate
                      May 14-17, 2005
                 Importance
• This knowledge could be applied to medical
  science in a way that cardiologists can estimate
  how much time astronauts can stay in space at one
  time.
• This experiment can save lives by recording
  information on the heart and cardiac output, which
  could provide information for the VAD, which is
  the name of the rocket pump part that works with
  the heart to save lives while you wait for a heart
  donor.
                   2005 Student Symposium
                   Phenix City Intermediate
                      May 14-17, 2005
Investigating with Fellow
        Students




        2005 Student Symposium
        Phenix City Intermediate
           May 14-17, 2005
Investigating with Fellow
        Students




        2005 Student Symposium
        Phenix City Intermediate
           May 14-17, 2005
               Students’ Comments
•I enjoyed today’s presentation. I got tired, but I had fun. -Joah
•I learned that you find your cardiac output by your pulse. I
learned that its different in space and after exercise. -Jerica
•I learned how to find my pulse. –Jaycie
•The best part was doing the exercises and then Math. – Terrence




                           2005 Student Symposium
                           Phenix City Intermediate
                              May 14-17, 2005
                 Having Fun
• Not only did they
  exercise their bodies,
  they exercised their
  vocal cords!




                    2005 Student Symposium
                    Phenix City Intermediate
                       May 14-17, 2005
                  Resources
• We got this investigation from
      nasaexplorers.com.
• Presentation from Microsoft Office (PowerPoint)
• Pictures from Google
• Pump Your Blood song:
  http://www.macjams.com/filemgmt/jam.php?lid=
  6756
                   2005 Student Symposium
                   Phenix City Intermediate
                      May 14-17, 2005
2005 Student Symposium
Phenix City Intermediate
   May 14-17, 2005
2005 Student Symposium
Phenix City Intermediate
   May 14-17, 2005