PROBLEM STATEMENT What are some of the effects of by birdmandaddy


									Water Quality                                                                                                                                                   2008 Burroughs Wellcome Fund Project
                                                                                                                                                                                                           ELIZABETH CITY STATE UNIVERSITY

Elyse Howdershell, Taylor Dozier, Chudney Hill, Shauntavia Sawyer

 PROBLEM STATEMENT                                                               TESTING FOR POLLUTION                                           CONNECTING THE LITHOSPHERE TO POLLUTION                                   SEWAGE & RUNOFF
 What are some of the effects of runoff and sewage related pollution on the      We tested our water samples for:                                The lithosphere is the part of the earth that includes the crust and      Sewage is mainly liquid fluid containing waste
 Pasquotank river watershed?                                                     Nitrate                                                         upper mantle. Fertilizers, chemicals, fecal matter, and pesticides can    materials from households and industries.
 What can be done to minimize the negative effects on the water quality?         Phosphate                                                       collect on the ground. They can be carried by precipitation into our      Runoff is the flow of water from rain, snowmelt, and other
                                                                                 Dissolved Oxygen                                                water supplies through drains, ditches, and groundwater.                  sources over the land. It is a major component of the
 HYPOTHESIS                                                                      pH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           water cycle.
                                                                                 (PPM- parts per million)
 If samples from our sites show out of range levels for nitrates, phosphates,
 D.O., and pH, then contamination is indicated by natural or manmade                                                                             CONNECTING THE ATMOSPHERE TO POLLUTION                                    Agriculture is a
 pollutants. Recommendations will need to be made to mitigate these                                                                              The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds Earth. Polluted       leading source of
 abnormal levels.                                                                PH    SCALE                                                     water can evaporate into the atmosphere, forming acid rain.               water pollution in
 Sampling Sites:                                                                 Water with a pH value between 6.5 and 8.0 is acceptable
 -Dismal Swamp (DS01) -Pasquotank River (PR02)                                                                                                                                                                             rivers and lakes
                                                                                                                                                 HYDROSPHERE - The hydrosphere is the collection all of Earth's
 -ECSU (ECSU03) -ECSU (ECSU04)                                                   Our pH Results:                                                 water. The Pasquotank River is a part of the hydrosphere.
 -Currituck Sound (CS05)                                                         DS01-7.22
                                                                                 PR02-6.6                                                        BIOSPHERE - The Biosphere is all of the life on Earth. Chemicals are
                                                                                 ECSU03-6.6                                                      being tossed in to our oceans and rivers by humans, biosphere
                                                                                                                                                 inhabitants.                                                              REFLECTIONS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           We learned that the Pasquotank River is contaminated
                                                                                 All of our samples showed a healthy level of pH.                                                                                          by sewage and by pollution.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           This was overall a good learning experience and a
                                                                                YELLOW SPRINGS                                                                                                                             good opportunity.
                                                                                INSTRUMENTATION                                                                                                                            This was a good research topic to research and every
                                                                                (YSI)                                                                                                                                      question or answer lead to another question or answer.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           It was almost like a chain reaction!
                                                                                 The YSI probe meter measures
                                                                                 dissolved oxygen and pH.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Get going on fixing outdated municipal water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              treatment plants
                                                                                DISSOLVED OXYGEN SCALE                                                                                                                      • Help localities set up programs that ensure septic
                                                                                 All of our samples were out of healthy range for dissolved                                                                                   system maintenance and monitoring
                                                                                 oxygen. This may be due to false readings on the YSI.                                                                                      • Fully fund beach monitoring programs
                                                                                 ECSU03 and CS05 showed unhealthy levels.                                                                                                   • Conserve water
                                                                                                                     Dissolved Oxygen Chart                                                                                 • Alternate crops to reduce the need for fertilizers
                                                                                                                     DS01-40.3                                                                                              • Create zones between agricultural fields and any
                                                                                                                     PR02-21.37                                                                                               bodies of water that might be nearby.
                                                                                                                     ECSU03-4.8                                                                                             • Use less hazardous waste and try planting without
     BURROUGHS WELLCOME SAMPLING SITES 08                                                                            ECSU04-9.00                                                                                              fertilizers.
 WHAT DO WE KNOW                                                                                                                                                                                                           ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 • Low dissolved oxygen can point to pollution                                                                                                                                                                             Dr. Botti
 • Exceptionally high or low pH can point to pollution                                                                                                                                                                     Dr. Porter
 • Abnormal nitrate and phosphate tests can point to pollution                                                                                                                                                             Dr. Pringle
 • Runoff and sewage are a cause of pollution
                                                                                PHOSPHATES                                                       CONTRIBUTORS OF POOR WATER QUALITY                                        Dr. Rossbach
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ms. Noble
 WATER QUALITY                                                                  Total phosphate levels of non-polluted waters are usually less   • Sewage overflows                                                        Mrs. Stamper
                                                                                than 0.1mg/L or ppm. All of our samples showed high levels of    • People polluting it
 Water quality is made up of many different parts which include: physical,                                                                                                                                                 Mrs. Jenkins
 chemical, and biological characteristics. These characteristics are            phosphate which can indicate pollution.                          • Various aquatic activities (boating,                                    Mrs. Fowlkes
 compared to a set of standards.                                                Our Phosphate Results:                                             water skiing, swimming, etc.)
                                                                                DS01-3ppm                                                        • Storm water runoff
                                                                                PR02-2ppm                                                        • Fertilizer runoff
                                                                                CS05-1ppm                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES
                                                                                NITRATES                                                         EFFECT OF POOR WATER QUALITY                                    
                                                                                The federal standard for nitrate in drinking water is 10 mg/l    Polluted water is killing aquatic life.                         
                                                                                nitrate-N, or 50 mg/l nitrate-NO3                                Sewage water is preventing the sunlight to reach the sea floor. 
                                                                                                                                                 Excess nutrients, such as lawn fertilizers, can cause algae blooms
                                                                                All of our samples showed normal levels of nitrates.

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