Fragmentation Example by tek31120

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									                            Fragmentation Example

             Net 1                          Net 2                        Net 3
 A         MTU = 1500            R        MTU = 620            R       MTU = 1500           B
                                 1                             2



Station A needs to send a payload size of 1400 bytes (octets) to station B across the
networks as shown above. Data needs to be fragmented because the payload is too big to
fit the smallest MTU size (620 bytes) in one of the network.

Show the Data Length, More Flag, and Fragment Offset values in each of the resulting
fragments.

Solutions:

1. Determine that actual data size for transmission.
   The dada needs to be transmitted is 1400 octets

     We will assume that the size of the IP header is 20 octets.
     MTU Frame = Header + Data
             620 = 20 + Data
            Data = 620 - 20 = 600

     So each frame can carry an IP datagram with a 20-octet header and 600 data octets.
     Note the 600 is divisible by 8. If not, we need to take the nearest multiple of 8 in the
     Data part of the MTU frame. The reason is that the fragment offset must be a
     multiple of 8-byte.

2. The number of fragments needed to transmit 1400 data octets:
   Define
      n = number of fragments
      d = total number of data to be transmitted at the network layer = IP data = 1400
      m = maximum data size for the network = 600

           d 
         n 
           m
           1400 
          
            600 
                 
             2.33
                  
           3
 So we need 3 fragments, 2 fragments of 600 octets and the last one is (1400 – 2 x 600)
= 200 octets.

Please note that the fragment offset is in 8-byte unit.


Fragment Number             Data Length           Fragment Offset          More Flag
                                                      (8-byte)
          1                      600                     0                      1
          2                      600                 600/8 = 75                 1
          3                      200                75+75 = 150                 0

Both Fragment Offset and More Flag are used for reassembly of fragments. The More
Flag is one except the last fragment. The More Flag for the last fragment is 0 to indicate
no more fragments.

								
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