&quot;Radio and television general knowledge&quot; knowledge point
Part I: Political Theory
One theory of Marxism-Leninism
Philosophy: a theoretical and systematic view of the world, that people have on
relations with the world view of the general or basic view of human nature of
knowledge, social knowledge and abstract thinking, general knowledge and summary,
is a form of social consciousness .
The basic question of philosophy: that of thinking and being, or is the relationship
between spiritual and material.
Substances: is there a philosophical category of objective signs, such an objective
reality is that in people through the senses, it does not rely on our feelings exist, as we
feel the replication, photography, reflecting.
The material world: the scientific definition of Marxist material specific material
revealed that the common nature of objective reality. Movement is material existence,
is inherent in the fundamental nature of matter. Movement is unconditional and
absolute; still is conditional and relative. The motion of matter is a regular.
Awareness of the origin, nature and role of: consciousness is unique to the spirit of
human activities, which include emotional, cognitive forms of rational and emotional,
will form the complex psychological.
Consciousness is the result of long-term development of material world, is a product
of society. In the sense of creation and evolution, labor played a decisive role.
Consciousness is the function of the human brain, human brain is the physical sense
organs. Consciousness is a reflection of the material is the material world of the
subjective image, awareness of the form of subjective awareness of the content is
Awareness of the human great role in guiding practice. Play a dynamic role in the way
consciousness is social practice.
General contact and eternal world development: dialectical materialism that contact
be objective, contact was common. Contact universality means that anything the
world can not exist in isolation, are linked with other things around; each of the
various elements of the internal things that are not exist in isolation, are linked with
other elements; the whole world is a universal Contact whole.
Dialectical materialism that the metabolism is an irresistible law of the universe
because, first, the development of new things, meet the inevitable trend of things, with
great vitality and broad prospects for development, will eventually overcome the old
things. Second, the new things is better than old things. Third, in the social sphere,
new things to meet the people&#39;s fundamental interests, which will be
upheld and supported by the masses of people.
Two contrasting concept of development: Dialectics and metaphysics understanding
the development of two contrasting view, expressed in the first, law contact with the
general point of view of the world, shape the world with an isolated point of view.
Second, the law changes with the development of form with the static point of view,
the third method that Mao was the driving force of development of things, shaped
deny the existence of contradictions. The fundamental difference lies in whether to
admit the contradiction is the driving force for the development of things.
- ☆ the basic law of materialist dialectics review ☆ -
Law of Opposites: the law of contradiction, that it reveals the source of power and the
development of things. Dialectical materialism that everything is paradox. Identity
and struggle are two basic properties of contradictions. They are both distinct and
connected each other to jointly promote the development of things.
The internal contradictions of things internal and external causes are things external
conflicts; internal change is the basis of things, of things changing external conditions,
external causes become operative through internal.
The universality of contradiction is, contradictions exist in all things into and
throughout the development of things always. Has the particularity of contradiction,
because the contradiction between the concrete things and in all aspects of each
conflict has its own characteristics. Contradiction between universality and
particularity of contact, there is universality in particularity, the particularity includes
universal, and under certain conditions can be transformed into each other.
Relationship between universality and particularity of contradiction principle is about
the essence of the problem.
Quantitative qualitative change in the law: the state of things to light changes.
Dialectical relationship between its performance are: first, quantitative qualitative
change when the necessary preparations to become a qualitative change is the
inevitable result of the amount. Did not amount to become a qualitative change can
not be accumulated; quantity accumulates to a certain extent, on the inevitable rise to
a qualitative change. Second, the qualitative change due to quantity, and open the way
for the new quantity.
Negation of: reveal the direction and path of development of things. Dialectical
materialism that everything contains the positive and negative aspects. Them against
each other, interdependent and interwoven, mutually inclusive, is a dialectical unity.
Dialectic is the campaign through the internal contradictions of things for the
self-denial, is part of interrelated things and also things dialectical development of the
link is abandoned - not only to overcome the retaining.
Things from the positive development is the continuous phase to negative phase, then
the negation of negation stage, thus rendering the development of things to spiral and
wave-like advancement of the process. The future is bright, the road is tortuous.
Practice-based dynamic theory of reflection: to overcome the old materialism negative
and intuitive, based on practice-based dynamic theory of reflection.
Truth and the criterion of truth: truth is the people and the law of objective things
correctly reflect the truth is one dollar. Practice is the subjective awareness of whether
the sole criterion of truth, which is by the nature of truth and practice characteristics
of the decision. Practice test of truth is a historical process, is determined, it is
uncertain that the unity of certainty and uncertainty.
History of the basic questions: is a social being and social consciousness of the
relations. Social presence refers to the process of people&#39;s social and
material life, which includes the material mode of production, geographic and
demographic factors, mainly of material production. Social awareness is the process
of people&#39;s social spiritual life, including social psychology and the social
Production decisions in the role of social development: production of human society
in order to seek survival and development of material means, which includes both the
productive forces and production relations. Mode of material production reason is the
decisive force of social development because, first, the production of human social
existence and development. Second, to determine the social nature of production and
appearance. Third, changes in the social mode of production determines social
Productive forces and relations of production were contradictory: Productivity is the
one to change the nature and use of natural ability. It includes labor, labor and object
of labor. Which is the primary productivity of workers. Science and technology are
primary productive force.
Relations of production in the production process is one form of social relations. It
includes the ownership of the means of production relations, the status of people in
the production and mutual relations, product distribution relationship between the
exchange and consumption. Among them, the ownership of the means of production
relations are relations of production were based, which determines the nature and
character of the relations of production.
Production method is the productive forces and production relations have to combine
two contradictory ways of production, the productivity is the main conflict, the
provisions of the relations of production must develop and change, while the relations
of production have a significant reaction on productivity, composition and production
productivity relationship was contradictory campaign to promote the society
continues to further the development of low-level to advanced.
The contradiction between economic base and superstructure: the sum of relations of
production constitutes the economic base. Superstructure is generated based on
certain economic ideology and the corresponding political systems and facilities were
combined. It consists of political and ideological superstructure, the superstructure of
two parts. In a class society, the political superstructure dominant, state power is the
core of the superstructure.
The nature of the economic base determines the superstructure and the basic contents
and their changes; superstructure affects the economy, for their own economic base.
Both on the basis of certain mutual productivity movement, formed the economic
base and superstructure of contradictions.
Social contradiction: the contradiction between productive forces and production
concern, the contradiction between economic base and superstructure constitute the
basic contradictions of human society. Productivity, production relations (economic
base), forming the superstructure of the three basic levels of social structure. 1 and 2
of which any of the relations of production, it is both productive form of society, it is
the foundation upon which the superstructure.
Productive forces and relations of production may conflict is more fundamental
contradiction, so all conflicts. Productive forces and production relations were the
conflict so that production and change the fundamental reason for including economic
base and superstructure, including the development of the social formation and
transformation of the root causes. Productivity is the most active factor in the
revolution, is to promote the ultimate decisive force of social development. The
contradictions between production and social development is the fundamental driving
National origin, essence and function: National is a historical category. There are two
meanings, one refers to a sovereign state, the community of human life. One is that
management organizations as a political rule and the state apparatus. This country is
on the nature of the ruling class tool for repression by the ruling class. The essence of
that state system, that social class status in the country. State form, that form of
government that form the composition of state power. National system, the decision
system of government, political system, national prestige service. State functions,
including internal functions and external functions of the two.
Social awareness: social being determines social consciousness of the nature of the
production and change.
The people&#39;s role in history: the people are the creators of history reflected
in the first, the masses are the creators of material wealth; second, is spiritual wealth
creators, the third is to achieve decisive force for social change .
Comprehensive social development and human development: the growth of social
wealth and social progress is also a process of the comprehensive development
process, we must adhere to both the concrete and historical unity. Social development
and human development is not dominant and subordinate relationships, but rather
complementary and mutually reinforcing relationship between the premise.
Goods: is for the exchange of labor products, including value and value of two factors.
Value is the product of the natural attributes, social attributes of the value of
commodities, mutual unity of opposites. Second factor is the commodity of labor by
the duality of production of goods that is concrete labor and abstract labor decisions.
Currency: is fixed as the general equivalent of commodities. Include measures of
value, means of payment, means of circulation, storage means, and five world
currency, which is a measure of value and means of circulation of money to do the
most urgent functions.
Law of value: the value of goods produced goods by the socially necessary labor time;
commodities exchange according to their value to follow the exchange of equal value,
the principle of resource alienation. Law of value of commodity production and
exchange of basic laws, its role is through the movement of commodity prices shown.
Residual value of the production process: the residual value is produced by the
workers, was occupied that part of the capitalist free value. Its formation, there are
two approaches: the production of absolute surplus value, the other is the production
of relative surplus value.
Capitalist production and capital accumulation: capitalism reproduction, including
simple reproduction and expansion of reproduction. The surplus value into capital is
the accumulation of capital. Capital accumulation is the source of expanded
reproduction of capitalism, while the residual value is the source of capital
accumulation and power.
Organic composition of capital: from the value side, capital is a constant capital and
variable capital formation, the ratio between them is called the value composition of
capital. From the material side, capital and labor by means of composition, the ratio
between them is determined by the technical level of production, called the technical
composition of capital. Organic composition of capital is decided by the technical
composition of capital, and reflects the technical composition of capital changes in
Relative overpopulation: the relative surplus population is relative to the need for
capital, or that the supply of labor over capital he needs. Therefore, overpopulation is
Basic contradiction of capitalism: the socialization of production and the means of
production, the contradiction between capitalism and private ownership.
Capitalist economic crisis: the real crisis is a relative surplus of production, that
production of goods relative to the needs of working people have the ability to pay the
excess. Its roots in the basic contradiction of capitalism.
Two discovery and creation of scientific socialism: Marx&#39;s first finding is
that of historical materialism, the second is a theory of surplus value. Two Discoveries
from the utopian socialist development of a science.
The relationship between socialism and capitalism: socialism and capitalism is not
only the history of the relationship between inheritance and replacement, and
eventually replace capitalism before the socialist each other for a long co-exist with
each other is a kind of coexistence, competition. To the effective use of Capitalist
Socialism with Chinese Characteristics: by Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang
Zemin on behalf of three generations of central collective leadership, in the changing
domestic and external situation, for up to half a century-exploration in the Marxism of