# Statement of the competency PHYSICS NYC - Waves and

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"Statement of the competency PHYSICS NYC - Waves and"

```					                                  Statement of the competency       PHYSICS NYC - Waves and Modern Physics

Specific elements of the                                    Standard of performance: The student must be able to:
competency

1. To apply the fundamental       1.1    Define period, frequency, angular frequency, phase and amplitude for simple harmonic motion.
principles of Physics to the   1.2    Relate the period of a spring-mass system to the mass and spring constant.
description of vibrations      1.3    Understand the factors that govern the period of a simple pendulum.
1.4    Describe simple harmonic motion using the function y = A sin (ω t + φ) and relate to initial conditions.
1.5    Relate position, velocity and acceleration in SHM by differentiating the above position function.
1.6    Recognize the forms of energy involved in oscillations of a mass on a spring, and of a simple pendulum.
1.7    Calculate the kinetic, potential, and total energy of mechanical oscillators as functions of time.
1.8    Recognize the general relationship between the total energy and the amplitude of SHM.
1.9    Qualitatively describe the exponential decay of amplitude with time for a damped oscillator.
1.10   Qualitatively describe the phenomenon of resonance.

2. To apply the fundamental       2.1    Distinguish between transverse and longitudinal waves and recognize examples of each.
principles of Physics to       2.2    Understand reflection, transmission, and phase shift due to reflection when a wave meets a boundary.
the description of             2.3    State the superposition principle and apply it to explain the phase shift at a fixed boundary.
mechanical waves and           2.4    Know how the speed of transverse waves on a string depends on the tension and linear mass density.
their propagation              2.5    Know the relationship between speed, frequency and wavelength.
2.6    Describe the propagation of transverse waves on a string using y (x,t) = A sin (ωt - kx)
2.7    Recognize the forms of energy involved in the propagation of transverse mechanical waves.
2.8    Describe the nature of sound waves.
2.9    Understand the mechanism by which standing waves are produced.
2.10   Calculate the resonant frequencies of standing waves in pipes and strings.
2.11   Understand the mechanism of the Doppler effect and calculate Doppler shifted frequencies.
2.12   Understand the mechanism by which beats are produced and calculate beat frequencies.

3. To apply the laws              3.1    Apply image formation by thin lenses, the human eye, the optical instruments such as the simple
of geometrical optics                 magnifier, microscope and telescope.

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4. To apply the                 4.1   Describe the properties of electromagnetic waves at various wavelengths.
characteristics of waves     4.2   Understand how the superposition principle leads to interference effects.
to light phenomena           4.3   Sketch and calculate the interference patterns produced by a double slit and a grating.
4.4   Describe the interference effects produced by a thin film, explain their dependence on wavelength,
film thickness, the refraction indices..
4.5   Understand the distinction between interference and diffraction.
4.6   Sketch the single slit diffraction pattern and calculate the positions of minimum intensity.
4.7   Use the Rayleigh criterion to judge whether a given optical system can resolve a pair of point sources.

5. To analyze a number of       5.1   Understand the idea of a frame of reference, an event, and the relative nature of simultaneity.
situations using concepts    5.2   Understand the concepts of proper length, proper time and rest mass.
of special relativity        5.3   Calculate the length of an object according to various observers.
5.4   Calculate a time interval between two events according to various observers.
5.5   Discuss mass-energy equivalence and its practical implications.

6. To analyze a number of       6.1   Discuss the experimental evidence for energy quantization.
situations using concepts    6.2   Apply Einstein’s model of the photoelectric effect quantitatively.
of modern Physics            6.3   Discuss qualitatively experimental evidence for the de Broglie hypothesis (electron diffraction).
6.4   State the Heisenberg uncertainty principles and apply them to simple situations.
6.5   Discuss the general idea of wave-particle duality.

7. To analyze several           7.1   Explain the concept of binding energy and the nuclear stability.
basic concepts of            7.2   Describe the phenomena of radioactivity and alpha, beta, and gamma decay.
nuclear Physics              7.3   Understand the concept of half-life for radioactive nuclides.
7.4   Understand qualitatively some of the effects of radiation on humans.

8. To verify experimentally a   8.1   Perform and submit reports on lab experiments e.g. simple and damped harmonic motion, wave
number of laws associated          propagation and resonance, geometrical optics, interference and diffraction of light, photoelectric
with waves, optics and             effect, line spectra, ….
modern Physics               8.2   Know how to analyze and present experimental data and draw appropriate conclusions.

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