"Challenges of Integrated Transportation and Land Use Planning"
Challenges of Integrated Transportation and Land Use Planning Reid Ewing Rutgers University The Challenges • New Vision and Goals • New Performance Measures • Mutually Supportive Land Use Patterns- Transportation Facilities • Model Enhancements • Implementing Mechanisms New Vision and Goals Florida’s Definition of Sprawl (Rule 9J-5.003, Florida Administrative Code) • Leapfrog or Scattered Development • Ribbon or Strip Commercial Development • Expanses of Low-Density or Single-Use Development Sprawl Sprawl Sprawl Sprawl vs. Walk Share to Work 10 8 6 4 2 0 60 80 100 120 140 160 Coefficientsa COMPAC0N Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig. 1 (Constant) -2.744 2.788 -.984 .329 MILD -.278 .233 -.091 -1.198 .235 PWKAGE0 -9.61E-03 .052 -.017 -.185 .854 PCINC0 4.420E-05 .000 .140 1.653 .103 DENFAC0N .185 .027 .748 6.881 .000 MIXFAC0N 4.223E-03 .021 .017 .200 .842 CENFAC0N 5.770E-02 .021 .231 2.802 .007 STRFAC0N -9.20E-03 .026 -.037 -.356 .723 SIZFAC0N 2.330E-03 .020 .009 .116 .908 a. Dependent Variable: PCWALK0 Sprawl vs. VMT per Capita 40 30 20 VMTPC0 10 60 80 100 120 140 160 COMPAC0N Coefficientsa Unstandardized Standardized Coefficients Coefficients Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig. 1 (Constant) 1.469 15.205 .097 .923 PWKAGE0 .716 .277 .333 2.582 .012 PCINC0 3.281E-06 .000 .003 .022 .983 DENFAC0N -.361 .139 -.361 -2.593 .012 MIXFAC0N -3.51E-02 .109 -.036 -.321 .749 CENFAC0N -.242 .115 -.252 -2.101 .040 STRFAC0N -.128 .133 -.127 -.965 .338 SIZFAC0N -.231 .109 -.239 -2.118 .038 a. Dependent Variable: VMTPC0 Demand for Alternatives • Changing American Demographics • Desire for Community and Neighborliness • Growing Frustration with Congestion • Growing Interest in Health and Fitness Too Much Grass to Mow We Are Not European Charlotte Corridors and Wedges Plan It Can Happen New Performance Measures Commonly Used Performance Measures The “Bible” HIGHWAY CAPACITY Are these really the MANUAL best measures for Special Report 209 quality of TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD National Research Council transportation service? Old Speed Paradigm -> Roadway LOS New Paradigms TEA-21 Planning Factors • Economic Vitality • Accessibility and Mobility Options • Safety and Security for all Users • Environmental Protection, Energy Conservation, and Quality of Life • Enhanced Modal Integration and Connectivity • Efficient System Management and Operation • System Preservation Oregon’s Transportation Policy Rule Rule requires MPOs to reduce VMT per capita by 10% over 20 years in metro areas with more than 1 million population, and by 5% over 20 years in metro areas with 1 million or less population New Florida Law Multimodal Development District law allows local governments to establish multimodal level-of- service standards that rely primarily on nonvehicular modes of transportation within a district New Maryland Law Transportation Funding Areas Law requires the Department of Transportation (DOT) to establish measurable long-term and short-term performance goals in designated smart growth areas for increasing the systemwide share of trips by mass transit, walking, bicycling, and high occupancy vehicles Mutually Supportive Land-Use Patterns and Transportation Facilities Rail Lines Without Riders Sidewalks Without Pedestrians Limits of New Urbanism Cognitive Dissonance The Future Belongs to Hybrids Megatrends “In a relatively short time, the unified mass society has fractionalized into many diverse groups of people with a wide array of different taste and values, what advertisers call a market- segmented, market-decentralized society.” Naisbitt 1982 Urban Refill Green Development Transit-Oriented Development Pedestrian Villages Hybrid Communities Hybrid Neighborhoods Model Enhancements Travel Demand Modeling Issue Conventional 4-step models are not sensitive to effects of density, mix, and design on travel behavior = Differences in Travel Patterns • Vehicle Ownership • Home-Based Trip Productions • Non-Home Based Trip Attractions • Intrazonal Trips • Transit Trips • Walk Trips • Peak Hour Factors TRANSIMS Framework LUTRAQ Study Area Different Future Land Use Patterns Less VMT (and Everything Else) with LUTRAQ Westside MAX Line -- Suburban TOD Land-Use Impacts Implementing Mechanisms Examples • Adequate Public Facilities Requirements • Transit-Oriented Development • Context-Sensitive Highway Design • Traffic Calming • Access Management • Regional Growth Management Change in VMT Per Capita (1990-99) Change in VMT Per Capita (1990-99) 8 Baltimore = 2.15 7 Orlando = 3.95 6 Portland = 4.64 5 4 3 2 1 0 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A MS K MS A MS Z MS X MS V MS L MS PMS D MS A MS H MS A MS L MS Y MS PMS L MS PMS N MS X MS -1 CA O ,L ,A ,T N F A M --I O C ,F ,N O ,F X ,I ,T to, City, ans enix aso gas, ater, le, W ore, , NE bus, sno, nville ster er, C ndo ton, T polis ustin en a -2rle ho P e tt a e e v la a ram hom w O c a P El as V learw Sea altim mah olum Fr ckso och Den Or Hous dian A a kl e L -C B O C Ja R In S O N rg- s bu ter t. Pe a --S mp Ta Florida Growth Management – General Failure 1985 Concurrency Requirement Transitioning Roadways Inside Constrained Urbanized Urbanized Urbanized Parallel to Transportation and Areas, Urban Areas Areas Exclusive Concurrency Backlogged Rural Areas or under over Transit Management Roadways Areas Communities 500,000 500,000 Facilities Areas Intrastate Limited B C C(D) D(E) D(E) D(E) Maintain Access Highway (Freeway) Controlled B C C D E E Maintain Access Highway Other State Roads Other B C D D E * Maintain Multilane Two-Lane C C D D E * Maintain Constant Reform – Will They Ever Get It Right? Transportation and Land Use Study Committee “The state land planning agency and the Department of Transportation shall evaluate the statutory provisions relating to land use and transportation coordination and planning…and shall consider changes to statutes, as well as to all pertinent rules…” 1998 Florida Legislative Session Oregon Growth Management – Mixed Results Regulatory Tools • Urban Growth Boundaries • Density Targets • Transportation Policy Rule Documented Accomplishments • Stronger Downtown Employment Base • Higher Suburban Densities • Less Land Consumption Maryland Smart Growth – Promising Alternative Inside and Outside Games Smart Growth Results The Good News: – 75% of new parcels are INSIDE PFAs – Thru Rural Legacy and related POS projects, committed $137 million over last 4 years to permanently protect 54,000 acres. – In last 7 years, total MD acres protected increased 40%, from 589,000 to 825,000 acres The Bad News: – 75% of acreage developed is OUTSIDE PFAs – The average lot size OUTSIDE PFAs is 8 times the size of lots INSIDE PFAs – County-specific performance varies widely Investments Altered by Smart Growth WASH IN GT ON ALLE GA NY CE CIL CA RROLL GAR RETT HARFORD FRE DERICK BA LTIM ORE BA LT. CITY KEN T HOW ARD MO NT GOM E RY ANN E QUE EN ARUN DEL ANN E'S PRIN CE GEO RGE'S 5 BYPASSES TAL BO T CA ROLIN E 550 ACRE TRACT CH ARLE S CA LVE RT DORCH ESTE R WICOM ICO 2 DISTRICT COURTS ST M ARY 'S WORCEST ER COUNTY BLDG. SO M ERSET