Brief Introduction to U.S. Political System and Land Use

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					  Brief Introduction to U.S.
Political System and Land Use
       Planning System
      2007 Sustainable Urban Planning and
         Design Training Program


               Hanling Yang
Geographical Background
                 Oregon Precipitation Map




Population 350万+; Area 255,026 Sq KM (98,466Sq Miles)
               Oregon Counties
                Portland Metro Regional
                Government Jurisdiction Area


36 counties
(241 cities)
                  Multnomah County
                      Cover 7 cities and unincorporated cities



                                     City of
                                     Portland               Unincorporated
                                                            area




Population 670,000+;Area 1,206 Square Kilometers(466 square miles)
Fed - State - County - City



                        Metro
UGB and Geo and Administrative
 Boundaries for City and County
                       City Admin Boundary




             city


                                   County Geo
                                   Boundary
Government Structure
                    State
           Fed




 - Fed government has limited power
- Local governments are the creatures
 of the state government
Characteristics: Check & Balance

                 President




            Approve nomination
   Congress Amend Constitution      Sup. Ct.


           Interpret constitutionality
                    Check and Balance
                                      Governor         Elected;4 yrs;2 terms
                                                       maximum; 30 yrs old; USC;
                                                       Oregon residents in last three
                                                       years




                                                                    Elected for 6 years
                                                                    term
                                                           State
                    State
State Senator:                  Amend State Constitution   Supreme
elected for 4     Legislature
years ; reelect                                            Court
½ every two                 Interpret constitutionality of Laws
years

State Rep: 2        Legislators must be 21 years old,
years term          residing in district for 1 year
                          Portland Metro Council
Cross Three
Counties
(25 cities)
- Multnomah
- Clackamas
- Washington




  Population 1.3 M; Area: 1,191 Square Kilometers (460 Square Miles)
  Multnomah County
Commissioner Districts
Portland City Government
                                                                                Portland City Council
                                                                                           Elected

                                     Mayor                                               Legislative
                                    Finance and                                          +
                                   Administration
                                                                                         Executive
                                                                                         +
                 Commissioner                                                            Quasi-
    Auditor      Public
                                  Commissioner      Commissioner     Commissioner
                                                                                         judicial
                                  Public Affairs    Public Works     Public Safety
                 Infrastructure




                                               Agencies such as

   Bureau of
   Development   Planning Bureau          Bureau
                                         Bureau ofof               PDC               BES
   Services                               Police
                                         Police
        Land Use Planning
• Land use planning (land use and urban);
• No federal or state level comprehensive
  planning;
• Planning is done by local government;
• County planning does not govern city
  planning
  Land Use Legal Documents


• Comprehensive Planning
• Zoning
• Subdivision
           Land Ownership
•   Private(Corporation,individual)
•   Federal
•   State
•   Local Government
•   Tribes
   Government’s Role in Land
         Management

• Land Owner and Collaborative Partner
• Tax, Taking and Planning (Police Power)
• Side control and guidance: Environmental
  laws and regulations and financial tools
    Key Fed. Agencies in Land Management

•    U.S. Dept of Interior

•   U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (including National Forest Service and
    Rural Development Bureau)

•    U.S. EPA

•    U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban development(subsidize local
    income housing and community redevelopment)

•    U.S. Department of Transportation

•    U.S. Department of Defense
  Oregon State Government in Planning

• Land Owner: Manage land owned by the state
--Department of State Land

• Land Use Goals Stipulator
-- 19 goals for state land use planning
    Procedure; conservation; development; coastal resources

• Acknowledge land use comprehensive plan by
  counties and cities
     City Planning Procedure
                                         Citizen Volunteers,appointed by
                LCDC                    the governor and confirmed by by
                                        the state senate

                                                 DLCD
          City Council          Elected                 Professionals
                                Officials


                          Citizen volunteers; appointed by the
      Planning Commission Mayor and confirmed by the city
                          council; four years term


Planning bureau prepares plans        Government agency;
                                      professional planners

Public Participation at Every Level
      Zoning Code Stipulation

      Adopted by the City
      Council

                                              Provides criteria for permit
                                                issuance
         Planning Commission




   Planning bureau prepares zoning code        BDS provides advice &
                                               suggestions


To change existing zoning code, existing comprehensive plan must
be changed first
Land Use Appeal Process
           U.S. Supreme Ct.


         Oregon Supreme Ct

        Oregon Ct of Appeals


         Land Use Board of Appeals
   (Quasi-Judicial,three attorneys)

            County or City
            Commissions

          Planning or Design
             Commissions

             Hearing Officer