Teaching Knowledge Management through a Learning Game KITS

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Teaching Knowledge Management through a Learning Game KITS Powered By Docstoc
					 Teaching Knowledge
Management through a
Learning Game : KITS

        Anne Monceaux
          EADS CCR


          ISMICK‟01
              October
   Compiègne,KM actions 23, 2001
      General Framework
General Description of the Game
     Learning environment
       Functions & tools
         KITS Models
              KM actions
              Starting points

• Knowledge management is difficult in practice.

• There are no good training systems for learning
  about knowledge management principles nor
  learning how to apply knowledge management
  procedures.




                       KM actions
               The KITS project
• 5th framework IST (Information Societies
  Technology) project
• Feb 2001 - Dec 2002
• Partners
   – University of Twente (NL)
   – University of Amsterdam (NL)
   – CIBIT (NL)
   – EADS CCR (FR)
   – TNO (I)
   – ECLO (UK/BE)        KM actions
       The goal of the KITS project
                    To develop and evaluate a
                      learning environment
                               for
                     knowledge management

                            based on a
                          learning game
                               with
                        situated problems
                              using
                      collaborative learning

     Primary target users                     Learning goals
      senior managers                 awareness / understanding
& other managers responsible      & competence in KM mastering
                            KM actions (providing a deep understanding
    for implementing KM
                                        of the game underlying models)
Learning relevant Games aspects
                         • „real” situation simulated / simplified view of reality
Situated (put learning   • Give (part) access to information
into a context)          • unexpected events ; confront students with situations
                           they may not be prepared to tackle in the reality

Reaching goals
Competition              • invite to actively solve problems : involve collective
                           interpretation and decision making processes
Communication /
negotiation


                         • provide students with a framework of rules and roles
Constraints and            through which they can learn interactively through a live
rules                      experience

                             KM actions
      General Framework
General Description of the Game
     Learning environment
       Functions & tools
         KITS Models
              KM actions
 General Description of the Game

• The situation :
      The players are confronted with a general description of
      a fictitious organisation, a Business Case.
• Their role in the game and the context of this organisation
  is specified (see next slide).
• They are asked to play their role for three consecutive
  virtual years.



                            KM actions
         Task description (role)
• “The board of directors of the company has recognized that
  knowledge is a key asset. To develop a better
  understanding of the role of knowledge in the organisation,
  and the ways it should be managed, a special knowledge
  management task force has been put together. Your team is
  this special task force. Your task is to initiate specific
  activities that improve the efficacy of the knowledge
  household of the company. You are expected to propose
  both pro-active and re-active actions/interventions
  (triggered by certain events that will be introduced while
  playing the game).”
                            KM actions
                  Constraints
• Time
  – no time limit to play the game ; teams set their own
    pace. When they think they have acted sufficiently they
    can go on the end of the quarter.

• Budget
  – the team receives a budget at the beginning of the
    game, which can be used to
      • buy (additional) information
      • implement certain actions
    The team receives each virtual year a new budget for
    the coming year, the amount of which is based on the
    profit the organisation has made in the year before.
                          KM actions
                 Game goal
• General goal is to optimise the level of the general
  business indicators that are described in the
  underlying business model: market share, profit,
  customer satisfaction index, etc.


   – There is no competition between teams.
   – Teams try to reach the highest score possible

                        KM actions
                        Events
• Unexpected events are introduced into the game to
  – trigger actions from the players,
  – make the game more realistic, and
  – introduce the elements of uncertainty, surprise and
    chance.
  Ex. a key-researcher leaves the company...


• Events can be negative or positive, affect the
  situation inside or outside the company.
                            KM actions
      General Framework
General Description of the Game
     Learning environment
       Functions & tools
         KITS Models
              KM actions
     The learning environment
        A collaborative game with integrated learner support


• Collaboration scenarios
   – Teams of 3 players
   – Players are geographically dispersed / internet game
   – synchronous or asynchronous access to the KITS
     environment
   – Collaboration VS cooperation:
      • players work together to reach a common goal and share both
        tools and activities.
      • there is no division of labor or resources between team members.
      • players have comparable knowledge, capacities and status.
                                KM actions
       The learning environment
          A collaborative game with integrated learner support


• GroupWare tools to support collaboration :

   –   Chatbox (synchronous communication)
   –   Bulletin board (important notes)
   –   Whiteboard (graphical facility)
   –   Forum (asynchronous communication)
   –   Collaborative workspace (store documents, reports etc.)
   –   Voting system
   –   No e-mail (only used by the system to send activity reports to the
       players)




                                    KM actions
     The learning environment
         A collaborative game with integrated learner support

• Learning Support
  – explaining / demonstrating
     •   introduction & training phases before playing
     •   KM model visible for expository instruction
     •   glossary
     •   hints
  – articulation of ideas & argument construction:
     • fill-in forms / report templates + prompts
  – monitoring facilities
     • dynamic annotation facility (individual notebook)
     • history file (logbook kept by system)
  – feedback
     • status of BM indicators visible at the end of each quarter
     • closure & debriefing after playing
                                KM actions
                             Kits game environment (overview)




 Game status: Year 1, 3th quarter                      Budget left: 100.000                                        Practice phase


      Case info                                      Bulletin board for important messages/notes

       History
Predefined variables
   Latest event(s)
Sub goals in progress

  Inspect variables
      Set goals
       Actions                 Latest event:
                               Because of new environmental legislation, from 1 January 1999 on it is no longer allowed to use
   Documentation               polyethydimydyl in adhesives manufactured and sold in countries of the European Union. This is a major
                               threat for Coltec, because polyethydimydyl is used in all its adhesives to prevent premature coagulation.
 People to interview           Coltec has no immediate replacement for polyethydimydyl. Shortly after the announcement of the new
                               legislation, Gluco, a smaller competitor has put on the market a tiling adhesive that does not contain
   Advise/support              polyethydimydyl , which is rapidly gaining market share
  Normative model
                                                           KM actions
         Help             Go to collaborative workspace           Annotation (DAF)               Forum                   Whiteboard
      General Framework
General Description of the Game
     Learning environment
       Functions & tools
         KITS Models
              KM actions
  Layered domain : knowledge
management and business models

          Knowledge management model




      KM methods                   Visualisation
     and techniques




                                                   KM specific


                                                    Generic




        Business model
                      KM actions
                         Instructional envelope
          Business Type Models

Three Business cases covering different organization types :
    ( M.Treacy and F. Wiersema; Fortune Magazine February 6, 1995)




   – Product Leadership Organisation
       • products that have a higher quality
   – Operational Excellence Organisation
       • products that are cheaper
   – Customer Intimacy Organisation
       • products that are tailor-made
                                         KM actions
The Business model: Business variables
 • Business related variables
    –   Market share
    –   Profit
    –   Customer satisfaction index
    –   Total number of employees
    –   Training expenses to other expenses

 • Business process related variables
    – Marketing
       • Level of sales
       • Average time for a product to reach the market
    – R&D
       • Ratio of pending patents to all company patents
    – Production
       • Performance efficiency level
                                 KM actions           ETC.
The business model: K related variables
• Knowledge related variables
   – average level of competence in marketing
   – average level of competence in R&D
   – average level of competence in production

• Knowledge process related variables
                                gaining
                                                            M
   – speed                      development
                                                     in     R&D
   – effectiveness of knowledge utilization
                                                            P
   – efficiency                 retention
                                                            R&D to P
                                diffusion / transfer from   M to R&D

                                                            ETC.
                              KM actions
                                             Variables' relationships in R & D


                                                                     +
                         Profit                                                                Level of sales


                                                                                                            +
                                                                                               Customers                                                   Number of
                                                                                            satisfaction index          Number of
                                                                                                                                                            company
                                                                                                                      company patents
                                                                                                                                                             products
                                                                                                                                      +                                  +
             _                        _                                                                 +
                                                      _                                                               Number of new                       Number of new
                                                                                                                         patents                            products
         Other expense                                                                     Company product
                                  Training expense        R & D expense                      quality index                            +                                  +                                                      Average job
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             satisfaction index
                                                                                                                                                            Number of                                                          of employees
                                                                                                                      number of patents
                                                                                                                                                            products in
                                                                                                                         in pending
                                                                                                                                                           developments
                         _
    Total number of
                                                                                                                        +                      +
       employees                                                                                                                                                                                                    +
                                                                                                   Average level of
                                                                                                    competence in
                                                                                                                                                                                      Average time to
               +                                                                                       R&D
                                                                                                                                                                                         change for
                                                                                                                                                     +                                producing a new                                  +
       Research                                                                                                                                                                            product
                                                                                 +                               +       +                                        +
       employees                      Efficiency of                                                                                        +
                                       knowledge
                                                                                           +                                                    +                                                             +
                                         gaining                                                                                                                                                 _                                training
                                                                                                                +                                                                                                                programs
                                                                             Efficiency of
                                  +            +                              knowledge
                                                                                                                                                         Efficiency of
                                                                                                                                                          knowledge                     Efficiency of
                                                                             development                                                                  utilisation                    knowledge
                          Speed of            Effectiveness of
                                                                                                                                                                                           transfer
                         knowledge              knowledge                                                                                                                                                                                    +
                           gaining                gaining
                                                                             +                 +                                                                                                                             +
+            +                                                                                                                    +                  +                                 +                 +
     Hiring on the                                          Speed of                     Effectiveness of               Speed of               Effectiveness of                  Speed of            Effectiveness of            Effectiveness of
    permanent base                                         knowledge                       knowledge                   knowledge                 knowledge                      knowledge               knowledge                  knowledge
                                                           development                    developement                  utilisation               utilisation                transfer to prod.       transfer to prod.               retention
                                                                                     +
    Buying a new
                                                                                                                                      knowledge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  +
     knowledge
                                                                         +                  "information"                             utilisation                                      Knowl. transfer                   +          Rewarding
                                                          Training
                                                          programs                             programs                                programs                                          programs                                   programs
     Hiring on the
    temporary base
                                                                                                                                      Knowledge
                                                                                                                                                                                    knowledge exchange
                                                                                                                                       utilisation                                                                               knowledge retention
                                                 Knowledge growth                                                                                                                        / transfer

                                                                                                                KM actions
                                                                    KM Model

                                Inventarisation of         Analysis strong & weak
        External & Internal                                points                             External & Internal
        developments            knowledge &                                                   developments
                                organisational context



                                               Conceptua-
                                                  lise
                  Evaluation                                                        Definition
                  results                                                           of required
                                                                                    improvements

                                  Review                           Reflect
                 Comparison                                                           Planning
                 old and new                                                          of im-
                 situation                                                            provements
                                                         Act

                                                                                             External & Internal
                                                                                             developments
                               Development                            Consolidation
                               of knowledge                           of knowledge
                                          Distribution Combination
External & Internal
developments                              of knowledge of knowledge
  The KITS KM model

          FOCUS




MONITOR                ORGANISE


          KM actions
  Basic processes in KITS KM
                MONITOR
FOCUS                                ORGANISE

     KM Bottlenecks            KM Actions




  Indicators                      Implementation

                  KM actions
                  KM bottlenecks
• Insufficient knowledge at point-of-action
• Knowledge transfer is narrow
• Unnecessary division of tasks and decisions
• Limited re-use of knowledge over business processes
• Only a few agents have knowledge
• Knowledge is very heuristic and not well-defined
• Agents are not qualified for the job
• Knowledge is only available a limited amount of time
• Knowledge is not available at the appropriate location
• Knowledge is not available in the right form

                                 KM actions                ETC.
     KM Actions - categories

• Acquisition
• Development
• Utilisation
    • sharing and distribution
    • combination
    • consolidation
• Retention

                     KM actions
                KM actions
• Hire an expert with new knowledge on a
  temporary basis
• Install Internet connection
• Conduct in-house training programmes
• Subscribe employees to professional alliances
• Create database with information about current
  and past research projects
• Etc.
                                     > 100 actions
                       KM actions
         What can players do?
 KM actions         Support               Collaborate
• Inspect       • Ask for             • Exchange info
  variables       explanation         • Make
• Ask for       • Ask for hints/        representations
  additional      assignment          • Work on documents
  information   • Inspect and         • Discuss ideas
• Set goals       reflect             • Decide upon actions
• Choose KM     • Consult
  actions         normative KM
• Set up a        model
  measurement                            System actions:
  system                                     Decay
                         KM actions
                                             Events
     What they can not do ...

• Reverse actions that have been taken.
• Reorganise the company.
• Inspect variables at the level of specific
  departments, products, or persons.
• Implement actions at the level of specific
  departments, products, or persons.


                     KM actions
The KITS learning scenario




           KM actions
           KITS – the project

• Specifications – February 2001
• Prototype 1 – September 2001
• Evaluation with different types of users
• Final prototype – December 2002


                  More information:
               anne.monceaux@eads.net

                        KM actions