Personality Characteristics of Dog and Cat Persons - DOC

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					Personality Characteristics of Dog and Cat Persons
-Rose M. Perrine and Hannah L. Osbourne
-Eastern Kentucky University
    Research suggests:
           o There are no differences between pet owners and non owners on personality
              variables such as self-acceptance, self-esteem, social self-esteem, extraversion, or
           o There are no differences in self-esteem, social self-esteem, or extraversion among
              owners with different levels of attachment to their pets.
    Conflicting data:
           o But there is also research that suggests that pet owners have higher self-esteem
              than do non owners and that years of pet-ownership is negatively related to
              neuroticism and alienation.

      Pet owners claimed not to like people as much as non owners, nor did they feel as liked
       by others.
      Compared with non owners, pet owners scored higher on measures of social sensitivity
       and interpersonal trust, spent significantly more time each day in socializing with others,
       and were less independent and less likely to avoid lasting obligations.
      Children with strong bonds with a pet had higher social competency and empathy scores.

      Dog and cat owners did not differ on self-esteem, social self-esteem, extraversion, or self-
      However, research suggests that preference for dogs or cats may be related to personality.
      Research suggests:
          o Male cat-lovers were higher on autonomy than were male dog-lovers or female
              cat and dog-lovers.
          o Male dog-lovers were higher, and female cat-lovers were lower, on dominance
              than the other groups.
          o Male and female cat-lovers were lower on nurturance than male and female dog-
          o Male dog-lovers were higher on aggression than the other groups.

      Why should dog and cat lovers differ in personality?
      One possibility: Childhood pet ownership affects adult personality.
      An environment which produces a dominant and aggressive adult male may be created by
       parents who prefer dogs over cats.
      Dog-ownership by a child elicits responses from others that reinforce personality traits
       like dominance and aggression.
      Owners of high aggression dogs were significantly more likely to be tense, emotionally
       less stable, shy, and undisciplined than the owners of low aggression dogs.
      The personality of a dog lover may be influenced by an environment in which a dog is
      Cats have less social needs than do dogs.
   The child-rearing environment of adult cat-lovers may have been created by parents who
    valued autonomy.
   Cats are perceived as more independent, aloof, and less affectionate than dogs.

   Gender Differences:
       o Females are more likely to own cats than dogs, and rank cats higher in preference
          to won than dogs.
       o Males with masculine sex-role orientations were less likely to play with a kitten
          than were males with feminine or androgynous sex role orientations.
       o Cats may be perceived as more feminine and dogs as more masculine.
       o Expectations before the study: Dog persons were to be perceived as more
          masculine, athletic, and dominant than cat persons, and cat persons were to be
          perceived as more feminine and independent than dog persons.

   Results:
       o Most people reported either positive or neutral feelings towards dogs and cats,
           however some people reported that they either “did not like” or “hated” dogs/cats.
       o No significant differences between pet owners and non owners on how much they
           liked people, or how much people liked them.
       o Pet owners indicated that they liked pets more than did the non pet owners.
       o There was a significant difference in past experience (growing up with pets) with
           dogs versus cats.
       o Dog persons rated themselves as more masculine than did cat persons.
       o Dog persons rated themselves as more independent than did cat persons.
       o Compared with people who liked cats, people who disliked cats rated themselves
           lower in femininity.
       o Males who disliked cats rated themselves lower in femininity than any other
       o There were no significant differences in perceptions of dog versus cat persons as a
           function of the participants’ gender or self-label.
       o Dog persons were perceived as less feminine than were cat persons.
       o Male dog persons were perceived as less feminine than were male cat persons,
           female dog persons, and female cat persons.
       o Males were perceived as more athletic than females and dog persons were
           perceived as more athletic than cat persons.
       o Males were perceived as more dominant than females and dog persons were
           perceived as more dominant than cat persons.
       o Male dog persons were perceived as more dominant than were male cat persons,
           female dog persons, and female cat persons.

   Discussion:
       o Results showed no differences in personality between people who owned
           dogs/cats and people who did not.
       o Several differences were found as a function of label.
       o Dog persons rated themselves higher on masculinity than did cat persons,
           independent of gender.
          o Dog persons were perceived as more masculine than cat persons.
          o Dog persons rated themselves higher than did cat persons.
          o Other perceived male dog persons to be more dominant than male cat persons,
            and female dog and cat persons.
          o Dog persons were perceived as more athletic than cat persons.
          o There was no relationship between past and present ownership of dogs or cats, but
            there was a relationship between the quality of ones’ past experience with these
            animals and current ownership.
          o Many dog lovers indicated that they disliked cats, and many cat lovers said that
            they dislike dogs.
          o There were no differences between pet owners and non owners on how much they
            liked others or how much they perceived others to like them.
          o Dog and cat persons perceived that others liked them more than did people who
            were neither dog nor cat persons.

Pets and Personality Development
Boris M. Levinson
    Animals:
           o The way people treat them reflects how they treat other people and how people
               feel about themselves.
           o They remind people of their own animal origins.
    Folklore:
           o Says…what man did not learn (virtues) from other people, he learned from
    Media Example:
           o Plays such as Annie Urban hunger for meaningful contact with animal
    Personality development of individuals with animal companion is different from someone
       without animal companion.
    Pet ownership aids in development of adaptive personality traits.
    Animal companion: Strongest impact during middle childhood and old age.
    Pets and families:
           o Each member interacts with pet.
           o Members interact with each other because of pet.
    Children: Those who take role as “parent” of pet can better understand their parents’
    Pets Unconditional love Aids in a child’s self-esteem and self-confidence. Relating
       with a pet teaches children how to relate with peers.
    Old Age: Pets solve loneliness and retards devolution and senility.

Personality Characteristics and Self-Esteem in Pet Owners and Non-owners
Suzanne B. Johnson and Warren R. Rule
    Testing of pet-owners and non-pet-owners based on 4 hypotheses:
           o Pet-owners have more self-esteem (overall)
           o Pet-owners have more social self-esteem
           o Pet-owners will be more extraverted
            o Pet-owners will show lower levels of neuroticism
      Animal comparisons:
            o Give people…
                     close contact relationship
                     sense of self-respect
                     independence
                     responsibility
                     contact with reality
            o Provide emotional, physical, and mental benefits
      As socioeconomic status rises, happiness from pets rises.
      Results of tests:
            o No significant differences between pet-owners and non-pet-owners.
            o No significant differences between DOG and CAT owners on social desirability,
                age, and those 4 personality traits listed above.
      It is possible that pet owners are very shy and substitute pets as human peers.
      Pet-owners may be victims of social stereo-typing.Perceived as more lively,
       extraverted, social, and higher self-esteem.
      Lack of differences could be due to socioeconomic status of the subjects in the
       experimentSubjects were in low-middle to middle classes. Perhaps there would be
       greater differences with greater varieties of socioeconomic statuses.

Personality and Pet Ownership: A Preliminary Study
Julie Edelson and David Lester
     Females:
           o More likely to own a cat, but no more likely to own a dog, bird, or fish.
           o Ranked dogs lower in preference.
     Extraverted males:
           o Ranked cats lower and birds higher.
           o More likely to own a dog and less likely to own a cat.

Psychological Correlates of Pet Ownership
Paul Cameron and Michael Mattson
    Pet-owners claimed not to like people as much nor to feel as liked by others as non-
    Pet-owners have less felt regard from others.
    Urban pet-owners scored lower on the ego-strength scale.
    Non-owners’ claimed liking of people is greater than their claimed liking of pets.

Relationships between Pet Ownership and Self-Esteem, Social Sensitivity, and Interpersonal
Karen R. Hyde, Lawrence Kurdek, and Paul Larson
    Speculation that owning pets can reduce depression, loneliness, alienation, and increase
       self-esteem, empathy, unselfishnessB/c pets provide unconditional love and
    Pet-owners like pets more than people.
      Experiment: College-aged pet-owners and non-pet-owners on self-esteem, social
       sensitivity, and interpersonal trust.
      Results:
          o Pet-owners have higher scores of empathy and trust.
          o There is no significance difference in self-esteem.
          o OutcomePet ownership is beneficial.

Personality Correlates of Brand Loyalty
T.K. Chakrapani
    Consumer behavior should equally be affected by the personality of the individual.
    Objective of the study: To find out whether a consumer’s personality is related to his
       repeat purchase behavior in terms of brand loyalty and brand switching.
    Hypotheses:
           1. Personality has a hierarchical structureBrand loyalty may be viewed as an
               expression of some basic personality trait.
           2. Inhibition builds up faster among extroverts than among introvertsExtraverts
               will be more quickly tired of using the same brand.
           3. Inhibition dissipates more slowly among extroverts than among
               introvertsExtraverts are less likely than introverts to switch to the original
           4. Extraverts seek greater environmental stimulationExtraverts are apt to try more
               number of brands than introverts.
    Test Results:
           o Those who are relatively more brand loyal score less both on extraversion and
               neuroticism scales, compared to those who are relatively less loyal to a brand.
           o Extraverts try a greater variety of brands than introverts.
           o Personality is related to consumer repeat purchase behavior.
           o Data supports hypotheses 1, 2, and 4. The 3rd hypothesis is not supported by
               statistical significance, but the trend is in the expected direction.

Some Relationships Between Personality and Consumer Decision Making
Raymond L. Horton
    Criticisms of personality research are generally of 4 kinds:
          1. Personality traits do not have a pervasive influence on consumer behavior but
              rather are situation bound.
          2. The specific personality tests used must be carefully justified in the context of
              research hypotheses.
          3. Specific brand choice and brand loyalty are often inappropriate dependent
          4. The stimulus presented to subjects is generally unique.
    It is more likely that significant and possibly strong relationships with personality will be
      found in the procedures consumers adopt for approaching, modifying, simplifying, and
      reacting to their marketing environments.
    3 elements were chosen to guide the selection of brands within the experimental product
           o company visibility or identification to consumers as a producer of the product
           o package size
           o price per unit
      Objective: To create brand choices within each product class which differed in their value
       for reducing perceived risk.
      Hypotheses:
           o The more visible manufacturer with the higher priced brand would be viewed by
               consumers as a less risky choice,.
           o The small size of both manufacturers’ brands would be regarded by subjects as a
               less risky choice.
      General Hypotheses:
           o Subjects low in self-confidence and/or high in anxiety will tend to select the HI/P
               brand (alternatives A and B) more frequently than subjects high in self-confidence
               and low in anxiety.
           o There will be an interaction between product class perceived risk and personality
               such that subjects low in self-confidence and/or high in anxiety will tend to select
               the HI/P brand proportionately more frequently as product class perceived risk
      Assumption: Subjects high in anxiety and/or low in self-confidence would tend to use the
       HI/P brand as an external referent or anchor on which to make their decisions more
       frequently than subjects with the opposite traits and that such relationships would become
       stronger with increasing product class perceived risk.
      The expected relationship between the personality traits anxiety and self-confidence and
       the choice of the HI/P brand was linear and inverse linear, respectively.
      Results:
           o The hypotheses about interactions between product class perceived risk and the
               anxiety and self-confidence personality traits failed to be substantiated.
           o The analysis generally confirms the predicted relationship between subjects’ self-
               confidence and anxiety and their brand choice behavior for the first, but not the
               second, general hypothesis, the pattern of relationships by product class is quite
               varied with no single personality variable significant in more than 3 product
           o The tests confirmed the expected relationships between choice strategy behavior
               and the personality traits self-confidence and anxiety.

Dimensions of Brand Personality
Jennifer L. Aaker
    Brand personality: Refers to the set of human characteristics associated with a brand.
    Research on brand personality and the symbolic use of brands more generally has
       remained limited due in part to the lack of consensus regarding what brand personality
       really is.
    The symbolic use of brands is possible because consumers often imbue brands with
       human personality traits.
   The greater the congruity between the human characteristics that consistently and
    distinctively describe an individual’s actual or ideal self and those that describe a brand,
    the greater the preference for the brand.
   Perceptions of human personality traits are inferred on the basis of an individual’s
    behavior, physical characteristics, attitudes, and beliefs, and demographic characteristics.
   Perceptions of brand personality traits can be formed and influenced by any direct or
    indirect contact that the consumer has with the brand.
   Brand personality includes demographic characteristics such as gender and class.
   Experiment: Well-known brands were chosen so that a national sample could be used; a
    wide variety of brands representing a spectrum of personality types was selected to
    enhance the scope of the scale; and a range of product categories, both symbolic and
    utilitarian, was drawn upon to enhance scale generalizability.
   One reason for the weak findings in the self-congruity literature may be due to the
    asymmetric relationship in the structure of brand versus human personality.
   Brand personality dimensions might operate in different ways or influence consumer
    preference for different reasons.
   Brand personality increases consumer preference and usage, evokes emotions in
    consumers, and increases levels of trust and loyalty.
   The extent to which brand personality dimensions are cross culturally generalizable must
    be examined.
   Human personality dimensions must remain robust across cultures, the same may not be
    so for brand personality because of differences in the antecedents of the two constructs.
   In individualist cultures, where independence, autonomy, and uniqueness are valued,
    consumers are more likely to use brands to express how they are different from members
    of their in-group.
   In collectivist cultures, where interdependence, conformity, and similarity are valued,
    consumers are more likely to use brands to express how they are similar to members of
    their in-group.