Tsunamis- Past Present and Future

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					Tsunami’s: Past, Present & Future
Presented By: Kaylee Anderson Kristin Gregory Kari Poulain

How Tsunamis are Formed
• Formed by a displacement of water caused by one of the following:
– Landslide – Volcanic eruption – Slippage between two tectonic plates

How They Cause Damage
Travel about 600 mph at the epicenter, but slow down to about 30-40 mph as it moves towards the shoreline Actually multiple waves, not just one Aftershock can create more tsunamis if strong enough

Environmental Impact

“The environment is in trouble, there‟s no question” -Bill Eichbaum World Wildlife Fund

Ground/Drinking Water
• The tsunami compromised much of the area‟s safe drinking water.
– Breeding ground for disease – People in this region dependent on wells vs. running water

The Land
• Rice Fields are brown
– Much farmland now „useless‟

• Changed the contours of the land • Costal forests lay in ruin • Beaches washed away or littered with debris

The Water
• Much of the natural reef in the region has been destroyed or will die in the near future.
– Suffocating under layers of mud

• Marine life from the shore to a mile out suffered the most damage.
– 6th Sense

• Fisheries • Mangroves vital for protection

Human Impact

Their Effects on Humanity
• After a major catastrophe, people are vulnerable to diseases – Water borne and others • Women were hit hardest • The people in the communities are greatly effected • Bad for their economy

Threat of Disease
• There is a threat for typhoid, malaria, cholera, dysentery, and waterborne disease
– Children and elderly most at risk

Contaminated Water
• The water may carry more than 50 different diseases • It‟s the leading killer of populations affected by disaster • Surging seawater, hot and humid weather, sewage, and decomposing bodies are contaminating many water supplies – Ideal breeding grounds for mosquitoes – Not much dry land for burying corpses

The Tsunami Hit Women Hardest
• 3 times more women than • The radical changes in men were killed on average the population of these villages will likely alter • This scarcity of females has their communities for led to women being good. ( – sexually assaulted • Men are now in a – an increase in domestic difficult position. violence and; – women being forced into marriage (mainly for protection)

• The waves destroyed many cities, fishing villages, and resorts along the coast
– The fishing nets swept out to sea are a potential threat to fish, birds and mammals

• Killed over 250,000 people – “one of the worst human tragedies in history” (the UN Environment Programme)

Fears of contaminated Seafood
• People fear the fish could pass on disease or bacteria • Although scientific evidence shows no contamination
– People are choosing dried fish over a fresher product, causing the fish markets to suffer

Seafood cont…
• Churning sea made an abundance of food available for the fish
– – – – Micro-organisms Plankton Plants Other dead fish

• Experts say the tsunami will have a positive effect on the food chain

The Future

How to Prevent Future Disasters
The Importance of Tsunami Warning Systems

Why It‟s Important:
• “What we would like to see happen is countries managing the risks instead of managing emergencies.” -Max Dilley, research scientist at Columbia • We should be proactive as opposed to reactive

How to be Proactive
• Strengthening building codes • Implementing early warning systems • Warning centers with computer technology • Education for populace

Difficulties in Asia
– warnings need to occur within 10-20 minutes – variable timing (hard to determine) when waves will hit the shoreline

– Much of Asia‟s population lives without modern communications – warning becomes difficult and useless

A Logical Approach
• Model warning system for the Indian Ocean after the Pacific Ocean‟s system • System could be in place within the next two years

Pacific System Logistics
• Has been in place for decades
– implemented in 1965 after years of tsunamis

• Currently links 26 nations • Network of buoys and seismic stations
– hundreds of seismic stations – coastal tide gauges – deep-water buoys

How Buoys Work
• Contain two parts: pressure sensor and surface transmitter • pressure sensor: ability to sense when sea level rises above normal by only a centimeter, warning of a tsunami • information then sent to surface transmitter, which sends information to stations by satellite

Cost-Benefit Analysis
• Cost of each buoy: $250,000 • Extremely expensive maintenance costs • About 6 major tsunamis hit the Pacific each decade, Asia experiences far less • Benefits
– if system had already been in place in the Indian Ocean, thousands of lives in Asia could have been spared

What Needs to be Done?
• Mangroves need to be rehabilitated and added onto • Less dependence on well water • Government Intervention and continued UN presence. • Use this as a lesson for the future, because tsunamis will happen again!

Why Should We Care?
• • • • Moral obligation Business sense/globalization Diplomatic ties In hopes that other countries will follow suite

Quiz Time!

Question #1
• What are two of the three ways a tsunami can be formed?? – Landslides – Volcanic Eruptions – Movement of Plates

Question #2
• How fast do tsunami‟s travel? (Either at the epicenter or around land) – 600 MPH at epicenter – 30-40 MPH by coastline

Question #3
• What is the major effect of the landscape changing?
– Increases likeliness of flooding, especially in areas that previously weren‟t at an especially high risk.

Question #4
• Who did the tsunami hit the hardest?

• Women

Question #5
• What is the name of the buoy system currently in place in the Pacific? – The Pacific System Logistic

How You Can Help…
• Red Cross


• AmeriCares

• Asia Foundation

• Habitat For Humanity

• Save the Children

• Relief International

Sources Consulted
• • • • • • CNN Dr. Wayne Nafziger Tsunami Museum Boston Globe World Environmental News The New York Times

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