ITIL Revision sheet

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					IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)

Mission Statement

Business IT Alignment

Strategy

Tactics Planning

Service Delivery

Service Support

Operations day-to-day

IT Service Management Overview

SPOC Single Point of Contact SD Service Desk IM Incident Mngt CH Change Mngt REL Release Mngt

BUSINESS (Customer)

User

User

User SLA

SLA Service Level Agreement SLM Service Level Mngt AM Availability Mngt CM Capacity Mngt IT SCM IT Service Continuity Mngt

SPOC

SD SERVICE SUPPORT IM AM PROBLEM SERVICE DELIVERY

SLM

CM

IT SCM CH REL FINANCE

CONFIGURATION

IM PM

RRS SD / IM USER INCIDENT

Problem & Error Control
PROBLEM DB One or more incidents with unknown cause

PM

IM PROBLEM INCIDENT DB
Find Root cause & temp fix workaround OR permanent fix

PM

KE DB PM Description & Solution in plain English

KNOWN ERROR

YES Raise RFC PM

If business case to fix?

PM

PROBLEM CONTROL NO

CHANGE MANAGEMENT

STOP

ERROR CONTROL

SD

Training Plan for Service Desk Agent

1. Health & Safety 2. Data Protection 3. Custom Service Skills 4. Business Awareness 5. IT skills in supported applications 6. How to use the Service Desk tools (e.g. Clarify) 7. Service Desk procedures 8. SLAs being supported 9. Baseline fixes (e.g. passwords) 10. Contacts & hand0offs to IT Support Manager & Suppliers 11. Overview of ITIL’s view of IT Support Managers

SD

Service Desk Activities
                  Single Point of Contact Log all Incidents Resolve Incidents using KE DB Escalation Service Requirements Reporting Trends Workarounds Monitor Track Information Requests Categorisation Prioritisation Closure Refer to Second Line First Investigation First Diagnosis Recovery Keep User Informed

The Service Desk Personality

Patience Communicative Confidence Enthusiastic Friendly Empathetic Assertive Literate Numerate Honest

Forthright Condescending Aggressive Technical Specialist

SD IM PM

Classification

Categorisation of an Incident
E.g. Hardware, Software, Documentation, User Error

Prioritisation of that Incident

Influenced by

EFFECT What will it be on the business and number of users?

SPEED How quickly is a fix needed?

High High

1

2 1

3 2

Low

1

Priority 1

2

1

2

3

3
Low

2 1

3

3

PM

Known Error

An error is only a KNOWN ERROR when…

Root Cause

Temporary Fix

Permanent Fix

  



&


OR

 

Problem Activities

Reactive
Problem Control Error Control Major Incident Support

Proactive
Management Information Major Problem Review

CH

Change Advisory Board (CAB) Members
Business and IT

Chair

Change Manager

IT Representatives

Service Desk Manager Problem manager Application Manager Operations Manager Security Manager

Business Representatives

Senior Users Finance Representatives As Appropriate

Outputs from CAB Meetings
CAB Minutes Forward Schedule of Change (FCS) – Gantt Table (3-6 months out) Projected Service Availability (PSA) – Gantt table (3-6 months out)

CH

Category

Category     

Notes Affects few Users Affects single service Low or no cost Little implementation resource Low risk

Assessor/Approver

MINOR

Change Manager

Significant

Between MINOR and MAJOR

CAB

MAJOR

     

Affects many Users Affects several services Substantial cost Require implementation teams High risk Usually a project

Executive Management (Board)

CFig

Configuration Activities

1. Planning 2. Identification of Configuration item (CI) 3. Control 4. Status Accounting 5. Verification & Audit

IT Infrastructure

Hardware Process & Procedure Technical Documentation Diagrams IT Staff Organisational Charts

Software

Documentation

CFig

Configuration Attributes
An example could be a PC:

Processor Type/Speed  Hardware configuration Memory Disks Network IP MAC Hub Port #            Serial Number / Model Number / Asset Number Operating System Location / User Date of Purchase /Warranty Period Supplier / Support Contact Details Type of Support Incident #s Service History Problem #s RFCs Audit Trail Business Unit as Owner Purchase Price CI Variant information – e.g. the keyboard is French

Fin

ABC of Finance

Mandatory

Optional

Cost Types

ransfer

Main Frame Server Desk Top Cost Elements

ardware

xternal

Network Operating System

oftware

Applications Utility

eople

ccommodation

ITSCM

Recovery

>72 Hours Empty Computer Space Remote Centre (External) / Portable

24-72 Hours Filled Computer Space – No Data Remote Centre (External) / Portable

0-8 Hours Filled Computer Space with Data Remote Centre (External)

ITSCM

Methodology for Managing Risk

C T A

I S K

N A L Y S I S

A N A G E M E N T

&

E T H O D O L O G Y

CM

Demand

Examples: Call at Service Desk CPU Utilisation Network Bandwidth Utilisation Connects to Server

Threshold

Frequency

0700

1000 Time

1300

1700

An alert will trigger when the demand is about to exceed the capacity

AM

Component Failure Impact Analysis (CFIA)

Components (CIs) #1 A B C #2 #3 -n #n TOTAL 9 24 18

      

     

   

Services

XX XY TOTAL

 

23

Each component can be assessed to see how many services depend on it. From here, each component can be weighted to highlight the high impact components. E.g. If #3 breaks down, this will have a high impact on many services

    8    

   
40

21

  7 

 
1

11

AM

Fault Tree Analysis
A B
SERVER

G
SERVER

ROUTER

C

D E

F

H

L = Single Point of Failure

I

ROUTER

J K
ROUTER

M

N O P Q

SERVER

SERVER

R

The Fault Analysis Tree uses Boolean Logic (AND / OR) whereby the components can or cannot be used depending on the location of the fault.

AM

Considerations

Managed through OLAs (Operational Level Agreements)

A R R M S S

vailability

esilience

Resource Capacity Management

eliability

aintainability

erviceability

Managed through UCs (Underpinning Contracts) CIA – Confidentiality Integrity Availability

ecurity

AM

Calculating Availability

% Availability =

Agreed Service Time

Down Time

X 100 %
Agreed Service Time

Example: AST = 40 Hrs Therefore: DT = 20Hrs

40 % Availability = 40

2 X 100 %

38 = 40 = 95 % X 100 %

AM

Summary of Responsibilities to Produce and Maintain

Design for Availability

Manage Availability

Component Failure Impact Analysis (CFIA)

Service Outage Analysis (SOA)

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)

Technical Observation Post (TOP)

Note! RISK is found in Change Management, Availability Management and IT Service Continuity Management.

Quick Reference Key Words SERVICE DESK         

Function not a Process Central Point of Contact – Increase user perception and satisfaction Support for business goals Log ALL Incidents Provide First Line support Second Line support – Generalists / Ops Support Third Line support – Specialists Produce measurement metrics Categorise Incidents

INCIDENT MANAGEMENT Incident is an event not part of standard service Incident causes disruption Incident causes a reduction in service An incident has a ‘Life Cycle’ 1. Detection and Recording 2. Classifiaction and Support 3. Investigation and Diagnosis 4. Resolutioon and Recovery 5. Closure Note! The Expanded Incident Life Cycle is part of AVAILABILITY MANAGEMENT and focuses on the Availability of the system MTBSI, MTTR, MTBF.  IMPACT = EFFECT  URGENCY = SPEED  PRIORITY = Based on IMPACT and URGENCY  ESCALATION 1. Functional 2. Hierarchical    

Across support teams (Competence) Up Management line (Authority)

PROBLEM MANAGEMENT  Problem is unknown underlying cause of one or more incidents.  Known Error is when the root cause is known and a workaround has been found.  To find the root cause we need to undertake ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS.  Two main elements of Problem Management 1. Error Control 2. Problem Control  Proactive as well as Reactive – Known Error Database  RFC are required to resolve Known Errors

CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT  All CIs are held in a CMDB this is NOT the DSL  Configuration Items are RECORDS and as such are made up of ATTRIBUTES  There are always 2 Key Attributes 1. Unique Identifier 2. CI Type ID 3. There may be a VARIANT attribute

 CMDB is not an ASSET register because CMDB records RELATIONSHIPS between CIs (Parent-Child).  The Base Level is the lowest level, which CIs are UNIQUELY identified.  The Baseline is a SNAPSHOT in time of the CMDB.  Status Accounting is the reporting of all current and historical data of each CI. e.g. Life Cycle of hardware component 1. Ordered 2. Delivered 3. Tested 4. Installed 5. Under Repair 6. Retired

CHANGE MANAGEMENT  Requests For Change – details of requested change  Forward Schedule of Changes – details of changes scheduled for implementation  Projected Service Availability – details of changes to agreed SLA’s because of FSC  Change Category 1. MINOR – Change Manager approval 2. SIGNIFICANT – Change Advisory Board approval 3. MAJOR – Board approval 4. URGENT/EMERGENCY – CAB/Emergency Committee (EC) approval  Change Process 1. Register, Accept, Prioritise 2. Category, Authorise 3. Build, Test, Schedule Note! Not necessarily FULL testing 4. Implement, Back out 5. Review, Close RELEASE MANAGEMENT  Overall HOLISTIC view of a change to an IT service (Roll Out)  Definitive Software Library – Library where ALL authorised versions of software are stored and protected. A Physical library or storage repository where master copies of software versions are kept. This one logical store may consist of one or more physical software libraries or filestores.  Definitive Hardware Store – An area set aside for the secure storage of definitive hardware spares.  Release definitions 1. Release - a collection of authorised changes to an IT service

2. Release Unit – Portion of IT Infrastructure normally released together 3. Roll-out – deliver, install and commission an integrated set of new or changed CIs across logical or physical parts of the organisation.

 Release Types 1. Delta – Partial release of CI’s that have changed or are new since last release. 2. Package – Individual releases FULL units, DELTA or both are grouped together to form a Package Release. 3. Full – All components of the release unit are built, tested, distributed and implemented together.

SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT  Service Catalogue is a list of offerings  Service Level Requirements deals with AMOUNTS (response Metrics)  Service Level Agreement is a CLIENT / SUPPLIER Non Technical document NOT a Contract  Operational Level Agreement Internal Technical or Non Technical document  Underpinning Contract is with 3rd Partys  Cost Focus  Demings Quality Circle – Plan  Do  Check  Act

Financial Management for IT Services  A COST MODEL must be defined and agreed BEFORE you can CHARGE  CHARGE Types 1. At Cost 2. Cost Plus 3. Going Rate 4. Market Rate 5. Fixed Price  An OVERHEAD is the TOTAL cost of INDIRECT materials e.g. Wages and Expenses  CAPITAL Costs apply to Fixed Substantial assets of the organisation e.g. Building  OPERATIONAL Costs result from Day to Day running of IT Services section e.g. Staff Costs  DIRECT Costs are those that can be traced in FULL to a product, service, cost centre or department e.g. direct wages of a member of Staff or Staff Type i.e. Contractors  INDIRET costs cannot be traced directly to and in full to a product, service or department. It may be a cost spread across a number of departments. It’s an APPORTIONED cost or OVERHEAD.  Cost Types – THE SPA

 Efficiency and Effectiveness are related to COST. CAPACITY MANAGEMENT Business Capacity Management – FUTURE business requirements Service Capacity Management – CURRENT Service delivery Resource Capacity Management – UNDERLYING resource components Demand Management – Differential Charging Modelling 1. TREND 2. ANALYTICAL 3. SIMULATION 4. BASELINE (What if?)  Application Sizing – Supply v Demand, Cost v Capacity  There are Capacity THRESHOLDS that when exceeded generate ALERTS     

IT SERVICE CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT  Reduction in the VULNERABILITY of the IT service  RISK Analysis – Threats to assets CRAMM  Countermeasures – Recovery Options 1. Do Nothing 2. Manual Backup 3. Reciprocal Arrangements 4. COLD Gradual Recovery > 72 hrs 5. WARM Intermediate Recovery 24 to 72 hrs 6. HOT Immediate recovery 0 to 8 hrs  Note! Cold, Warm and Hot recovery options should be at a REMOTE location  Increases customer confidence and can reduce Insurance premiums. AVAILABILITY MANAGEMENT      ABILITY but NOT VULNERABILITY Availability of service Reliability – Maintainability} OLA Managed Serviceability SLA Managed Security is Confidence, Integrity and Availability


				
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