Cadastre 2014 by brr10607

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									Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




    Cadastre 2014
            • Land Administration Context
            • Cadastre 2014
            • Influence on Swiss Cadastral System
            • Conclusions, Recommendations


Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            1
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




  Recent Actions in the Cadastral Field (1/2)

         • FIG-Statement on the Cadastre (1994): Cadastre assists
         in management of land and land use, and enables
         sustainable development and environmental protection.


         • UN-ECE Meeting of Officials in Land Administration
         (1996): 58 European countries, focusing on transition
         countries, raising awareness, technical advice.




Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            2
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




 Recent Actions in the Cadastral Field (2/2)
         • Bogor-Declaration (1996): visions for modern cadastral
         infrastructures: (1) to support long term sustainable
         development and land management; (2) to fully service the
         escalating needs of greatly increased urban populations.
         • FIG-Cadastre 2014 (1998): 6 vision statements.
         • UN-FIG Bathurst Declaration (1999): • dynamic
         humankind/land-relationship, • sustainable development
         needs sound land administration.



Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            3
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                Cadastre  Land Administration

        Land administration refers to the process of recording and
        disseminating information about ownership, value and use of
        land and its associated resources.
        Land administration includes, inter alia, cadastre, land
        registers, land consolidation, valuation and land information
        systems.
                                                  [Helge Onsrud, 1999]

          Cadastre              Land Register          Consolidation   Valuation   LIS


Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                   4
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




    Land Admin.  Sustainable Development

    • UN-FIG Bathurst declaration (1999) concluded that:
            – sustainable development is the key driver influencing the
              relationship Humankind–Land
            – sustainable development needs sound land administration




Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            5
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                                                Dilemma
                 Current land administration systems
                 are based on 19th century paradigms
                 and as such are inadequate in addres-
                 sing objectives of sustainable devel-
                 opment.


Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            6
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                                           Cadastre 2014
    FIG-Commission 7 -
    Working Group 1 (1994-98):
    • identify trends
    • develop visions
                                                              A VISION FOR A FUTURE CADASTRAL

     booklet presented at the
                                                                           SYSTEM
                                                                     Jürg Kaufmann - Daniel Steudler
                                                              with the Working Group 1 of FIG Commission 7

     FIG-Congress 1998 in
                                                                               July 1998
     Brighton, England
                                                           http://www.swisstopo.ch/fig-wg71/

Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            7
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




  Cadastre 2014 - Introduction

             • Result of 4 years of work (1994-98)
             • 4 annual meetings
             • 40 working group members from 26 countries
             • Organization of a one-day seminar on ‘Modern Cadastres
               and Cadastral Innovations’
             • Questionnaire for Trend Analysis (32 responses)
             • Questionnaire about Cost Recovery and Privatization
               Aspects (51 responses)
             • Paper on ‘Benchmarking’


Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            8
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




  Cadastre 2014 – Trend Analysis
             • Cadastre only shows private law matters; restrictions
               from public law are not shown and are not transparent to
               land market.
                                  restriction C                         restriction A
                                                                land
                                            4
                                                       property 1
                                             3
                                                          2


                                         restriction B




Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                         9
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




     Traditional Cadastre based                                         Impacts from
          on "Private Law"                                              "Public Law"

        Boundary                                                               Boundary defini-
        definition by                                                          tion by political
        agreement                                                              decisions

        Process of
        boundary
        verification

        Process of title
        verification
        Registration


         100–120%                                      Legal Security               0%

Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                  10
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




  Cadastre 2014 – Trend Analysis
             • Cadastre only shows private law matters; restrictions
               from public law are not shown and are not transparent to
               land market.
             • Link between ‘map’ and ‘register’ is not efficient enough.
             • Trend towards digital data format.
             • Trend towards data automation and computerization.
             • Trend towards privatization, especially in the level of
               operational control.
             • Aspects of NPM become more and more important (cost
               awareness).

Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            11
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




  Statement 1 on Cadastre 2014


           restriction C                               restriction A
                                                                            Cadastre 2014 will
                                              land                          show the complete
                      4
                                 property 1                                 legal situation of
                       3
                                      2                                     land, including
                                                                            public rights and
                  restriction B                                             restrictions!




Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                            12
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




     Traditional Cadastre based                                         Impacts from
          on "Private Law"                                              "Public Law"

        Boundary                                                               Boundary defini-
        definition by                                                          tion by political
        agreement                                                              decisions

        Process of                                                              Process of
        boundary                                                                boundary
        verification                                                            verification

        Process of title                                                        Process of title
        verification                                                            verification
        Registration                                                            Registration


         100–120%                                      Legal Security               100%

Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                  13
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                        Definition of Land Object
            Traditional Definition                          Definition of Cadastre 2014
                      Land Parcel                                 Land Object

       A land parcel is a piece of land                 A land object is a piece of land
       with defined boundaries, on                      in which homogeneous condi-
       which a property right of an                     tions exist within its outlines.
       individual person or a legal                     The legal land objects are
       entity applies.                                  described by the legal content
                                                        of a right or restriction and the
                                                        boundaries which demarcate
                                                        where the right or restriction
                                                        applies.

Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            14
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                    Definition of Cadastre 2014
            Traditional Definition                          Definition of Cadastre 2014
                         Cadastre                                Cadastre 2014

    Cadastre is a methodically ar-                      Cadastre 2014 is a methodically
    ranged public inventory of data                     arranged public inventory of data
    concerning properties within a                      concerning all legal land objects
    certain country or district, based                  in a certain country or district,
    on a survey of their boundaries.                    based on a survey of their bounda-
                                                        ries




Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            15
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                     The principle of legal independence
    Legal Topics:                               Land Object Layers:   Stakeholders:

                                                                        Chartered company
    Resource Exploitation
                                                                        Corporation
    Collective Land Rights
                                                                        Society
    Water Protection
                                                                        Tribe, Clan
    Indigenous Land Rights
                                                                        Society
    Environment Protection
                                                                        Society
    Land Use Planning
                                                                        House owners
    Shelter and Housing
                                                                        Society
    Natural Resources
                                                                        Society
    Natural Land Objects
                                                                        Private Land Owners
    Land Property
                                            Common reference system

Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                16
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                                     Accounting SystemAdministration
                           Business of: General Company Land
                   Strategic goals              Sound economic      Sustainable development
                                                development

                   Management                   Management of       Management of land
                   (measures to meet            company             and ressources
Management Level




                    strategy)
                   Administrative units         Business process    Land object layers (one of
                   (business processes)         units                them is land property)
                   Operational                  Accounting system   Cadastre 2014
                   • accepted principles        • accounts          • principle of legal indepen-
                     of bookkeeping             • books               dence
                   • reliable, complete         • registers         • documentation of both,
                   • appropriate to needs       • statistics          rights and restrictions
                   • adaptable to                                   • use of information techno-
                     development                                      logy (data modelling)


Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                 17
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                                       Reliable Accounting
                                                            Business needs reliable
                                                            accounting!

                                                            Sustainable development
                                                            needs an accounting system
                                                            for land and land resources!

                                                            Modern Cadastres are
                                                            becoming the accounting
                                                            systems for land adminis-
                                                            tration!


Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            18
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




  Statement 2 on Cadastre 2014



                                                           The separation between
                                                           'maps' and 'registers' will
                                                           be abolished!
            maps                               registers



                         statistics




Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                19
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




  Statement 3 on Cadastre 2014


                                                   cadastral
                                                   modelling




                                                                    'Cadastral mapping'
                                                                    will be dead! Long
                                                                    live modelling!

Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                    20
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                  Information Layers in Swiss Cadastre

                  8 Information Layers:


                  Control points
                  Land cover
                  Single objects / line elements
                  Heights
                  Local names
                  Ownership
                  Pipelines >5bar
                  Administrative subdivisions

Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            21
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                                                       Data model

                                                           Name
                                                                      OPTIONAL Table
                                                                      with table name                                          OwnershipMaintenance

                                                         NumPos       OPTIONAL attribute name
                                                                                                                                    Identifier                                    LimitPoint
                                                         Identifier   Attribute that is unique within the                           Description
                                                                      table of one topic (exceptionally                             Perimeter                1            mc
                                                                      together with another attribute)                              Validity                                    OSKey ->
                                                                                                                                    Date1                                       Identifier
                                                         Origin ->    Attribute that relates with another                  1        Date2
                                                                      table (relational attribute)                                                                              Geometry
                                                                                                                                    Date3                                       PositionPrecision
                                                                                                                                                                                PositionReliability
                                                                                                                                1                                               PointSymbol
                                                                                                                                                                                Origin
                                                                                                                                                                                SymbolOrientation




                                                                                                                                                  Ownership
                                                                              PROJOwnership
                                                                                                                               mc
                                                                                                            mc                                    OSKey ->
                                                                               OSKey ->                                                           Number
                                                                               Number                                                             Validity
                                                                               Geometry                                                           Origin
                                                                               Origin                                                             Class

                                                                                                  1                                               1     1         1




                                                             PROJOwnershipPosition                                Parcel                          DistinctRight                OwnershipPosition
                                                                                                                                    c       c
                                                            Object ->                             m              Object ->                            Object ->       m        Object ->
                                                            NumberPosition                                       Geometry                             Geometry                 NumberPosition
                                                            NumberOrientation                                    Surface                              Surface                  NumberOrientation
                                                            NumberHorizontalAlignment                                                                                          NumberHorizontalAlignment
                                                            NumberVerticalAlignment                                                                                            NumberVerticalAlignment




                                                                      Entity-Relationship-Diagram for
                                                                      „Ownership“ layer

Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                              22
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne


                                                                                                                                                       TRANSFER Data_Catalogue;



               Data description in INTERLIS                                                                                                            MODEL Basic_Data_Set
                                                                                                                                                        DOMAIN
                                                                                                                                                         LKoord = COORD2 480000.000    70000.000
                                                                                                                                                                            840000.000 300000.000;
                                                                                                                                                         HKoord = COORD3 480000.000    70000.000      0.000
                                                                                                                                                                          840000.000 300000.000    5000.000;
                                                                                                                                                         Height = DIM1 0.000 5000.000;
                                                                                                                                                         Precision = [0 .. 300];
                                                                                                                                                         Reliability = (yes, no);
                                                                                                                                                         Status = (planned, valid);
  Name
             OPTIONAL Table                                                                                                                            TOPIC Control_Points =
             with table name                                          OwnershipMaintenance                                                             .........
                                                                                                                                                       END Control_Points;
NumPos       OPTIONAL attribute name
                                                                           Identifier                                    LimitPoint
Identifier   Attribute that is unique within the                           Description                                                                 TOPIC Land_Cover =
             table of one topic (exceptionally                             Perimeter                1            mc
             together with another attribute)                              Validity                                                                    .........
                                                                                                                       OSKey ->
                                                                           Date1                                       Identifier                      END Land_Cover;
Origin ->    Attribute that relates with another                  1        Date2
             table (relational attribute)                                                                              Geometry
                                                                           Date3                                       PositionPrecision               TOPIC Ownership =
                                                                                                                       PositionReliability
                                                                       1                                               PointSymbol                     DOMAIN
                                                                                                                       Origin                           Monumentation = (border_stone, plastic_peg, cross,
                                                                                                                       SymbolOrientation                                 not_monumented);
                                                                                                                                                        OwnershipType = (parcel, distinct_right,
                                                                                                                                                                         construction_right, water_source_
                                                                                                                                                                         right);
                                                                                                                                                        OPTIONAL TABLE OwnershipMaintenance =
                                                                                         Ownership                                                        Identifier = TEXT*12;
                     PROJOwnership
                                                                      mc                                                                                  Description = TEXT*30;
                                                   mc                                    OSKey ->                                                         Perimeter: SURFACE WITH (STRAIGHTS, ARCS)
                      OSKey ->                                                           Number
                      Number                                                             Validity
                                                                                                                                                          VERTEX LKoord
                      Geometry                                                           Origin                                                           WITHOUT OVERLAPS > 0.200;
                      Origin                                                             Class                                                            Validity: Status;
                                                                                                                                                          Date1: DATE;
                                         1                                               1     1         1                                                Date2: OPTIONAL DATE;
                                                                                                                                                       IDENT
                                                                                                                                                          Identifier;
                                                                                                                                                        END OwnershipMaintenance;
    PROJOwnershipPosition                                Parcel                          DistinctRight                OwnershipPosition
                                                                                                                                                        TABLE LimitPoint =
                                                                           c       c                                                                      OSKey: OPTIONAL -> OwnershipMaintenance;
   Object ->                             m              Object ->                            Object ->       m        Object ->
   NumberPosition                                       Geometry                             Geometry                 NumberPosition                      Identifier: OPTIONAL TEXT*12;
   NumberOrientation                                    Surface                              Surface                  NumberOrientation                   Geometry: LKoord;
   NumberHorizontalAlignment                                                                                          NumberHorizontalAlignment           PositionPrecision: Precision;
   NumberVerticalAlignment                                                                                            NumberVerticalAlignment
                                                                                                                                                          PositionReliability: Reliability;
                                                                                                                                                          PointSymbol: Monumentation;
                                                                                                                                                          Origin: OPTIONAL TEXT*30;
                                                                                                                                                          SymbolOrientation: OPTIONAL LetterOrientation;
                                                                                                                                                       IDENT
                                                                                                                                                          Geometry;
                                                                                               Data description in INTERLIS                             END LimitPoint;
                                                                                                                                                       END Ownership.

                                                                                                     for „Ownership“ layer:                            END Basic_Data_Set.




Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                                                                                                       23
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




  Reasons for a Data Description Language
    • flexible instrument for the definition of the data model
    • unified interface for facilitating data exchange between different
    systems and data bases
    • data transfer without information loss (real GIS, and not only CAD)
    • guarantee of freedom of methods and systems
    • quality assurance

     investment protection of data acquisition and long-term security
     the use of a data description language is the crucial step away from
    cartographic thinking to information technology !!!


Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            24
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




   Switzerland: Possible LIS of Regional Government
                                  Same geodetic framework                                             Data maintenance,
Information topic                                                     Data owner       Data        Data administration,
                                  Same way of data description                         acquisition Data output
Other topics                                                          other

Land use planning                                  planning zones     Canton,
Forestry                                                              Communities

Cable TV                                           facilities         Private firms
Electric power
                                                   facilities         Power company
supply
Civil protection                                   protection zones   Communities

Fresh water                                        facilities         Corporations,
Waste water                                                           Communities, …
Railways                                           rails,             Railways         Railways         Railways
Telecom                                            facilities         Telecom          Telecom          Telecom

AV93                                               basic data         Canton           Canton (lic.     Canton (lic.
                                                                                       surveyors)       surveyors)


Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                      25
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




  Statement 4 on Cadastre 2014




                                                            'Paper and pencil
                                                            cadastre' will be
                                                            gone!




Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            26
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




  Statement 5 on Cadastre 2014



                                                            Cadastre 2014 will
                                                            be highly privatized!
                                                            Public and private
                                                            sector are working
                                                            closely together!




Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            27
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                  Role of Private Sector in Switzerland

                                                       2 Partners:

    Public Sector                                                    Private Sector
     • legislation (Federal                                          • production
       and cantonal level)                                           • maintenance
     • financing structure                                           • service to clients
     • setting standards                                             • innovation
     • supervision
     • co-ordination
     • verification

Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                 28
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




  Statement 6 on Cadastre 2014


                                                       interests
                                                                           Cadastre 2014
         investment
                                                                           will be cost
                                                                           recovering!
                                                           running costs




                     charges/fees




Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                  29
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                  Cost Recovery in Questionnaire 1995
      4.5 Having accomplished data acquisition, what estimated level of
              cost recovery is achieved by the existing system ?
           >100 %

           100 %

               80 %
                                                                                              4
               60 %                                                     9
               40 %
                                                           2
                                                       1            (13 countries out of 22
               20 %                              1                  already achieve ≥100%)
                                  5
                 0%

Daniel Steudler, March 2001                                    30
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




     Cost Recovery of Land Administration Systems

      [UN-ECE Guidelines on Land Administration, 1996]:
      Although land records are expensive to compile and to keep up to
      date, a good land administration system can produce benefits that
      significantly outweight the costs.

       The central issue is not whether countries can afford such a
      system, but whether they can afford to live without one.




Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            31
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




                                             Cadastre 2014
      TO REMEMBER:

                              Cadastre will have larger extent.

                              Digital format will require another way of thinking, but
                              offers a lot of new opportunities (modeling – not
                              mapping / linkage of spatial and textual data across
                              organization boundaries will be easier).

                              Cost awareness will increase (private sector will be
                              more involved).



Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            32
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




           Cadastre 2014 – Recommendations to
                                   surveyors

                       • to complement the traditional skill of producing maps
                         and plans with dealing with information and data
                         models;
                       • to understand the phenomenon of public law land
                         objects;
                       • to play the role of a land administration specialist.



Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            33
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




         Cadastre 2014 will

                       • contain all types of rights and restrictions;
                       • make substantial use of new information technology;
                       • benefit of the co-operation between public and
                         private sector;
                       • have economical structure where cost recovery will
                         play a role.




Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            34
Land Administration Lecture Series 2001
Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne




         Relevance to Land Administration
         Community

                      • to understand the phenomenon of public law land
                        objects;
                      • to recognize the role of dealing with information and data
                        models;
                      • to recognize the land administration context and the
                        importance to sustainable development.



Daniel Steudler, March 2001                            35

								
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