Promoters of the industrial revolution

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					Promoters of
the industrial
 revolution :
                                         British
« Promoters of
 the industrial
                                         lithography,
 revolution » :                          1880…

                                         1880 : the
                                         starting point of
                                         the « second »
                                         industrial
                                         revolution. The
Why people                               « first » dated
in                                       back to the
                                         introduction of
medallions ?                             the steam engine
                                         technology into
 Britain : the cradle of most            factories (early
 inventions = this picture was an        1820-30s).
 opportunity to enlighten the rich
 and glorious legacy of British          1880 : new
 researchers and financers to the        powered-energy
 industrial age.                         sources
                                         discovered and
 Probably a means to show their          introduced : oil
 strong contribution to this period of   and electricity.
 great breakthroughs…
Promoters of
the industrial
 revolution :

                              WHY SCIENTISTS ?
            They researched and performed new machines, such as J.
           Watt, etc. because it was the age of rationalism = religion and
                dogmas were dethroned… « Religion can’t explain
                                   everything »…

                               WHY ENGINEERS ?
            They made those machines capable of sustaining an industrial
                     pace, they introduced them into firms…

                                WHY BANKERS ?
             Theydirectly participated into the invention process as they
                 financed, sponsored research and firms’ creation.
Innovations :




    Clippers :              Steamers :
   wind and sail       coal + steam engine



 Coach, barouche,      Train : steam engine
horse-drawn vehicle        + iron + steel



Old-powered street         Electricity :
 lighting (gas, oil)       light bulb
Innovations
(basic
description):
 Clipper which
                    Steamer : huge,
 is bending =
                    robust, breaks into
 looks unstable
                    the sea
 + heavy clouds


                    Train : sorting
  Barouche,
                    out from a
  facing the wind
                    tunnel (=
  and winter
                    movement) in a
  season
                    spring time…


                     Luminous and
  Dirty and grim     large street,
  street, poor       bright
  lighting,          buildings, well-
  narrow streets     dressed
                     couples,
                     bicycle…
Develop the
first line :



    Clippers :                                           Steamers :
   wind and sail                                     coal + steam engine

  Clippers made of wood.
  Steamers first started to join GB to Americas in the early 1840s.
  Transatlantic journeys. The Sirius e.g.
  Steam = James Watt, 1789. improved John Newcomen’s fisrt
  attempts (early 1720s) = quite an old research.
  Made of iron first = melted in furnaces.
  Later, made of steel (Henri Bessemer’s process, 1855) : more
  resistant and flexible material ; an alloy.
Develop the
second line :



           (Same
           inventions as
           before, so…)

 Coach, barouche,                                      Train : steam engine
horse-drawn vehicle                                        + iron + steel


                           Account for the birth and development of
                           the railway in Britain : 1829 ; G
                           Stephenson’s Rocket ; Liverpool –
                           Manchester…
Develop the
third line :

     Traditional lighting was ancient : oil and gas.
     Faraday M discovered the electric current in 1831 (magnetism and
     electricity)
     Edison Th. (Am. creator of the telephone - 1876) made the first light bulb
     (late 1870s) parallel to the discovery of generators…




Old-powered street                                                 Electricity :
 lighting (gas, oil)                                               light bulb
                   SOCIAL & ECONOMIC CHANGES :two ideas developed…
Easier trade :                                                 Discovery of new
                                                               landscapes :
Source indicates
velocity of new                                                the source
vehicles = opposed                                             underlines the
to slow and unstable                                           positive aspects
movements, crossing                                            and easy travels
on straigth lines, etc.                                        affordable. Spring
                                                               time, clear sky,
Real asset because
                                                               fast, safe, robust
they boosted
                                                               and comfortable
production &
                                                               means of
demand ; faster
                                                               transportation…
transport = more raw
materials ; safer and                                          Real opportunity
more robust                                                    to travel and
transport = more                                               discover (cheaper
exchanges, more                                                costs, enclosed
quantities of goods ;                                          regions joined by
etc.                                                           train, …).
e.g. Liverpool a                                               e.g. in GB :
crossroads between                                             tourism in South
Manchester / US and                                            England (…),
Indias…                                                        mountains. Fisrt
                                                               leisure times…