The Industrial Revolution!
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The Industrial Revolution! 1600-1901 Chapter 22 Hmmm… What does the word “revolution” mean? Scientific Revolution, American Revolution, French Revolution, Industrial Revolution… CHANGE! Long term and short term changes How did technological discoveries and developments of the Scientific Revolution change society? Scientific discoveries, new machines, printing press, exploration… Introduction Many European economies, during the 1700s, were based on mercantilism and were very labor intensive Lasting effects from the Scientific Revolution and a more peaceful Europe led to a demand for more change… Industrial Revolution: a period of increased output of goods made by machines and new inventions Was a slow, long, uneven process from hand tools to complex machines How were inventions such as the sewing machine, anesthetics, measuring the speed of light, and the Bunsen burner made possible?? Factors Aiding Industrial Growth 1. Changes in Farming Methods Enclosure Movement: process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers Larger fields = more output Jethro Tull Small farmers are displaced = move to cities for work Crop Rotation Produce more crops using the same amount of land Charles Townshend Improved Livestock: selective breeding caused the weights and quantities of livestock to double in the 18th century Factors Aiding Industrial Growth 2. Energy Revolution Coal was used to power the first steam engine James Watt (1769); pump water out of mines Vital power source during Industrial Revolution By 1780, rail lines crisscrossed Britain, Europe, and eastern North America Improved trade Encouraged travel Britain Led the Rise of Industry Why did the IR begin here? Britain had many advantages… 1. Manpower – population boom, city workers 2. Materials – coal, iron ore and other natural resources 3. Money – from trade and war to invest 4. Markets – large colonial empire, trade agreements 5. Modes of Transportation – roads, rail, shipping Britain Led the Rise of Industry British revolutionized textile industry One invention led to another… Flying Shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Water Frame, Spinning Mule, Power Loom, Cotton Gin These inventions were too expensive for home use Welcome to factory life! Increased cotton and linen output 1785 = 40 million yards 1850 = 2 billion yards! Economic Effects of the Industrial Revolution 1. Goods were produced more efficiently 2. Supply of goods increased 3. Prices of goods decreased 4. More consumer demand due to lowered prices 5. Jobs were created in factories and on rail lines 6. Social changes as well! Social Effects of the Industrial Revolution Industry changed Europeans’ way of life 1. Urbanization: a movement of people to cities Did they come by choice? Yes and no…changes in farming, demand for workers Overcrowding Manchester: 17,000 in 1750…40,000 in 1780…70,000 in 1801! Dirty and disease ridden from factories City governments were corrupt and inefficient Cities were unsafe Tenement housing: shabby apartment buildings No light, no running water, many to one room, no sanitation system Social Effects, cont’d 2. Hazards of Factory Life Long work days (12-16 hours) No safety devices (loss of limbs, lives) Pollution (coal dust, lint into lungs of workers) Women were paid less than men Many employers preferred women to men Thought they could adapt to machines better, easier to manage Grim family life (“double-shift”) Social Effects, cont’d 3. Children Suffered in Mills and Mines Were “trappers” – cleared the ventilation shafts Orphaned children worked for food and board Many families needed the extra money Many were beat, very few received an education Factory Act of 1833: minimum 13 years old, work maximum 8 hour day Social Effects, cont’d 4. Middle Class Expanded Rise of factory owners, shippers and merchants Lived in nice housing, dressed and ate well, women did not work Viewed the poor as lazy or ignorant; responsible for their own misery Political Effects of the Industrial Revolution Capitalism vs. Socialism Capitalism = individuals, rather than governments, control the factors of production (land, labor, capital); businesses are privately owned Socialism = government owns the means of production and operate them on behalf of the people Reform movements, unions, anti-trust laws Conclusion Was the Industrial Revolution a blessing or a curse? - Low pay, unemployment, horrible living conditions, need for reform + New factories opened, created more jobs, wages rose, travel increased, horizons widened, opportunities increased Conditions improved over time!