Powered Industrial Truck (PIT) Training

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					Powered Industrial Truck (PIT)
          Training
         Firelands College




      Shaeff Electric Lift Truck E 3000 C   1
                  Agenda
•   Importance of the PIT Training Program;
•   OSHA’s PIT standard;
•   BGSU’s written PIT Program;
•   Truck related topics;
•   Workplace related topics;
•   Truck operations;
•   Traveling;
•   Loading and;
•   Inspection and maintenance.


                                              2
      Importance of the PIT Training
                Program

PIT Defined
  •   An industrial vehicle that carries, pushes,
      pulls, stacks or tiers loads.
  •   Includes fork trucks, tractors, platform lift
      trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other
      specialized industrial trucks powered by
      electric motors or internal combustion
      engines. Golf carts are considered PIT’s
      when used for maintenance activities.
  •   Excludes compressed air or nonflammable
      compressed gas-operated industrial trucks,
      farm moving or over-the-road hauling.


                                                      3
      Importance of the PIT Training
                Program

•   Powered industrial truck accidents cause
    approximately 100 fatalities and 36,340
    serious injuries in general industry and
    construction annually.
•   Approximately 20-25 % of the accidents
    are caused by inadequate training
    (OSHA).




                                               4
  Importance of the PIT Training
            Program

               August 2003
A 15-year-old forklift operator was at the
controls of a forklift in a warehouse when
the vehicle suddenly went into reverse,
ran through the loading dock gates,
flipped over and plunged four feet onto a
concrete floor. The company was fined
by the U.S. Labor Department’s Wage and
Hour Division because the operation is
one of 17 hazardous occupations banned
for youth under the age of 18. OSHA is
also investigating the incident.
            Reference: http://www.safteng.net
                                                5
   Importance of the PIT Training
             Program

               August 2003
A construction worker at a California
campus was left in critical condition after
he was pinned by a forklift. He was
attempting to stabilize the forklifts load of
more than 30 panes of glass. He suffered
leg injuries, broken ribs, a broken
shoulder, and severe lacerations to his
face.


             Reference: http://www.safteng.net
                                                 6
           OSHA’s PIT Standard

•   Design and construction requirements
•   Safe operation requirements
•   Fire protection requirements
•   Maintenance requirements including daily
    PIT inspections
•   Operator training program including
    classroom, hands-on training and refresher
    training
•   Operator evaluations every three years
•   Operator certification
•   Appendix A : Stability information

                                                 7
       BGSU’s Written PIT Program

•   Initial classroom and hands-on training was
    offered in 1999 after the new standard
    went into effect.
•   The training was given by an outside
    consultant who has since gone out of
    business.
•   In order to provide a more cost effective,
    easily accessible training program,
    Environmental Health and Safety is working
    with departs and areas on campus to
    develop department specific PIT training
    sessions consisting of a combination of
    classroom and hands-on training.
                                              8
       BGSU’s Written PIT Program

•   Policy Statement
•   Forward
•   Objective
•   Applicability




                                    9
         BGSU’s Written PIT Program

•   Responsibilities
    •   Occupational Safety and Health
        Specialist
    •   Management
    •   Supervisors
    •   PIT Operators




                                         10
       BGSU’s Written PIT Program

PIT Operator Responsibilities include:
  •   completely adhering to the requirements of
      this program and attending required training
      and;
  •   performing powered industrial truck
      inspections for every eight-hour shift.
Program Enforcement
  •   A violation of a University employee's
      responsibility must be reported to the
      employee's immediate supervisor for
      appropriate action.


                                                     11
         BGSU’s Written PIT Program

•   Work site specific information is
    located in Tab 1 including:
    •   Site Specific Operating Environment
    •   Site Specific Load Information
    •   Site Specific Controls and
        Instrumentation List




                                              12
         BGSU’s Written PIT Program

•   Training
    •   Classroom Training
    •   Hands-On Training
    •   Training Certification
         •   All operators will be issued a BGSU PIT
             license that includes:
              •   Name
              •   Date of training
              •   ID of person who performed the evaluation
         •   Only trained, certified operators can drive
             PIT’s.


                                                              13
         BGSU’s Written PIT Program

•   Re-Training is required when
    •   An operator has been observed to operate the vehicle in
        an unsafe manner or;
    •   The operator has been involved in an accident or a near
        miss or;
    •   The operator is assigned to a different truck or;
    •   The conditions change in an area where the PIT is
        operated or;
    •   A new truck is brought into use or;
    •   The operator has received an evaluation that reveals
        that the operator is not operating the powered industrial
        truck safely.



                                                               14
         BGSU’s Written PIT Program

•   Operator Evaluations
    •   Must be completed once every three years.
    •   A sample form is located in Appendix G.
•   Accident Reporting
    •   Immediately report PIT related accidents.
    •   Accident reporting must be completed using
        the BGSU Accident Investigation form and if
        needed the BGSU Injury/Illness Report if an
        operator is involved in PIT accident or near
        miss.



                                                       15
         Truck Related Topics

•   Manufacturer’s operating
    instructions, warnings, and
    precautions.




                                  16
           Truck Related Topics
    Differences Between a PIT and an
               Automobile
           Forklift                 Automobile
Narrow Wheel Track            Wide Wheel Track
Short Wheel Base              Long Wheel Base
High Structure                Low Structure
3-point suspension            4-point suspension
Center of gravity is higher   Center of gravity is low
and moves in a significant    and moves in a narrow
range w/loads                 range
3 or 4 wheels, steers from the 4 wheels, steers from
rear                           the front               17
Truck Related Topics
Stand Up Counterbalance




                          18
                 Truck Related Topics

Truck Controls and Instrumentation

                                        Direction
                                        Control
                    Horn
Power Steering


                                                        Tilt Control
                           Key Switch




                                        Service Panel




                                                                       19
              Truck Related Topics

   Truck Controls and Instrumentation
                                         Overhead Guard



                                          Light




                                                     Mast


                                              Front Wheel Drive




                              Battery Compartment
Brake Pedal
                                                      20
                 Truck Related Topics
   Control/ Instrument           Location        Effect or Function

Brake                    Left Floor              Stop

Power Steering           Left Dashboard          For fast smooth
                                                 maneuvering
Right Control            Right Dashboard         Controls direction
                                                 and speed
Key Switch               Right Lower Dashboard   Turns on the lift

Battery Compartment      Side of Vehicle         Holds battery

Left Control             Right Dashboard         Controls tilt
                                                 cylinders
Horn                                             Audible alert

Mechanical Emergency
Disconnect


                                                                     21
            Truck Related Topics

•   Engine or motor operation
    •   Shaeff Electric Lift Truck E 3000 C is
        battery powered.
    •   Knowing how a truck is powered helps
        to understand the truck’s capabilities
        and limitations.




                                                 22
            Truck Related Topics

•   Steering and Maneuvering
    •   Rear-end steering.
    •   Many trucks do not have a standard
        steering wheel.
    •   Operator may need to steer in reverse.
    •   Operator may need to steer with one
        hand.
    •   Understand the controls for the type of
        truck you’re operating.

                                              23
            Truck Related Topics

•   Visibility
    •   Restrictions due to loading.
    •   Look in the direction you’re traveling.
    •   Watch for overhead obstacles.
    •   Ensure adequate clearance.
    •   Check blind spots to side and rear.




                                                  24
            Truck Related Topics
•   Fork and attachment adaptation,
    operation, and use limitations
    •   Trucks can be equipped or modified to accept
        attachments for moving odd-shaped loads.
    •   Additions/modifications may affect stability,
        safe operation.
    •   Attachments can cause restrictions/limitations
        to operation.
    •   Operate trucks with attachments as being
        partially loaded.



                                                     25
             Truck Related Topics
•   Vehicle capacity
    •   Only handle loads
        within truck’s rated
        capacity.
    •   Capacity is found on
        name plate.
    •   Understand
        limitations for how
        much weight can be
        handled, how high
        the load can be
        raised, and how far
        the load’s center of    Max Capacity: 3000 lbs
        gravity can be from     Max Lift Height: 255 inches
        truck’s vertical load
        rest.                   (Located on Left Dashboard)
                                                          26
            Truck Related Topics

•   Vehicle stability
    •   Center of gravity shifts when load is
        raised
    •   Truck is less stable with raised load
    •   Moving an unstable truck can result in
        tipover




                                                 27
         Truck Related Topics
Stability Triangle

Operators must keep
the center of gravity
within the triangle that
is formed by the three
suspension points. If
the center of gravity
goes out of this area by
lifting a load that is too
heavy, or by carrying a
load too high and tilted
forward, the lift will tip
over.



                                28
Truck Related Topics




                       29
            Truck Related Topics

•   Conditions that combined with
    turning may cause a tip over
    include:
    •   Hitting a pothole
    •   Carrying an off center load.
    •   Getting a flat tire.
    •   Having a raised and tilted back load.
    •   Being on a ramp.


                                                30
        Truck Related Topics

• Vehicle stability
  • During a tipover:
     • stay with vehicle and lean away from the
       direction of the fall
     • don’t jump downward while truck is
       tipping
     • Brace your feet
     • Hold on to the steering wheel
  • Keep load at lowest practical point


                                                  31
            Truck Related Topics
•   Refueling and/or charging and recharging
    of batteries
    •   Keep flames, sparks, arcs from fueling areas.
    •   Smoking is not allowed in fueling/charging
        areas.
    •   Keep tools and metallic objects from top of
        uncovered batteries.
    •   Inspect battery connections for damage.
    •   Immediately clean up electrolyte spills.
    •   PPE – Face Shields, chemical gloves, apron,
        safety glasses.



                                                        32
         Truck Related Topics

•   Any other operating instructions,
    warnings, or precautions listed in
    the operator's manual for the types
    of vehicle that the employee is
    being trained to operate.




                                          33
         Workplace Related Topics
•   Use
    •   Unloading trucks
    •   Lift objects to mezzanine (furniture etc…)
    •   Lift to dry mats
    •   Transport material (ramps, staging)
•   Surface conditions
    •   Water, snow, ice
         •   Effects on traction, stopping
             ability
    •   Uneven ground and/or potholes
         •   Effects on stability                    34
        Workplace Related Topics

•   Pedestrian Traffic
    •   Transporting material across courtyard

        THE DRIVER IS ALWAYS THE ONE
            RESPOSIBLE: NEVER THE
                 PEDESTRIAN




                                             35
         Workplace Related Topics

•   Narrow Aisles and Other Restricted
    Places Where Vehicles Will Be
    Operated
    •   One aisle in the service building




                                            36
 Workplace Related Topics

Composition of Loads to be
 Carried and Load Stability
      Load             Weight
  Identification
Books              150 lbs

Furniture          200lbs-300lbs

Ramps/Staging      300lbs-500lbs

Dry Mats           400lbs
                                   37
      Workplace Related Topics

•   Load manipulation, stacking, and
    unstacking.




                                       38
        Workplace Related Topics

•   Hazardous (classified) locations
    where the vehicle will be operated.
    •   Operation of PIT in closed
        environments can produce carbon
        monoxide build-up. Detectors should
        be installed in these areas.




                                              39
        Workplace Related Topics

•   Ramps and other sloped surfaces
    that could affect the vehicle's
    stability.
    •   None




                                      40
        Workplace Related Topics

•   Other unique or potentially
    hazardous environmental conditions
    in the workplace that could affect
    safe operation.
    •   None




                                     41
           Truck Operations

•   Trucks shall not be driven up to
    anyone standing in front of a bench
    or other fixed object.
•   No person shall be allowed to stand
    or pass under the elevated portion
    of any truck, whether loaded or
    empty.



                                      42
             Truck Operations
•   Unauthorized
    personnel shall not
    be permitted to
    ride on powered
    industrial trucks.
•   A safe place to
    ride shall be
    provided where
    riding of trucks is
    authorized.

                                43
           Truck Operations
•   No arms or legs should be placed
    between the uprights of the mast or
    outside the running lines of the
    truck.
•   When a powered industrial truck is
    left unattended, load engaging
    means shall be fully lowered,
    controls shall be neutralized, power
    shall be shut off, and brakes set.


                                       44
           Truck Operations

•   Wheels shall be blocked if the truck
    is parked on an incline.
•   A powered industrial truck is
    unattended when the operator is 25
    ft. or more away from the vehicle
    which remains in his view, or
    whenever the operator leaves the
    vehicle and it is not in his view.


                                       45
            Truck Operations

•   When the operator of an industrial
    truck is dismounted and within 25
    ft. of the truck still in his view, the
    load engaging means shall be fully
    lowered, controls neutralized, and
    the brakes set to prevent
    movement.



                                              46
           Truck Operations

•   A safe distance shall be maintained
    from the edge of ramps or
    platforms while on any elevated
    dock, or platform or freight car.
•   Trucks shall not be used for opening
    or closing freight doors.




                                       47
             Truck Operations
•   Brakes shall be set and wheel blocks shall
    be in place to prevent movement of
    trucks, trailers, or railroad cars while
    loading or unloading.
•   Fixed jacks may be necessary to support
    a semitrailer during loading or unloading
    when the trailer is not coupled to a
    tractor.
•   The flooring of trucks, trailers, and
    railroad cars shall be checked for breaks
    and weakness before they are driven
    onto.
                                             48
            Truck Operations

•   There shall be sufficient headroom
    under overhead installations, lights,
    pipes, sprinkler system, etc.




                                        49
            Truck Operations

•   An overhead guard shall be used as
    protection against falling objects. It
    should be noted that an overhead
    guard is intended to offer protection
    from the impact of small packages,
    boxes, bagged material, etc.,
    representative of the job
    application, but not to withstand the
    impact of a falling capacity load.

                                         50
            Truck Operations
•   A load backrest extension shall be
    used whenever necessary to
    minimize the possibility of the load
    or part of it from falling rearward.
•   Only approved industrial trucks
    shall be used in hazardous
    locations.
•   Fire aisles, access to stairways, and
    fire equipment shall be kept clear.

                                        51
                Traveling
•   All traffic regulations shall be
    observed, including authorized plant
    speed limits.
•   A safe distance shall be maintained
    approximately three truck lengths
    from the truck ahead, and the truck
    shall be kept under control at all
    times.
•   No passing.

                                       52
                  Traveling
•   The right of way shall be yielded to
    ambulances, fire trucks, or other vehicles
    in emergency situations.
•   Elevators shall be approached slowly, and
    then entered squarely after the elevator
    car is properly leveled. Once on the
    elevator, the controls shall be neutralized,
    power shut off, and the brakes set.
•   Motorized hand trucks must enter
    elevator or other confined areas with load
    end forward.

                                              53
                  Traveling
•   Other trucks traveling in the same
    direction at intersections, blind spots, or
    other dangerous locations shall not be
    passed.
•   The driver shall be required to slow down
    and sound the horn at cross aisles and
    other locations where vision is obstructed
    and when approaching pedestrians.
•   If the load being carried obstructs forward
    view, the driver shall be required to travel
    with the load trailing.

                                              54
                Traveling

•   Railroad tracks shall be crossed
    diagonally wherever possible.
    Parking closer than 8 feet from the
    center of railroad tracks is
    prohibited.
•   Running over loose objects on the
    roadway surface shall be avoided.



                                          55
                  Traveling
•   The driver shall be required to look in the
    direction of, and keep a clear view of the
    path of travel.
•   Dockboard or bridgeplates, shall be
    properly secured before they are driven
    over.
•   Dockboard or bridgeplates shall be driven
    over carefully and slowly and their rated
    capacity never exceeded.


                                              56
                Traveling

•   Grades shall be ascended or
    descended slowly.
•   Stunt driving and horseplay shall
    not be permitted.
•   The driver shall be required to slow
    down for wet and slippery floors.




                                           57
                  Traveling
•   When ascending or descending grades in
    excess of 10 percent, loaded trucks shall
    be driven with the load upgrade.
•   On all grades the load and load engaging
    means shall be tilted back if applicable,
    and raised only as far as necessary to
    clear the road surface.
•   Under all travel conditions the truck shall
    be operated at a speed that will permit it
    to be brought to a stop in a safe manner.

                                              58
                Traveling


•   While negotiating turns, speed shall
    be reduced to a safe level by means
    of turning the hand steering wheel
    in a smooth, sweeping motion.
•   Except when maneuvering at a very
    low speed, the hand steering wheel
    shall be turned at a moderate, even
    rate.

                                       59
                    Loading

•   When approaching a load
    •   Make sure forks are spread as wide as
        possible.
    •   Make sure the truck is square to the
        load.
    •   Make sure the mast is vertical.




                                                60
                   Loading
•   Only stable or safely arranged loads shall
    be handled.
•   Caution shall be exercised when handling
    off-center loads which cannot be centered.
•   Only loads within the rated capacity of the
    truck shall be handled.
•   The long or high (including multiple-tiered)
    loads which may affect capacity shall be
    adjusted.
•   Keep the load close to the ground while
    driving.
•   Raise the forks as much as you need to
    clear the road surface.
                                               61
                   Loading
•   Trucks equipped with attachments shall
    be operated as partially loaded trucks
    when not handling a load.
•   When lifting a load place forks under the
    load as far as possible; the mast shall be
    carefully tilted backward to stabilize the
    load.
•   Inspect load for stability, projections, and
    damaged pallets before lifting.
•   Restack unstable loads and never place
    weight on back of a lift truck to increase
    capacity.
                                               62
                   Loading
•   Extreme care shall be used when tilting
    the load forward or backward, particularly
    when high tiering.
•   Tilting forward with load engaging means
    elevated shall be prohibited except to pick
    up a load.
•   An elevated load shall not be tilted
    forward except when the load is in a
    deposit position over a rack or stack.
•   When stacking or tiering, only enough
    backward tilt to stabilize the load shall be
    used.
                                              63
                    Loading

•   Parking
    •   Lower forks.
    •   Set gear into neutral.
    •   Set the parking brake.
    •   Turn off the key.




                                 64
      Inspection and Maintenance
•   If at any time a powered industrial
    truck is found to be in need of
    repair, defective, or in any way
    unsafe, the truck shall be taken out
    of service until it has been restored
    to safe operating condition.
•   Fuel tanks shall not be filled while
    the engine is running. Spillage shall
    be avoided.


                                        65
      Inspection and Maintenance

•   Spillage of oil or fuel shall be
    carefully washed away or
    completely evaporated and the fuel
    tank cap replaced before restarting
    engine.
•   No truck shall be operated with a
    leak in the fuel system until the leak
    has been corrected.


                                        66
      Inspection and Maintenance

•   Open flames shall not be used for
    checking electrolyte level in storage
    batteries or gasoline level in fuel
    tanks.
•   All repairs shall be made by
    authorized personnel.




                                        67
      Inspection and Maintenance

•   No repairs shall be made in Class I,
    II, and III locations.
•   Those repairs to the fuel and
    ignition systems of industrial trucks
    which involve fire hazards shall be
    conducted only in locations
    designated for such repairs.



                                        68
      Inspection and Maintenance
•   Trucks in need of repairs to the
    electrical system shall have the
    battery disconnected prior to such
    repairs.
•   All parts of any such industrial truck
    requiring replacement shall be
    replaced only by parts equivalent as
    to safety with those used in the
    original design.


                                         69
      Inspection and Maintenance
•   Industrial trucks shall not be altered so
    that the relative positions of the various
    parts are different from what they were
    when originally received from the
    manufacturer, nor shall they be altered
    either by the addition of extra parts not
    provided by the manufacturer or by the
    elimination of any parts.
•   Additional counterweighting of fork trucks
    shall not be done unless approved by the
    truck manufacturer.



                                             70
      Inspection and Maintenance
•   Industrial trucks shall be examined before
    being placed in service, and shall not be
    placed in service if the examination shows
    any condition adversely affecting the
    safety of the vehicle.
•   Such examination shall be made at least
    daily.
•   Where industrial trucks are used on a
    round-the-clock basis, they shall be
    examined after each shift.
•   Defects when found shall be immediately
    reported and corrected.

                                            71
      Inspection and Maintenance
•   Water mufflers shall be filled daily or as
    frequently as is necessary to prevent depletion of
    the supply of water below 75 percent of the filled
    capacity.
•   Vehicles with mufflers having screens or other
    parts that may become clogged shall not be
    operated while such screens or parts are clogged.
•   Any vehicle that emits hazardous sparks or flames
    from the exhaust system shall immediately be
    removed from service, and not returned to
    service until the cause for the emission of such
    sparks and flames has been eliminated.



                                                    72
     Inspection and Maintenance

•   When the temperature of any part
    of any truck is found to be in excess
    of its normal operating
    temperature, thus creating a
    hazardous condition, the vehicle
    shall be removed from service and
    not returned to service until the
    cause for such overheating has
    been eliminated.

                                        73
      Inspection and Maintenance
•    Industrial trucks shall be kept in a clean
    condition, free of lint, excess oil, and
    grease.
•   Noncombustible agents should be used
    for cleaning trucks.
•   Low flash point (below 100 deg. F.)
    solvents shall not be used. High flash
    point (at or above 100 deg. F.) solvents
    may be used.
•   Precautions regarding toxicity, ventilation,
    and fire hazard shall be consonant with
    the agent or solvent used.
                                              74
Inspection and Maintenance

      Inspection Form

        See Tab 2




                             75
    Inspection and Maintenance
          Pre-Inspection Checklist
•   Overhead guard            •   Safety Seat
•   Hydraulic Cylinders       •   Load Handling
•   Mast Assembly                 Attachments
•   Lift Chains and Rollers   •   Seat Belts
•   Forks                     •   Safety Door
•   Tires                     •   Safety Switch
•   Battery Check             •   Hand Guards
•   Hydraulic Fluid
                              •   Tow Hook
•   Gauges
•   Steering                  •   Control Lever
•   Brakes                    •   Safety Interlock
•   Lights                    •   Gripper Jaws
•   Horn                      •   Work Platform
•   Engine Oil and Coolant    •   Propane Odor, Tank, Hose
•   Windshield wipers         •   Transmission Fluid
                                                        76
What is Wrong With This Picture?




     Reference: http://www.safteng.net
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What is Wrong With This Picture?




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What is Wrong With This Picture?
        Exercise – Tab 3




                               88
    Where to Get More Information

•   http://www.osha.gov. Occupational
    Safety and Health Administration.
•   http://www.bgsu.edu/offices/envhs.
    Bowling Green State University
    Environmental Health and Safety
    419-372-2171




                                     89