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					Properties of matter

1

General Properties of Matter
is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter
Matter

2

What are properties?
used to describe an object Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness video
3

Characteristics

General Properties of matter
weight, volume, and density Properties are used to identify a substance
Mass,

4

What is mass?

is the amount of matter in an object Mass is constant Mass is also the measure of inertia
5

Mass

What is inertia? Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion The more mass the greater the inertia
6

Questions

is mass related to inertia? Why are properties of an object important?

How

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Question
Which

object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why?
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Question
What

does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly?
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Question
Why

would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt?
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Question
What

would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place?
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Question
What

other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle?
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measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object Weight changes with gravity The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)
14

The

Weight

kg = 2.2 pounds  Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s2)  W= m x g  What is your mass?  What is your weight in Newtons?

1

Weight formula

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force of attraction between objects is gravity All objects exert a gravitational force on each other

The

What is gravity?

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Question Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?

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Gravitational pull
The

greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force
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Question
Why

can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive?
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What affects gravity? The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases gravity depends on mass and distance
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Gravity
The

further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh
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Question
Would

you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?

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Question
The

moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon?

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Questions
What

are three properties of matter related to mass?

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Question
What

is density and how is it calculated?

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Density
density of water is 1.0 g/ml Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water
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The

Density
Objects

with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water
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Ice Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed
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Astronomy fact! The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!

29

Calculations
If

96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?
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Calculation
If

96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm3, what is the density of aluminum?
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Calculation If the density of a 3, diamond is 3.5 g/cm what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm3?
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What is specific gravity?
A

comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity
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Questions
How

is density different from specific gravity?

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What is a physical property?
Physical

properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
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phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma solids have a definite shape and volume

Four

Phases of matter (video)

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Solid particle arrangement
are tightly packed and the particles vibrate Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous
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Solids

Types of solids Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar) Amorphous solids can lose their shape
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Examples of amorphous solids

Tar, candle wax, glass  Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature)

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Liquid particle arrangement
Liquids

have particles that are close together, but are free to move
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Question
Describe

the shape of a liquid.

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Describe a liquid
Liquids

do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume
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Question
What

happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a fourliter container?
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Properties of liquids Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow
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resistance of a liquid to flow The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity
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The

What is viscosity?

Behavior of liquids
is the force of attraction between LIKE particles Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles
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Cohesion

Surface tension (video)
Tendency

of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion

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Question

the viscosity of a liquid. Describe a liquid’s shape.

Describe

48

Questions

is adhesion different from cohesion? Explain surface tension.
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How

Properties of gases Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video) They fill all the available space in a container
50

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter
Matter

is made of tiny particles in constant motion

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Question
How

are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?

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Gas laws
Boyle’s

and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume

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Charles Law
Charles’

law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure)
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Charles’ Law
the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases Heating air causes it to expand
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As

Question
How

can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?
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Pressure
The

force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area
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Boyle’s Law
Boyle’s

law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature)
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the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law) The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure
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If

Boyle’s law

Plasma
(phase) most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars)
60

Plasma

Question

are the four phases of matter? Describe the plasma phase of matter.

What

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Phase changes (video)
Phase

changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation
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changes involve the changing of physical properties Type of matter remains the same

Physical

What is a physical change?

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Questions
Describe

each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation).

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Physical changes
Changing

color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change
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Melting video
Phase

change from a solid to a liquid

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Melting point
Temperature

which a solid changes to a liquid Physical property
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in

Questions
How

is melting different from freezing?

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Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant  Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes

69

Phase changes (video)

Vaporization
Phase

change from a liquid to a gas

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temperature in which a liquid boils Point at which a liquid changes to a gas

The

Boiling point (video)

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Freezing (video)

change of a liquid to a solid The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point
72

Phase

Condensation Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas
73

Question
Describe

a difference between condensation and vaporization.

74

Sublimation examples
Dry

ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation
75

Chemical properties Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties Ex: flammability
76

change of a substance into a new and different substance Also known as a chemical reaction video

The

Chemical changes

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Questions
is another name for a chemical change? Describe sublimation. How is a chemical change different from a physical change?
78

What


				
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posted:4/23/2008
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