Hydrogen and Fuel Cells How is Hydrogen Produced, Delivered, and Stored? Brought to you by – Hydrogen is #1 on the Periodic Table ↓ Hydrogen Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. Hydrogen does not exist in nature by itself, but it is found as part of a compound in abundant and diverse resources such as the fossil fuels natural gas and coal. What is the most abundant compound on earth? Water = H2O Two Hydrogen Atoms One Oxygen Atom Electrolysis: The process of using an electrical current to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. When the electricity needed for electrolysis is generated using wind or solar power, for example, electrolysis can be a clean and renewable way to produce hydrogen. Electrolysis wind farm solar panels Scientists worldwide are researching ways to produce hydrogen safely, cleanly, efficiently, and cost-effectively. Steam Methane Reforming – This method involves using high temperature steam to extract hydrogen from natural gas. Both hydrogen and carbon monoxide are produced. Today, 95% of the hydrogen produced in the United States is made through steam methane reforming. Other hydrogen production technologies use various resources… nuclear energy biological material algae Challenge = Cost Hydrogen can be produced at small stations…or at large plants and delivered to users. Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen can be stored as a gas, liquid, and even in a chemical compound. metal hydrides liquid hydrogen tank carbon nanotubes compressed hydrogen gas tank The Hydrogen Storage Challenge: To store enough hydrogen on-board a vehicle to enable drivers to travel 300-350 miles before refueling Hydrogen storage tanks Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen pipelines exist only in certain regions of the country. Once hydrogen has been easily produced and safely stored, it can generate electricity using a fuel cell. H2 + 1/2O2 = Water Hydrogen-powered fuel cells can supply energy to power anything from automobiles to homes to computers. Picture it… Hydrogen is a clean form of energy. It can be used in fuel cells to create electricity with the only byproducts being water and heat.