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					Translation/Localization 101:
Getting Started


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Presented By Anja Schaefer and Arnold Koh
January 2010
    Introductions

                                       Anja Schaefer
                                       Director of Solution Development
                                       anja.schaefer@lionbridge.com
                                                       Anja has held various roles in project management, operations
                                                       management and solution development and has a deep knowledge of the
                                                       localization industry
                                                                          focus on understanding client needs, she is passionate
                                                       Driven by a strong f
                                                       about developing innovative solutions that are tailored to each
                                                       customer’s unique requirements

                                       Arnold Koh
                                       Solutions Architect
                                       arnold.koh@lionbridge.com
                                                       In i           i h Lionbridge, Arnold has
                                                       I nine years with Li b id A ld h worked with a number of
                                                                                                  k d ih           b    f
                                                       industry leaders in developing and implementing innovative localization
                                                       solutions
                                                       Arnold works with new and existing clients in defining business
                                                       requirements, developing localization solutions, and providing guidance,
                                                       insight and expertise during pre-sales and implementation
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    About Lionbridge



       Global Scale                                                 Market Leadership
         4,600 employees 26 countries                               Leader in $14B services industry
       • Global network of 25,000 translators                       • Translation and adaptation of products
                                                                     and content for international markets




       Hosted Technology                                            Global Clients
       Web-based language technology
       W bb     dl        t h l                                     Recurring relationships with 500+
       platform                                                     global clients
       • Enhances competitive advantage                             • 80% of revenue comes from recurring clients
       • Drives efficiency                                          • 12 of the Fortune 20 companies are client




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    Goals and Objectives of Today’s Webinar

                                                                    Provide participants with an introductory
                                                                    understanding of localization and translation
                                                                    industry

                                                                          Review localization key terms,
                                                                          concepts, and principles


                                                                          Identify localization tools and a
                                                                          best practice process


                                                                    Provide participants with the knowledge
                                                                       begin     i localization
                                                                    to b i scoping l li i projects  j

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    Webinar Agenda

                                                                    Localization Basics

                                                                    Key Localization Resources

                                                                    The Basic Localization Process

                                                                    Localization Tools and Technology

                                                                    Productivity

                                                                    Costing Localization Projects

                                                                    Critical S      F t
                                                                    C iti l Success Factors

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    Why is Localization Important To Businesses Today?


                                  Access to new revenue and global customers
                                  M i             f i i
                                   Maintenance of existing revenue
                                  Customer satisfaction
                                  Allows access to global markets by adapting a
                                   product to a particular language and culture
                                  Enables users of a given language to use a product
                                   originally developed in another language
                                  Can improve the overall return on investment of a
                                   product (through higher international revenues)
                                  Increased market share and global competitiveness



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    Poll

           How much experience, if any, do you have with translation &
           localization?

                   None
                                        (0-12
                   Just getting started (0 12 months)
                   Have dealt with it previously but not recently
                   Involved with localization for 1+ year
                                                  1




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    What Are Some of the Challenges?

           Costs associated with localization
           Increasing customer expectations
              More content
              Growth in required languages
                       “shelf-life” f
           Decreasing “ h lf l f ” of content and
                                                d
           shorter product cycles
           Increasing complexity of localization/
           translation projects
           Changing localization ecosystem of tools, best practices,
           solutions
           Managing and procuring localization resources
           Lack of internal expertise

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    Literally Thousands of Languages


             230 Living Languages in Europe
                 41 Official Languages
             2058 Living Languages in Africa
                 28 Official Languages
             9 Living Languages in Middle East
                 3 Official Languages




    There are 72 separate & official
    languages in the EMEA region alone!

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                I t




                                                                                                                                                                        Portugese
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Japanese
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Spanish




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    German
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chinese
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      English




                                                                                                                                                     Korean
                                                                                                                                                                                             French




                                                                                                                        Arabic
                                                                                                                                       Italian




                                                                                              Rest of World Languages

                                                                                        0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       tT T L




                                                                                                                        28
                                                                                                                                        31
                                                                                                                                                     34
                                                                                                                                                                        40




                                                                                        50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Internet Top Ten Languages




                                                                                                                                                                                           56
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    59
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        86
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  89




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                                                                                        100
                                                                                                                                                          200,000,000
                                                                                                                                                                          400,000,000
                                                                                                                                                                                        600,000,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                      800,000,000




                                                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1,000,000,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         1,200,000,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         1,400,000,000




                                                                                                                                         Chinese e




                                                                                        150
                                                                                                                                           Arabicc
                                                                                                                                            Hindi
                                                                                                                                          English
                                                                                                                                         Spanish
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            159




                                                                                                                                          Bengali
                                                                                                                                    Portuguese   e




                                                                    Millions of Users
                                                                                                                                         Russian
                                                                                                                                       Japanese  e
                                                                                                                                         German
                                                                                                                                          French
                                                                                                                                          Korean




                                                                                        200
                                                                                                                                       Javanese  e
                                                                                                                                          Telugu
                                                                                                                                          Marathi




                                                                                              203
                                                                                                                                    Vietnamese   e
                                                                                                                                            Tamil
                                                                                                                                           Italian
                                                                                                                                          Turkish
                                                                                                                                             Urdu
                                                                                                                                          Punjabi
                                                                                                                                       Ukrainian
                                                                                                                                         Gujarati




                                                                                        250
                                                                                                                                             Thai
                                                                                                                                           Polish
                                                                                                                                     Malayalam
                                                                                                                                        Kannada  a
                                                                                                                                            Oriyaa
                                                                                                                                        Burmese  e
                                                                                                                                     Azerbaijani
                                                                                                                                             Farsi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Reaching One Billion Users requires +/- 127 languages




                                                                                                                                           Sunda a
                                                                                                                                          Pashto o
                                                                                                                                      Romanian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Growth is Migrating to Developing Nations




                                                                                        300

                                                                                                                                         Bhojpuri
                                                                                                                                           Hausa a
                                                                                                                                          Maithili
                                                                                                                                           Malay y
                                                                                                                                 Serbo-Croatian
                                                                                                                                          Awadhi
                                                                                                                                           Uzbek k
                                                                                                                                          Yoruba a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      329




                                                                                                                                           Dutch
                                                                                                                                            Sindh
                                                                                        350




                                                                                                                                             Igboo
                                                                                                                                         Amharic c
                                                                                                                                          Oromo  o
                                                                                                                                     Indonesian
                                                                                                                                         Tagalog
                                                                                                                                           Nepali
                                                                                                                                      Assamese   e
                                                                                                                                          Saraiki
                                                                                                                                        Cebuano  o
                                                                                                                                      Hungarian
                                                                                                                                   Chittagonian
                                                                                                                                         Zhuang
                                                                                                                                           Shona a
                                                                                                                                         Madura  a
                                                                                                                                          Sinhalaa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Connecting Five Billion Users will necessitate more than 1,000 languages




                                                                                                                                         Marwari
                                                                                                                                          Magahi
                                                                                                                                        Haryanyi
                                                                                                                                           Greek k
                                                                                                                                           Czech
                                                                                                                                  Chhattisgarhi
                                                                                                                                         Fulfuldee
                                                                                                                                         Deccan
                                                                                                                                       Malagasy  y
                                                                                                                                      Belarusan
Definitions : Key Globalization Terms


                                  Globalization (G11N)
                                        g                            processes
                   Refers to a broad range of business and technical p
                necessary to launch products and company activities internationally.




         Internationalization (I18N)                              Localization (L10N)
   Process of generalizing a product to support       Process of adapting a product to a language
   multiple languages and cultural conventions        so it seems natural to that region. Typically
   without redesign. Typically used in                refers to software products involving changes
     f                     f            f
   reference to adapting software code for            to the writing system, keyboard usage, f fonts,
   “double-byte” Asian character sets.                date, time, and monetary formats.


                                            Translation
                        Process of converting all of the text or words from the
                             source language to the target language(s).




Source: Multilingual Computing Magazine
    What Does Localization Encompass?

                  LANGUAGE                                           CULTURE                     FORMATS
       Grammar
                                                                                            M di Mi
                                                                                            Media Mix
             Colloquialisms
                                                                                               Web Bandwidth
                      Characters
                                                                                                  Mobile Devices
                                  Acronyms



                          GRAPHICS & LAYOUT                                       METRICS & Conversions

                   Expansion                           Contraction              $£         と ILT の作成
                                                                                                cm ≠ inches
                                                                               € ¥              mL≠ ounces
                                                                                        4/11/06
                                                                               April 11 or November 4?

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    Webinar Agenda




                                                                    Key Localization Resources




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    So Who’s Involved in Your Project?

           Project Manager (PM)
                   Schedules projects, assigns resources, communicates with client about
                   project-related issues & monitors project progress, budget & quality
           Linguists / Translators
                   Executes linguistic aspects of the project including translation
                   Reviews the work of freelance translators
                   Sets l
                   S style standards and manages terminology
                                 d d       d               i l
           Localization Engineers
                   Responsible for all technical aspects of localization projects, including
                       j t        ti       ft
                   project preparation, software and online h l engineering, compiling, and
                                                    d li help           i    i          ili  d
                   testing
           Desktop Publishers
                           ibl for layout, prepares l li d fil production, converts of
                   Responsible f l
                   R                    t           localized files d ti         t f
                   printed documentation to online format
           Testing and QA resources
                                     project,
                   Depending on the project a variety of testing and QA resources may be
                   involved to ensure quality in the localized deliverable
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    Specialists May Be Required at Times

           Internationalization specialists

           Audio / Video resources
             Studio engineers
             Voice talent
                      l
             Multimedia experts

           Terminologists
                    g             p
           Marketing / Cultural experts
           Subject matter experts



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    Who’s Doing the Translating?

           Professionally trained translators

                    y,         p             g      g g
           In-country, native speakers of target language

           Typically formally educated in linguistics
           (             g
           (Bachelors Degree minimum)   )

           Domain specific experience
           (Software/IT, Marketing, etc.)
           (        / ,          g,     )

           Experienced in industry standard
           p          y
           productivity tools
           Often certified
           (                  y)
           (ATA or another body)

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    Where is this work being done? Where should it be done?




                Linguistic Tasks                                             Project Management                 Technical/Engineering / DTP

       • In Country                                                 • US/Western Europe                        • US/Western Europe
        •Best quality and accuracy                                             Shore
                                                                     (On/Near Shore: typically higher cost)     (On/Near Shore: typically higher cost)
                                                                    •Highly complex, customized projects and   •Customized solution / “high” touch solutions
       • Other                                                       solutions                                 •Specialty applications
        •Less than top quality ok                                   •Ease of communication is a requirement    •IP potential issues
        •May be faster turnaround time, some
           g            q     y
         degradation in quality                                     • Eastern Europe, India, China             • Eastern Europe, India, China
                                                                     (Off Shore: typically lower cost)          (Off Shore: typically lower cost)
                                                                    •Standard projects                         •Scale: Large volume projects
                                                                    •Communication challenges (time zones,     •Standard tasks, repetitive tasks
                                                                     language)




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    Webinar Agenda




                                                                    The Basic Localization Process




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    Localization Definition Review



                                        product software
                            adapting a product, software, or content for a specific
                            international market or locale and testing the results to ensure
                            that the localized product works correctly as intended




                                                                                  Graphics   QA and
      Prep/Setup                            Translation             Engineering
                                                                                  and DTP    Testing




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    Changing language may force other changes

            Layout to accommodate different number of words and characters
            and typographical rules
            Data formats to accommodate dates currencies lists, numbers,
                                        dates, currencies, lists numbers
            addresses
            Visuals to accommodate cultural references and signifiers
            References to accommodate cultural differences and context




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    Translation: A Multi-Step Program


                                                                         Phase III
                                                           Phase II                   Phase IV
                                                                       T      l ti
                                                                       Translation
                Phase I                                  Translation                 Client proof
                                                                       edit/proof
              Translation                                    text                       in final
                                                                          in final
                                                         edit/proof                     format
                                                                          format




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    Key Translation Considerations



                                                                                      Clarity and
                                               Cultural Biases                       Readability of
                                                                                       the Text


           Goals and                                                Clarity of the
          objectives of                                                     i
                                                                     Intentions -
                                                                                                      Consistency
            content                                                   Audience
                                                                       Analysis




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    Real Examples of Literal Translations



                                                                    • If you want the condition of cool in your
          T k Hotel
          Tokyo H t l                                                 room, please control yourself.


                                                                    • Guests are expected to complain at the
            Paris Hotel                                               office between the hours of 9am and
                                                                                h day.
                                                                      10am each d


                     Vienna
                     Vi                                             • In case of fire, do your utmost to alarm
                                                                      the porter.
                      Hotel
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Accounting for Quality Through Process

                                            Final
  Linguistic Quality
                                           Quality
• Qualified, in-country, native   • Post translation QA checks
  speakers                        • Final build/DTP QA checks
                                    Fi l b ild/DTP       h k
• Multi-step Translation          • In-Context Reviews
  Process (Edit/Proof)
• Sampling
• Client Review Cycle
• Tools:
  • TM, Glossaries, Style
    Guides
    Webinar Agenda




                                                                    Localization Tools and Technology




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    Computer Assisted Translation Tools

           CAT = Computer Assisted Translation
                   Complement / support human translators
                          f        l               h       l      “ f
           Main Purpose of CAT tools is to secure the Translation “Information
           Pool” as an immediate in-house asset to:
                             / y
                   Automate/Recycle recurrent translation work
                   Give immediate access to standardized terminology
                   Improve consistency, quality, accuracy, efficiency
                   Reduce costs
                   Consolidate/Improve turnaround
                   time (TAT) over the long term
           Key CAT Tools:
              Glossaries / Terminology Management Systems
              Translation Memories

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   Glossaries and Terminology Management Systems

   “The What”
               g                    y  p           ,            ,
      Multi-lingual database of key corporate terms, definitions,
      context, gender, source, etc.
      Integrated with Translation Memory
       Establish linguistic standards and
      encourages consistency in usage
       Protects corporate terminology and brand
       Can be shared corporate wide (outside of
      th translation process)
      the t     l ti            )



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   Glossaries and Terminology Management Systems

       “The How”
           Extract of key terms, nouns and noun-
            h      from content sources
           phrases f
            Translations sent to client for approval
            Approved translations used for all
           translation projects by translators, editors,
           proofers, etc.
           p        ,
           Typically done prior to translation of core
           materials




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    Translation Memory

       Technology that enables users to store translated
       data within a database for re-use or sharing

       System matches existing translated
       segments against new source files

       Allows for leveraging of translations




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    Match Types

           Exact Match…
           is a segment which is 100% identical to a segment stored within the
           translation memory
           Fuzzy match…
           A segment that partially (50-99%) matches a segment within the
           translation memory
                                     Because of the diminishing return as the match gets fuzzier, anything
                                     below 75% is considered “no match” for pricing purposes
           No Match…
          A segment in the current source text does not
          match a segment existing in the TM database




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Translating with Translation Memory



 This is a sample file   This is a sample file   100% match:
 to show how a           to show how a           identical to previous
 translation memory      translation memory      version
 system worksk           system worksk
                                                 Fuzzy match:
 This is the original    This is the updated     similar to previous
 file                    file                    version

 It will be translated   It is not that          No match: No
 using Translation       different to the        match found in TM
 Memory                  other file
    Benefits of Translation Memory and Glossaries

        Improve consistency and quality
           Compare new content against
           existing translated material.

        Reduce cost
           Reuse content to reduce and eliminate
           the need for formatting.

        Increases speed, productivity, and
        efficiency of overall process




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    What is Machine Translation (MT)?

          MT addresses the productivity
          improvement need for “New Content”

          MT is characterized by the absence of
          human intervention during the
          translation process

          MT is not and will never be perfect

          Combining machine and human
          translation creates a process that
          ensures the best quality.

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    Projects Most Suitable for MT




                          Large volume, “repeatable”                  Technical documentation
                                 type content




                   Internal content, “good enough”                  “Gist” – acceptable quality
                        vs. publishable quality                         (Google/Bablefish)
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    A Word on Style Guides

           While not a formal tool or technology, per se, can still be a very
           important tool for translation
           Style guides define specific
           usage, formats, fonts, related
                       locali ed
           to specific localized products
           Examples:
                   How translators should write
                   titles, headings, numbers,
                         ,       g,          ,
                   and metrics
                   The manner & tone of
                   addressing the user
                   Items that need to be left
                   in English (fund names,
                   brand references)
                   Standardized treatment
                   for acronyms


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    Costing Localization Projects




                                                                        i       li i        j
                                                                    Costing Localization Projects




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    Why is it so Expensive?

        Perception versus reality
           “not just translation”
        Trade requires highly skilled resource base
           Linguists and technical
        Base costs typically multiplied by number of languages
                          ll    l l db         b    fl

        Industry study on amount companies spend
        on localization activities
           .05-2.0% of international revenues
           Often not formally budgeted for



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    Some of the Key Drivers of Cost/Price




    Complexity                     Number of                                   Required
                                                                                          Resources   Turnaround
     of Source                     words and                        Graphics   scope of
                                                                                             q
                                                                                           required      time
        files                      languages                                   services




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    Sample Costing

          100 DOC pages at 150 words per page
          15,000 words at .23/word =
          $3,450 (Average translation word rate)
          Other tasks (DTP, Setup, etc.)
          $45-65/hour (on average)
          Language dependent hours =
          Hard to estimate without source files

          “Thumb in the wind budgeting for
          standard project” –
           t d d      j t”
          Multiply number of words by a slightly
          higher word rate. 15,000 x .28 = 4,200 /
          language
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    Improving Productivity/Lowering Costs




                                                                       d i i
                                                                    Productivity




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    Productivity


                                                                      Translation
                                                                      productivity




                                                                        Key
                                              DTP                                    Engineering
                                           productivity             productivity     productivity
                                                                       areas




                                                                     Art/graphics
                                                                     productivity




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    Improving Productivity

           Translation
              Provide quality source materials (concise, clear)
              Provide reference materials
              Provide training
                                      intended audience, style, etc.
              Provide instructions on i
              P id i          i            d d di            l
              Remove ambiguous text and references




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    Improving Productivity

           Engineering
              Provide source file formats
              Detailed information and instructions
              Clearly indentify translatable and “non-translatable” elements
                              d instructions regarding b ild/
              Information and i
              I f       i               i         di build/testing
                                                                i
              Clear understanding of services required
              Training




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    Improving Productivity

           DTP
             Provide source file formats
             Detailed information and instructions
             Information on OS version (MAC/PC) and Application versions
                        in     hi for di i
             Layer text i graphics f editing
             L
             Provide necessary and custom fonts
             Any required settings
             Reference materials (PDF’s, etc.)
             How to handle text expansion issues




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    Summary and Closing




                                                                      ii l
                                                                    Critical Success Factors




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    Remember – Customize the Solution for Your Needs
    People & Process Still Key

       One size does not fit all
               Project goals/objectives will impact solution
               Content type may impact overall solution

       Localization is still about skilled resources
               Many kinds of different professionals who perform specific tasks
               Need to cater for their productivity and ability to do their work

       Localization is about process
               For localization to be efficient, many tasks need to be semi-
               automated  d
                  Human time is the most expensive time
               The source material needs to cater for this


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    Knowledge Center



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Questions?




                                                             Anja Schaefer
                                                             anja.schaefer@lionbridge.com


                                                             Arnold Koh
                                                             arnold.koh@lionbridge.com


                                                                    Lionbridge
                                                                    www.lionbridge.com
                                                                    http://blog.lionbridge.com
                                                                    http://twitter.com/Lionbridge
                                                                    http://www.facebook.com/L10nbridge

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DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Originally a live one-hour webcast, this presentation is targeted towards companies and individuals at the beginning stages of Localization. Evolving business environment, changing technologies and new business models are putting pressure on companies and individuals to access global opportunities through effective localization strategies. Localization of products and services is the first step to accessing global markets.