American Imperialism Political and Economic Expansion by axe17204

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									       American Imperialism:
Political and Economic Expansion




                                   1
           Henry Cabot Lodge,
     “Our Blundering Foreign Policy”
              (March 1895)
   European countries had been involved in
    imperialism (the quest for colonial empires) for
    centuries before the United States started to
    build a colonial empire.
   Countries wanted colonies for economic
    reasons, like the need for markets and raw
    materials, and to spread their political systems
    and Christianity.
   In the late 1800s people in the United States
    wanted to become more involved in Imperialism.
                                                       2
   Henry Cabot Lodge, a
    senator from
    Massachusetts, was one
    supporter of US expansion.
   Below is a quote from Lodge
    about US imperialism.
   “Small states are of the past and
    have no future. . . . The great
    nations are rapidly absorbing for
    their future expansion and their
    present defense all the waste
    places of the earth. It is a
    movement which makes for
    civilization and the advancement o
    the race. As one of the great
    nations of the world, the United
    states must not fall out of the line
    of march.”
                                           3
     Hawaii-United States Treaty
               (1826)
   The United States first became involved with Hawaii when
    missionaries went to Hawaii to convert them to Christianity in the
    1820s.
   When missionaries arrived in Hawaii kings and queens ruled the
    Hawaiians who had lived there for a thousand years.
   The following is an excerpt of one of the first treaties between
    the United States and Hawaii.
   "The peace and friendship subsisting between the United States, and
    their Majesties, the Queen Regent, and Kauikeaouli, King of the
    Sandwich Islands, and their subjects and people, are hereby
    confirmed, and declared to be perpetual."


                                                                          4
     Treaty Of Recirpocity Between the
      United States of America and the
         Hawaiian Kingdom (1875)
   A large sugar plantation was established in Hawaii in 1935
    by a Boston merchant.
   This was just the beginning of American owned
    plantations in Hawaii.
   As the US sugar plantation owners continued to make
    money they expanded in Hawaii and began to bring
    laborers from China and Japan.
   By the 1870s most of Hawaii’s land and trade was owned
    and controlled by Americans. In 1875 another treaty was
    made between the United States and Hawaii.
                                                             5
     Hawaiian Kingdom Constitution of
      1887 Granted by Kalakaua Rex
               (July 6, 1887)

   In 1886 Americans in Hawaii formed
    the Hawaiian league.
   The goal of this league was to
    overthrow the king and have the US
    annex Hawaii.
   In July 1887 the new Bayonet
    Constitution, for Hawaii was written
    and the Hawaiian League forced King
    Kalakaua to sign this constitution that
    limited the kings power and limited
    native Hawaiians right to hold
    government office.
                                              6
President Grover Cleveland:
   Message to Congress
   (December 18, 1893)
              After King Kalakaua died, his sister
               Queen Liliuokalani took over the
               throne.
              She was a strong believer in Hawaii
               nationalism and wanted to overturn
               the Bayonet Constitution.
              Many Americans did not want her in
               power especially when she
               announced a plan to create a new
               constitution.
              Shortly after this announcement
               Americans in Hawaii forced
               themselves into government building
               and took them over.
                                                 7
   Marines came ashore supposedly to protect American lives and
    property.
   Queen Liliuokalani then stepped down to prevent the loss of life.
   Sanford B. Dole took over as president of Hawaii and asked the US
    government to annex them.
   President Grover Cleveland did not agree with the events that led to
    Dole becoming president of Hawaii.
   As a result President Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii. The
    following is a message to congress about Hawaii.

   "When the present Administration entered upon its duties the Senate
    had under consideration a treaty providing for the annexation of the
    Hawaiian Islands to the territory of the United States. Surely under
    our Constitution and laws the enlargement of our limits is a
    manifestation of the highest attribute of sovereignty, and if entered
    upon as an Executive act, all things relating to the transaction should
    be clear and free from suspicion."

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         Lt. George Blow of the USS
             Maine: Letter (1898)
   Americans had sugar plantations in other foreign places besides Hawaii.
   Cuba was another island in which Americans had economic interests.
    But unlike Hawaii, Cuba was a colony of Spain.
   The people in Cuba had tried to revolt against the Spanish but were
    unsuccessful.




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   In 1895 the Cubans again
    tried to revolt and this time
    the US became involved.
   Because there were
    Americans in Cuba when
    the 1895 revolt began
    President McKinley sent
    the USS Maine to help any
    Americans in need.
   On February 15, 1898 the
    Maine exploded killing 260
    Americans.
                                    "Whether we were torpedoed by the
   Many Americans blamed           Spanish, blown up by a mine, or
    Spain for the sunken ship       whither the Cubans did it to bring on a
    and on April 19, 1898           war - or whether it was one of these
    congress declared war on        spontaneous explosions, we do not
    Spain starting the Spanish-     know." Lt. George Blow of the USS Maine:
    American war.                   Letter (1898


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             Admiral Dewey:
     Report on the Battle of Manila Bay
               (May 4, 1898)
   As soon as the Spanish-American War began the US began
    offensive operations in the Philippine Islands because the
    United States knew that Spain’s main base in the Pacific
    was the Philippines.
   The Filipinos like the Cubans had tried to overthrow the
    Spanish and in 1898 they were again trying to gain their
    independence.
   This was the first battle in the Spanish-American War. It had
    started at dawn and by 11 a.m. the US had wiped out the
    entire Spanish fleet.
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   The excerpt is of
    the official report
    given by the head
    of the Pacific fleet,
    Admiral George
    Dewey.
   After the Spanish
    had surrendered to
    the US in the
    Philippines the US
                            "I have the honor to submit the following report of
    annexed the             operations of the squadron under my command: The
    Philippines to the      squadron left Mirs Bay on April 27, immediately on
    dismay of the           the arrival of Mr. O. F. Williams, United States consul
                            at Manila, who brought important information and
    Filipinos that          who accompanies the squadron. Arrived off Bolinao
    continued to fight      on the morning of April 30 and, finding no vessels
    for their               there, proceeded down the coast and arrived off the
                            entrance to Manila Bay on the same afternoon."
    independence.
                                                                                 12
    Formal surrender document for the
    capture of Santiago (July 16, 1898)
   The Spanish-American War lasted only four months.
   In this “splendid little war,” as secretary of State John Hay
    referred to it as, only 345 Americans died in combat.
   This war ended with the capture of Santiago by the Rough
    Riders, led by Theodore Roosevelt.
   The following is the document that formally surrendered
    Santiago to the US.

   "That the Spanish forces will march out of Santiago de Cuba
    with honors of war, depositing their arms thereafter at a point
    mutually agreed upon, to await their disposition by the United
    States Government."
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       Platt Amendment (1901)
   After the Spanish-American War the US gained control of
    Puerto Rico and Guam.
   The US also paid Spain $20 million for control of the
    Philippines.
   Cuba was the only island that gained their independence.
   Cuba wrote a new constitution for their newly freed country.
   But before the US would remove their troops Cuba had to
    accept the Platt Amendment as part of their constitution.
   This made Cuba a protectorate of the US meaning the US
    would protect Cuba from any other nations. The Platt
    Amendment was reluctantly agreed to by the Cubans in
    1902.
                                                              14
                      John Hay:
             First Open Door Note (1899)
   The US was not only interested in islands in
    the Pacific.
   They were also interested in trading with
    countries like China, which was the reason
    they first became interested with the islands
    in the Pacific, for coaling stations for ships to
    stop at so they could make it to China.
   In 1899 the secretary of State John Hay
    called for an Open Door Policy in China
    which would enable any and all countries to
    trade equally with China.
   His Open Door Notes were sent to European
    powers as well as Japan.
   They neither accepted nor rejected them so
    Hay declared an Open Door Policy.
                                                        15
    President Theodore Roosevelt’s Annual
            Message to Congress:
    The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe
                  Doctrine
                  (December 6, 1904)

   The Monroe Doctrine was issued in 1823 by President James
    Monroe declaring the US the protector of the Western
    Hemisphere.
   President Roosevelt saw this as an idle threat and wanted to
    make clear that he would enforce the Monroe Doctrine.
   Roosevelt issued the Corollary to keep European countries
    out of Latin America, specifically the Dominican Republic.

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   "In asserting the Monroe
    Doctrine, in taking such steps
    as we have taken in regard to
    Cuba, Venezuela, and
    Panama, and in endeavoring
    to circumscribe the theater of
    war in the Far East, and to
    secure the open door in
    China, we have acted in our
    own interest as well as in the
    interest of humanity at large.
    There are, however, cases in
    which, while our own interests
    are not greatly involved,
    strong appeal is made to our
    sympathies."

                                     17
     President William McKinley
       Pan-American Speech
   "My fellow citizens, trade statistics indicate that this country is in a state
    of unexampled prosperity. The figures show that we are furnishing
    profitable employment to the millions of working men throughout the
    United States...... The expansion of our trade and commerce is the
    pressing problem..... We must have more ships. They must be under
    the American flag: built, manned, and owned by Americans. These will
    not only be profitable in a commercial sense, they will also be
    messengers of peace wherever they go. Reciprocity treaties are in
    harmony with the spirit of the times. We must build the isthmian canal
    which will unite the two oceans and give a straight line of
    communications with the western coasts of Central and South America,
    and Mexico. The construction of a pacific cable cannot be longer
    postponed..... Gentleman, let us ever remember that our interest is in
    concord, not conflict. And that our real eminence rests in the victories of
    peace, not those of war."                                                  18
The Panama Canal




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