World_amp;_39;s top ten lawyers

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					World's top ten lawyers
World's top ten lawyers
  Law is an ancient art, after the number of previous philosophers
have today is flourishing, can be said that legal culture is the
essence of humanity. This search for the Law Review Network, Justice,
Legal Thought net site, collected the world's top ten famous
jurist documentation of the life and in turn to present their theory.
According to figure date of birth, respectively Greenspan Matthews,
Montesquieu, Bentham, Savigny, Holmes, Weber, Pound, Hart, Dworkin a
 ?Grotius (AD 1589 ~ 1645), Dutch, 14 years of age to university,
studying mathematics, philosophy and law, received his JD. 17-year-old
attorney, 20-year-old chairman of the Bar of the Netherlands. His
research covers a wide range of related law, political science,
literature, linguistics, history, etc., but, to his prestigious areas
in law. He was a pioneer of modern Western bourgeois ideology, the
founder of international law. The famous "right of war and
peace" (1625) is not only important work of international
law, and is the basis of Western bourgeois doctrine of human rights or
natural rights of natural law theory of ground-breaking work. Grotius
in the law, there are two important position: first, to create the
international public law, known as the "father of
international law," Grotius made in the field of
international law the principle of a more complete, these the
adjustment of relations between the principles of the country played
an active role, especially on the later development of the theory of
international law had a profound effect. Second, he was the first
modern Western thinkers of the Enlightenment a more systematic
exposition of natural law theory of rational people. He learned
ancient Greek and Roman thinkers naturalistic essence of natural law
theory, discard and get rid of the medieval shackles of theological
doctrine of natural law, created the modern rational natural law
(natural law) precedent. In the study of natural law, natural law of
his people so that instead of Theology at the same time, the natural
science research methods, in particular the introduction of the
empirical method of geometry of Law, a series of related propositions
  January 18, 1689, was born in the French city of Bordeaux,
Montesquieu Laboliede near the estate, his family, a local prestigious
"robe" that made the title of the bourgeois elite.
Montesquieu, 19, received a Bachelor of Law and served as a
parliamentary counsel; has been elected member of the Royal Society
and Royal Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Year on Feb. 10, 1755,
Montesquieu, died aged 66. 1721, he anonymously published the
"Persian Letters." It was in many major social
issues, to the feudal concept of the traditional declaration of war,
in the 18th century Enlightenment, a movement of thought liberation of
fire. 1748, Montesquieu published the "Spirit of the
Law", a book called bourgeois law
"encyclopedia", was Voltaire praised as a
"code of laws of reason and freedom", on the later
American War in the "Declaration of Independence",
the French Revolution in the "Declaration of Human
Rights" have a huge impact. Montesquieu's political
theory in particular on the separation of powers doctrine and the rule
of law, beyond the borders of the countries political and legal
system, the bourgeoisie plays a significant role in promoting the
establishment and profound influence on the Chinese bourgeois
reformists also had a considerable impact. "Spirit of the
Law" in 1913, was translated into Chinese Fu, the
"Law" of the title publishing. Montesquieu is still
worthy of a 18th century French one of the outstanding thinkers in the
darkness of religious ignorance and tyranny has issued the first cry,
he thought the French Revolution, the theory theory is an important
part of human thought in a valuable property .

  Jeremiah, Jeremy Bentham (Jeremy, Benthan ,1748 - 1832) is a British
jurists, philosophers, ethicists one of the founders of liberal
theory. The founder of utilitarian theory. His body is a lawyer out of
the family, the "child prodigy of reputation",
13-year-old went to Oxford University to study law, 16 years after
graduation, once the bar, specializing in legal theory after the turn
of. 1781 has served as professor at the University of London, founded
in 1832 the famous "Westminster Review."
Bentham's major works include "Fragment on
Government" (1776), "Introduction to Principles of
Morals and Legislation" (1789), "Principles of
Judicial Evidence" (1827), "Constitutional
Code" (1830). The "Introduction to Principles of
Morals and Legislation," is its most important works, the
theory represents the interests of freedom of the capitalist period of
the British bourgeoisie, is influential in this period the doctrine,
compiled after his book, "Jeremy Bentham Collection&quo
Hill version. Bentham's central theory is utilitarianism, he
strongly opposed 17,18 centuries of classical natural law view the
rational law, that they are fictional; nature of human emotions and
placed under two masters, human nature is seeking to avoid bitter
music, utilitarian principle is applicable to all acts from both the
principle of power. Search utility is the motive of human behavior is
different from right and wrong, good and evil standards; is a natural
person and the principles of government activities, but also the
principles of morality and legislation. The best legislation is to
achieve "the greatest happiness of most people", the
best legislation is to promote the social well-being. He believes that
good government and the legislation must achieve four goals: the
citizen's survival, prosperity, equality and security. It
should be said, Bentham on 19th century British law is 30 years played
a significant role in promoting, promoted by Sir Samuel Romilly
proposed reform of the criminal law and criminal law advocated by Lord
Brougham legal system reform.

  Savigny (1779-1861) Savigny from the 16-year-old started studying
law in 1800 began teaching law, 1813 Ren Bolin University. Has served
as a member of the Prussian Council of State, Justice, Law Minister
appeals, legislation - the Appeal Committee, Ministry of State
President. The Department has developed over 1848, "Law of
Bills," "Prussian Penal Code,"
"Empire of the Criminal Code," and so on. Author of
"History of Roman Law", "Contemporary R
law system," "debt as part of the contemporary Roma
Law," "History Law Journal." Savigny in la
in the history as the founder of the so-called historical school of
law, history, law school this expression Savigny own brand, its
starting point is the contemporary method but by law the historic
rather than by abstract or rational law enlightened legislators
predetermined order. Savigny The resulting far-reaching legal methods
and legal policy conclusions. Savigny is the impact of his time the
greatest jurists and law teachers. Whether in law or in legal practice
and legislation had he left the scene. Although his theory in
contemporary plays insignificant role, but his legacy on law and
national law in Germany are of great significance. Savigny in
contemporary history not only as the founder of the famous law school,
he often referred to as the founder of modern jurisprudence. Although
European law is divided into various countries of Law, but
Savigny's thinking involves the whole of Europe. He designated
the French Civil Code sphere of influence, and continue to follow the
Roman law on this basis, it is different from most other continental
countries. Savigny play a decisive role and participate in the
formation of the doctrine in Collection Law in subsequent legislation
of other countries to play a role. Savigny received from the start of
"historical" approach and
"systems" approach, combining the request, he was
the first to develop a systematic, broad approach of people in the law
establishing the same time on any one placing particular historical
environment. Thus, based on an important feature of the legal
relationship thinking, he expanded on the history of the law
consistent with the understanding that this law while also beyond the
scope of historical science and pure form a distinction between law as
a discipline is based on its independent based on sex. Savigny of the
19th century had a profound impact of science, this is reflected not
only in the field of law, but also the span of history, law and
philosophy in different areas.

 Holmes (O. W. Holmes, 1841 ~ 1935). The founder of modern American
pragmatism Law. 1866 graduate of Harvard Law School, in Boston in som
time after the lawyer, in 1870, into the court as a lecturer at
Harvard University, Professor, in December 1882 as the highest judge
in Massachusetts, since 1899, became president. 1902 ~ 1932, as U.S.
Supreme Court judge. Holmes's theory, mainly in his book
published in 1881, "common law" (Thee Common La
"Law of the Road" (The Path of the Law), published
after his death sentence set views, "Holm Justice Chase
judicial opinion "(The Judicial Opinions of Mr.Justice Holme
Shriver ed 1940) and among a series of papers published during his
lifetime. and other legal thinkers, Holmes (OWHolmes ,1841 - 1935) may
not be the greatest, but he must be the most distinguishes, maverick,
and the most special one. This was first reflected in his identity on:
He began as a U.S. Supreme Court Justice, followed by the exist as a
legal thinker. Therefore, to understand Holmes's legal
philosophy, if not understand his experience as a judge, will miss his
wonderful part of the thinking of many. In fact, he thought by many
the essence is not manifested in the form of monographs, but scattered
in his judicial opinions, speeches and letters into. In a sense, he,
as a number of decisions made by judges, on the history of thought in
law to occupy an important position. Second, Holmes, in a sense also
represents a spirit of the United States represents the common sense
philosophy and pragmatism combination.

Weber: Social Law Masters
 Max Weber (Max.Weber ,1864-1920), German sociologist, is one of the
most modern vitality and influence of thinkers. His works include:
"The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism,"
"political TECHNOLOGY", "academic theo
TECHNOLOGY", "social history and economic histor
TECHNOLOGY", "Sociology and Social Policy
TECHNOLOGY", "economic and social "a
on. Weber April 21, 1864 Born in Erfurt, University of Heidelberg in
1882 into studying law, a law degree in 1884 Ru Bolin. University in
Berlin for Roman law, Germanic law and commercial law, after the
academic center of gravity shifted from the law of economics. After
1894, served successively as professor of economics at Freiburg
University and political science professor. 1897 - 1903 nervous
breakdown and was forced to cease all teaching, research and political
activities. 1903 to return to academic activities. Founded in 1910,
the German Sociological Association to participate, after 1913,
because of disputes out of the German Sociological Methodology
Sociological Association. June 14, 1920 Death due to pneumonia.
Weber's understanding of sociological thought, the positivist
methodology of unification to change the situation played an important
role to promote the emergence of sociology of phenomenology. His
theory of social action is T. Parsons, a pioneer in the ideological
structure and function, and micro-sociology play enlightening.
Discussion of the bureaucratic and political sociology, sociology of
the organization have an important influence, is also thinking of the
Frankfurt School of Critical Theory source. His comparative cultural
studies of sociology of religion has an important role in the
ideological inspiration. Contemporary Sociological Theory and the all
important Western schools are at different levels and different
aspects of the work to absorb nutrients from the Weber.
Weber's sociology in China, is also unique: he stood more
legal and civilized world, macro position, on the East and the legal
system, extensive and profound theoretical thinking, especially his
efforts to study traditional Chinese social structure and the
resulting characteristics of the generated legal civilization.
However, we understand and explore the Weber is in the modern. In the
20th century thought 80 years imprisonment, we Weber as Marx&#39
enemies to deal with, almost all that time with little knowledge of
Weber's name. But he sought to reveal the traditional Chinese
social and legal operation of the law, trying to explain the
possibility of legal modernization in China, as a study of Chinese
traditional society and the legal culture of the "great
lay", Weber's idea is worthy of our attention.

  Pound (Roscoe Pound 1870 ~ 1964), American jurist, the main
representative of sociology of law school. Family came from the judge.
A former lawyer, Nebraska Supreme Court Appeal Board, University of
Nebraska Law School Dean. Since 1907, has at Northwestern University,
the University of Chicago and taught at Harvard University. In 1916 he
was appointed Dean of Harvard Law School, as long as 20 years.
Republic of China during World War II, the Kuomintang government after
the former Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Education
consultant. His major works include "The scope and purpose of
sociological jurisprudence" (1911 ~ 1912),
"Introduction to Philosophy of Law" (1922),
"Legal History expounded" (1923), "Law a
Morality" (1924), "by law, social control
"(1942)," the task of law
"(1944)," just from the law "(1951)
and" Jurisprudence "(5 volume set, 1959).
Pound's sociological jurisprudence is the transition from
capitalism to imperialism and a war in the U.S. system and ideology,
concomitant changes in the law over 50 years of his career, he is
committed to the legal system and law Critique and Reconstruction of
Science work. The main source of its ideological doctrine is
philosophy of pragmatism, U.S. Ward, LF (1841 ~ 1913) and EA Ross
(1866 ~ 1951) of sociology, and R. Von Jhering new utilitarian law.
Pound in the 20th century the western world, especially the U.S. legal
circles, one of the authority of the law. He has long represented the
social law in a dominant position in the law.

  Hart (H. L. A. Hart, 1907 ~), British jurist, a new analysis of
modern Western legal representative. He graduated from Oxford
University in 1929, 1932, appointed trial lawyer, in 1952 appointed
professor at the University of Oxford, 1978, retired. His major works
include: "The law of cause and effect theory"
(1953), "The Concept of Law" (1961), "the
law, freedom and morality" (1963), "Punishment and
Responsibility" (1968), "Utility and rights
"(1979)," Jurisprudence and Philosophy TECHNOLO
"(1983) and so on. Hart is the West after World War
II's most famous jurist, one of which he created the new
positivist law is one of the modern West, the three law schools (the
other two groups is the Natural Law and Sociology of Law) In the
analysis of the concept of the law and the legal description of the
phenomenon, sorting out the legal relationship has made tremendous
contributions. Because of this, Hart's new Analytical
Jurisprudence from the 20th century, since the 50's the stage
of history, ruled the United Kingdom has reached half a century, still
maintaining a strong control. Hart on the Law of the primary and
secondary rules, laws and ethics, legal concepts of theory, is in the
United States jurist Fuller (L. L. Fuller, 1902 ~ 1978), Dworkin
(Ronald M. Dworkin, 1931 ~), who formed a long-term debate. One hand,
he upheld the law in Austin, the position of positivism, the same
time, its was amended so that Analytical Jurisprudence further adapted
to the social reality of post-war Britain. Currently, Hart's
new Analytical Jurisprudence method has a new generation of Western
philosophers such as Raz and McCormick inherited, development, and the
school as an important contemporary Western law schools will continue
to exist.

  Dworkin is most famous contemporary, one of the most active jurists.
Dworkin was born in Massachusetts, worked in Harvard College, Oxford
University and Harvard degree, a master's degree at Yale
University. His first interest was philosophy, but began studying law
at Oxford when, from discovery to their real interest, and then
entered Harvard Law School, graduating in 1957 and entered the United
States Supreme Court, judge Hand (Learned Hand) the clerk , and later
as a lawyer. 1962, a Yale University professor, in 1969 he was invited
by Oxford University Professor of Jurisprudence chief until 1998.
1975, also served as a professor of law at New York University, he has
served as an ad hoc basis Harvard University, Cornell University,
Princeton University, since 1984 or the University of London
(University College) and a visiting professor. In mid-May 2002 was
invited to China Tsinghua University, Fudan University and Zhejiang
University made presentations. Ronald Dworkin is recognized legal
theory of contemporary Anglo-American tradition of one of the most
influential figure. In general, Dworkin shows is a kind of guidance
from the jurisprudence of political liberalism. His writings are every
important widely discussed, both endorsed by, also critics. In
Dworkin's jurisprudence system, there are four main views
(they constitute an important component of contemporary legal theory
part): first, the critical and beyond the legal positivism; second,
insisting that depends on the political and legal theory moral theory;
Third, the theory of law rooted in a theory of interpretation; Fourth,
the political value of equality as a core part of the legal theory
[Note 1]. Before and after the four parts are linked. Legal positivism
is a direct target of the criticism Dworkin is also the starting point
for argument; Dworkin of political and moral values into their
interpretation of the theory, as the selection criteria to judge;
ultimate goal is to establish an equal and free political and social.
"Empire of Law" is the most important works of
Dworkin, a comprehensive expression of his legal and political
thought. Although Dworkin's basic point of view there is no
fundamental change than in the past, but the research method has
undergone a major shift. His major works include "rights
seriously," "principle theory" and
"freedom", "empire of law" and
on. He started from the early 60's criticism of positivism,
the author of Law, in particular, HLA Hart's theory of
criticism that is typical of the latest legal positivism. His doctrine
of "right on" (right thesis) as the core. He has
stressed that the rules, policies and principles of the points is to
emphasize individual rights, in principle. He also believes that all
of his individual rights, the most important equal rights, that
"the government must not only love and respect for people,
but to equal concern and respect for the people."

  Posner (RA Posner, 1939 ~), 1959 in Bachelor of Arts degree from
Yale University, 1962 Bachelor of Laws degree from Harvard, has taught
at Stanford University, went to the University of Chicago professor,
in 1981, U.S. Federal Seventh Circuit Court of Appeal. His major works
include: "Economic Analysis of Law" (1973),
"Economic Justice" (1981), "Tort Law: Cas
and Economic Analysis" (1982) and so on. Posner as a
synthesizer, fully absorbed the results of the new institutional
economics to construct a legal system using economic methods of
analysis of the grand system. "Economic Analysis of
Law" is an outstanding representative of the results. Is the
theory of Posner's Economic Analysis of Law, was able to have
a "Law and Economics," named independent school.
Posner to the early 20th century, 60 of the first infringement papers
Calabresi and Coase on social cost of the paper Law and Economics
after the publication known as the "new law of
economics." In the "economic analysis of
law," the second chapter, Coase says, "the new law
of economics" - developed over the past 30 years, the laws of
economics - is the economic theory and empirical methods to apply the
legal system analysis, including tort law, contract law, compensation
law, and common areas of property law; punishment theory and practice;
civil, criminal and administrative procedures; legislative and
regulatory theory and practice; law enforcement and judicial
administration; and the Constitution, the early civil law, maritime
law, family law and jurisprudence. Posner has a well-known point: If
the market transaction costs inhibit trade, then the rights should be
given to those who most value them. Posner on Economic analysis of law
has always permeated with the economic outlook, making choice of a
legal system of the highest standards, and thus lead to many jurists
believe in the concept of justice fierce criticism.

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