World&#39;s top ten lawyers World&#39;s top ten lawyers Law is an ancient art, after the number of previous philosophers have today is flourishing, can be said that legal culture is the essence of humanity. This search for the Law Review Network, Justice, Legal Thought net site, collected the world&#39;s top ten famous jurist documentation of the life and in turn to present their theory. According to figure date of birth, respectively Greenspan Matthews, Montesquieu, Bentham, Savigny, Holmes, Weber, Pound, Hart, Dworkin a Posner. Grotius ?Grotius (AD 1589 ~ 1645), Dutch, 14 years of age to university, studying mathematics, philosophy and law, received his JD. 17-year-old attorney, 20-year-old chairman of the Bar of the Netherlands. His research covers a wide range of related law, political science, literature, linguistics, history, etc., but, to his prestigious areas in law. He was a pioneer of modern Western bourgeois ideology, the founder of international law. The famous &quot;right of war and peace&quot; (1625) is not only important work of international law, and is the basis of Western bourgeois doctrine of human rights or natural rights of natural law theory of ground-breaking work. Grotius in the law, there are two important position: first, to create the international public law, known as the &quot;father of international law,&quot; Grotius made in the field of international law the principle of a more complete, these the adjustment of relations between the principles of the country played an active role, especially on the later development of the theory of international law had a profound effect. Second, he was the first modern Western thinkers of the Enlightenment a more systematic exposition of natural law theory of rational people. He learned ancient Greek and Roman thinkers naturalistic essence of natural law theory, discard and get rid of the medieval shackles of theological doctrine of natural law, created the modern rational natural law (natural law) precedent. In the study of natural law, natural law of his people so that instead of Theology at the same time, the natural science research methods, in particular the introduction of the empirical method of geometry of Law, a series of related propositions derived. Montesquieu January 18, 1689, was born in the French city of Bordeaux, Montesquieu Laboliede near the estate, his family, a local prestigious &quot;robe&quot; that made the title of the bourgeois elite. Montesquieu, 19, received a Bachelor of Law and served as a parliamentary counsel; has been elected member of the Royal Society and Royal Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Year on Feb. 10, 1755, Montesquieu, died aged 66. 1721, he anonymously published the &quot;Persian Letters.&quot; It was in many major social issues, to the feudal concept of the traditional declaration of war, in the 18th century Enlightenment, a movement of thought liberation of fire. 1748, Montesquieu published the &quot;Spirit of the Law&quot;, a book called bourgeois law &quot;encyclopedia&quot;, was Voltaire praised as a &quot;code of laws of reason and freedom&quot;, on the later American War in the &quot;Declaration of Independence&quot;, the French Revolution in the &quot;Declaration of Human Rights&quot; have a huge impact. Montesquieu&#39;s political theory in particular on the separation of powers doctrine and the rule of law, beyond the borders of the countries political and legal system, the bourgeoisie plays a significant role in promoting the establishment and profound influence on the Chinese bourgeois reformists also had a considerable impact. &quot;Spirit of the Law&quot; in 1913, was translated into Chinese Fu, the &quot;Law&quot; of the title publishing. Montesquieu is still worthy of a 18th century French one of the outstanding thinkers in the darkness of religious ignorance and tyranny has issued the first cry, he thought the French Revolution, the theory theory is an important part of human thought in a valuable property . Bentham Jeremiah, Jeremy Bentham (Jeremy, Benthan ,1748 - 1832) is a British jurists, philosophers, ethicists one of the founders of liberal theory. The founder of utilitarian theory. His body is a lawyer out of the family, the &quot;child prodigy of reputation&quot;, 13-year-old went to Oxford University to study law, 16 years after graduation, once the bar, specializing in legal theory after the turn of. 1781 has served as professor at the University of London, founded in 1832 the famous &quot;Westminster Review.&quot; Bentham&#39;s major works include &quot;Fragment on Government&quot; (1776), &quot;Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation&quot; (1789), &quot;Principles of Judicial Evidence&quot; (1827), &quot;Constitutional Code&quot; (1830). The &quot;Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation,&quot; is its most important works, the theory represents the interests of freedom of the capitalist period of the British bourgeoisie, is influential in this period the doctrine, compiled after his book, &quot;Jeremy Bentham Collection&quo Hill version. Bentham&#39;s central theory is utilitarianism, he strongly opposed 17,18 centuries of classical natural law view the rational law, that they are fictional; nature of human emotions and placed under two masters, human nature is seeking to avoid bitter music, utilitarian principle is applicable to all acts from both the principle of power. Search utility is the motive of human behavior is different from right and wrong, good and evil standards; is a natural person and the principles of government activities, but also the principles of morality and legislation. The best legislation is to achieve &quot;the greatest happiness of most people&quot;, the best legislation is to promote the social well-being. He believes that good government and the legislation must achieve four goals: the citizen&#39;s survival, prosperity, equality and security. It should be said, Bentham on 19th century British law is 30 years played a significant role in promoting, promoted by Sir Samuel Romilly proposed reform of the criminal law and criminal law advocated by Lord Brougham legal system reform. Savigny Savigny (1779-1861) Savigny from the 16-year-old started studying law in 1800 began teaching law, 1813 Ren Bolin University. Has served as a member of the Prussian Council of State, Justice, Law Minister appeals, legislation - the Appeal Committee, Ministry of State President. The Department has developed over 1848, &quot;Law of Bills,&quot; &quot;Prussian Penal Code,&quot; &quot;Empire of the Criminal Code,&quot; and so on. Author of &quot;History of Roman Law&quot;, &quot;Contemporary R law system,&quot; &quot;debt as part of the contemporary Roma Law,&quot; &quot;History Law Journal.&quot; Savigny in la in the history as the founder of the so-called historical school of law, history, law school this expression Savigny own brand, its starting point is the contemporary method but by law the historic rather than by abstract or rational law enlightened legislators predetermined order. Savigny The resulting far-reaching legal methods and legal policy conclusions. Savigny is the impact of his time the greatest jurists and law teachers. Whether in law or in legal practice and legislation had he left the scene. Although his theory in contemporary plays insignificant role, but his legacy on law and national law in Germany are of great significance. Savigny in contemporary history not only as the founder of the famous law school, he often referred to as the founder of modern jurisprudence. Although European law is divided into various countries of Law, but Savigny&#39;s thinking involves the whole of Europe. He designated the French Civil Code sphere of influence, and continue to follow the Roman law on this basis, it is different from most other continental countries. Savigny play a decisive role and participate in the formation of the doctrine in Collection Law in subsequent legislation of other countries to play a role. Savigny received from the start of &quot;historical&quot; approach and &quot;systems&quot; approach, combining the request, he was the first to develop a systematic, broad approach of people in the law establishing the same time on any one placing particular historical environment. Thus, based on an important feature of the legal relationship thinking, he expanded on the history of the law consistent with the understanding that this law while also beyond the scope of historical science and pure form a distinction between law as a discipline is based on its independent based on sex. Savigny of the 19th century had a profound impact of science, this is reflected not only in the field of law, but also the span of history, law and philosophy in different areas. Holmes Holmes (O. W. Holmes, 1841 ~ 1935). The founder of modern American pragmatism Law. 1866 graduate of Harvard Law School, in Boston in som time after the lawyer, in 1870, into the court as a lecturer at Harvard University, Professor, in December 1882 as the highest judge in Massachusetts, since 1899, became president. 1902 ~ 1932, as U.S. Supreme Court judge. Holmes&#39;s theory, mainly in his book published in 1881, &quot;common law&quot; (Thee Common La &quot;Law of the Road&quot; (The Path of the Law), published after his death sentence set views, &quot;Holm Justice Chase judicial opinion &quot;(The Judicial Opinions of Mr.Justice Holme Shriver ed 1940) and among a series of papers published during his lifetime. and other legal thinkers, Holmes (OWHolmes ,1841 - 1935) may not be the greatest, but he must be the most distinguishes, maverick, and the most special one. This was first reflected in his identity on: He began as a U.S. Supreme Court Justice, followed by the exist as a legal thinker. Therefore, to understand Holmes&#39;s legal philosophy, if not understand his experience as a judge, will miss his wonderful part of the thinking of many. In fact, he thought by many the essence is not manifested in the form of monographs, but scattered in his judicial opinions, speeches and letters into. In a sense, he, as a number of decisions made by judges, on the history of thought in law to occupy an important position. Second, Holmes, in a sense also represents a spirit of the United States represents the common sense philosophy and pragmatism combination. Weber: Social Law Masters Max Weber (Max.Weber ,1864-1920), German sociologist, is one of the most modern vitality and influence of thinkers. His works include: &quot;The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism,&quot; &quot;political TECHNOLOGY&quot;, &quot;academic theo TECHNOLOGY&quot;, &quot;social history and economic histor TECHNOLOGY&quot;, &quot;Sociology and Social Policy TECHNOLOGY&quot;, &quot;economic and social &quot;a on. Weber April 21, 1864 Born in Erfurt, University of Heidelberg in 1882 into studying law, a law degree in 1884 Ru Bolin. University in Berlin for Roman law, Germanic law and commercial law, after the academic center of gravity shifted from the law of economics. After 1894, served successively as professor of economics at Freiburg University and political science professor. 1897 - 1903 nervous breakdown and was forced to cease all teaching, research and political activities. 1903 to return to academic activities. Founded in 1910, the German Sociological Association to participate, after 1913, because of disputes out of the German Sociological Methodology Sociological Association. June 14, 1920 Death due to pneumonia. Weber&#39;s understanding of sociological thought, the positivist methodology of unification to change the situation played an important role to promote the emergence of sociology of phenomenology. His theory of social action is T. Parsons, a pioneer in the ideological structure and function, and micro-sociology play enlightening. Discussion of the bureaucratic and political sociology, sociology of the organization have an important influence, is also thinking of the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory source. His comparative cultural studies of sociology of religion has an important role in the ideological inspiration. Contemporary Sociological Theory and the all important Western schools are at different levels and different aspects of the work to absorb nutrients from the Weber. Weber&#39;s sociology in China, is also unique: he stood more legal and civilized world, macro position, on the East and the legal system, extensive and profound theoretical thinking, especially his efforts to study traditional Chinese social structure and the resulting characteristics of the generated legal civilization. However, we understand and explore the Weber is in the modern. In the 20th century thought 80 years imprisonment, we Weber as Marx&#39 enemies to deal with, almost all that time with little knowledge of Weber&#39;s name. But he sought to reveal the traditional Chinese social and legal operation of the law, trying to explain the possibility of legal modernization in China, as a study of Chinese traditional society and the legal culture of the &quot;great lay&quot;, Weber&#39;s idea is worthy of our attention. Pound Pound (Roscoe Pound 1870 ~ 1964), American jurist, the main representative of sociology of law school. Family came from the judge. A former lawyer, Nebraska Supreme Court Appeal Board, University of Nebraska Law School Dean. Since 1907, has at Northwestern University, the University of Chicago and taught at Harvard University. In 1916 he was appointed Dean of Harvard Law School, as long as 20 years. Republic of China during World War II, the Kuomintang government after the former Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Education consultant. His major works include &quot;The scope and purpose of sociological jurisprudence&quot; (1911 ~ 1912), &quot;Introduction to Philosophy of Law&quot; (1922), &quot;Legal History expounded&quot; (1923), &quot;Law a Morality&quot; (1924), &quot;by law, social control &quot;(1942),&quot; the task of law &quot;(1944),&quot; just from the law &quot;(1951) and&quot; Jurisprudence &quot;(5 volume set, 1959). Pound&#39;s sociological jurisprudence is the transition from capitalism to imperialism and a war in the U.S. system and ideology, concomitant changes in the law over 50 years of his career, he is committed to the legal system and law Critique and Reconstruction of Science work. The main source of its ideological doctrine is philosophy of pragmatism, U.S. Ward, LF (1841 ~ 1913) and EA Ross (1866 ~ 1951) of sociology, and R. Von Jhering new utilitarian law. Pound in the 20th century the western world, especially the U.S. legal circles, one of the authority of the law. He has long represented the social law in a dominant position in the law. Hart Hart (H. L. A. Hart, 1907 ~), British jurist, a new analysis of modern Western legal representative. He graduated from Oxford University in 1929, 1932, appointed trial lawyer, in 1952 appointed professor at the University of Oxford, 1978, retired. His major works include: &quot;The law of cause and effect theory&quot; (1953), &quot;The Concept of Law&quot; (1961), &quot;the law, freedom and morality&quot; (1963), &quot;Punishment and Responsibility&quot; (1968), &quot;Utility and rights &quot;(1979),&quot; Jurisprudence and Philosophy TECHNOLO &quot;(1983) and so on. Hart is the West after World War II&#39;s most famous jurist, one of which he created the new positivist law is one of the modern West, the three law schools (the other two groups is the Natural Law and Sociology of Law) In the analysis of the concept of the law and the legal description of the phenomenon, sorting out the legal relationship has made tremendous contributions. Because of this, Hart&#39;s new Analytical Jurisprudence from the 20th century, since the 50&#39;s the stage of history, ruled the United Kingdom has reached half a century, still maintaining a strong control. Hart on the Law of the primary and secondary rules, laws and ethics, legal concepts of theory, is in the United States jurist Fuller (L. L. Fuller, 1902 ~ 1978), Dworkin (Ronald M. Dworkin, 1931 ~), who formed a long-term debate. One hand, he upheld the law in Austin, the position of positivism, the same time, its was amended so that Analytical Jurisprudence further adapted to the social reality of post-war Britain. Currently, Hart&#39;s new Analytical Jurisprudence method has a new generation of Western philosophers such as Raz and McCormick inherited, development, and the school as an important contemporary Western law schools will continue to exist. Dworkin Dworkin is most famous contemporary, one of the most active jurists. Dworkin was born in Massachusetts, worked in Harvard College, Oxford University and Harvard degree, a master&#39;s degree at Yale University. His first interest was philosophy, but began studying law at Oxford when, from discovery to their real interest, and then entered Harvard Law School, graduating in 1957 and entered the United States Supreme Court, judge Hand (Learned Hand) the clerk , and later as a lawyer. 1962, a Yale University professor, in 1969 he was invited by Oxford University Professor of Jurisprudence chief until 1998. 1975, also served as a professor of law at New York University, he has served as an ad hoc basis Harvard University, Cornell University, Princeton University, since 1984 or the University of London (University College) and a visiting professor. In mid-May 2002 was invited to China Tsinghua University, Fudan University and Zhejiang University made presentations. Ronald Dworkin is recognized legal theory of contemporary Anglo-American tradition of one of the most influential figure. In general, Dworkin shows is a kind of guidance from the jurisprudence of political liberalism. His writings are every important widely discussed, both endorsed by, also critics. In Dworkin&#39;s jurisprudence system, there are four main views (they constitute an important component of contemporary legal theory part): first, the critical and beyond the legal positivism; second, insisting that depends on the political and legal theory moral theory; Third, the theory of law rooted in a theory of interpretation; Fourth, the political value of equality as a core part of the legal theory [Note 1]. Before and after the four parts are linked. Legal positivism is a direct target of the criticism Dworkin is also the starting point for argument; Dworkin of political and moral values into their interpretation of the theory, as the selection criteria to judge; ultimate goal is to establish an equal and free political and social. &quot;Empire of Law&quot; is the most important works of Dworkin, a comprehensive expression of his legal and political thought. Although Dworkin&#39;s basic point of view there is no fundamental change than in the past, but the research method has undergone a major shift. His major works include &quot;rights seriously,&quot; &quot;principle theory&quot; and &quot;freedom&quot;, &quot;empire of law&quot; and on. He started from the early 60&#39;s criticism of positivism, the author of Law, in particular, HLA Hart&#39;s theory of criticism that is typical of the latest legal positivism. His doctrine of &quot;right on&quot; (right thesis) as the core. He has stressed that the rules, policies and principles of the points is to emphasize individual rights, in principle. He also believes that all of his individual rights, the most important equal rights, that &quot;the government must not only love and respect for people, but to equal concern and respect for the people.&quot; Posner Posner (RA Posner, 1939 ~), 1959 in Bachelor of Arts degree from Yale University, 1962 Bachelor of Laws degree from Harvard, has taught at Stanford University, went to the University of Chicago professor, in 1981, U.S. Federal Seventh Circuit Court of Appeal. His major works include: &quot;Economic Analysis of Law&quot; (1973), &quot;Economic Justice&quot; (1981), &quot;Tort Law: Cas and Economic Analysis&quot; (1982) and so on. Posner as a synthesizer, fully absorbed the results of the new institutional economics to construct a legal system using economic methods of analysis of the grand system. &quot;Economic Analysis of Law&quot; is an outstanding representative of the results. Is the theory of Posner&#39;s Economic Analysis of Law, was able to have a &quot;Law and Economics,&quot; named independent school. Posner to the early 20th century, 60 of the first infringement papers Calabresi and Coase on social cost of the paper Law and Economics after the publication known as the &quot;new law of economics.&quot; In the &quot;economic analysis of law,&quot; the second chapter, Coase says, &quot;the new law of economics&quot; - developed over the past 30 years, the laws of economics - is the economic theory and empirical methods to apply the legal system analysis, including tort law, contract law, compensation law, and common areas of property law; punishment theory and practice; civil, criminal and administrative procedures; legislative and regulatory theory and practice; law enforcement and judicial administration; and the Constitution, the early civil law, maritime law, family law and jurisprudence. Posner has a well-known point: If the market transaction costs inhibit trade, then the rights should be given to those who most value them. Posner on Economic analysis of law has always permeated with the economic outlook, making choice of a legal system of the highest standards, and thus lead to many jurists believe in the concept of justice fierce criticism.