Pipe liners Dictionary of Terms by TPenney


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									          A Dolly A trailer converter dolly that is towed from a single hitch located on the centerline of the towing unit.
           A Train A combination of vehicles composed of a tractor, a semitrailer and either an A Dolly and a semitrailer
                   or a full trailer attached to the lead semitrailer in a like manner as if an A Dolly were used
AC (A they) wagon A tracked towing trailer
       Access trail Temporary road cut to allow equipment access to water for testing the pipeline
       Axle Group Any number of consecutive axles on a vehicle through which weight is intended to be equally
      Axle Spread The longitudinal distance between the extreme axle centers of the axle group.
      Axle Weight The total weight transmitted to the highway by the axle or axle group
           B Train A combination of vehicles composed of a tractor, a semitrailer, followed by another semitrailer
                   attached to the first semitrailer by the means of a fifth wheel mounted on the rear of the first
         Back End Those crews working along the pipeline corridor behind the welding crew
        Back slope Slope of bar ditch farthest from the road
           Backfill The dirt/sand material used to cover the pipe in the ditch
         Bar ditch The drainage ditch adjacent to public roads
             Bead The root pass of the weld
        Beaver tail The extreme rear sloped, fabricated steel portion of a low bed trailer used to facilitate a tractor
                    mounting the trailer from the rear
          Bell hole A widened and sloped section of the ditch where welders will work when doing a tie in
           Bender Machine for bending pipe
             Berm A dyke of earth material formed to contain fluid, such as fuel, in case of a spill or leak, or to diver
                  water on a slope in the prevention of erosion
           Bevel The angled cut at the end of a joint of pipe
       Bird cage The shape wire rope takes when forced into compression. The outer strands form a cage and at times
                 displace the core
             top Tar sealed road
        Bladder Sack like container for storing water, diesel or other liquids
        Blanket An insulated blanket that encircles the pipe and is used to cover a weld so it cools slowly.
   Blasting mats Large mats fabricated of tires secured tightly together with bolts and chains. Used to prevent
                 projectiles of rock (fly rock) from becoming airborne out of the blasting site.
    Block valve A full throated mainline valve designed to stop the flow of gas or oil that when open will allow passage
                of a pipeline pig.
     Blow down Releasing air or water pressure through valves at a test head, after testing a section of pipe
     Bone Yard Lay down area for equipment adjacent to the pipeline area, usually either at kick Off or the end of the
      Bone yard Equipment storage location
          Boom Pipeline side boom tractor
    Boom hand Side boom operator
      Boom line The cable which is used to change the angle of the boom
           Bore The diameter of the engine cylinder. Also diameter of any hole, e.g. the hole into which a bushing is
Boring approach Excavation that the backhoe has to make to put the boring machine in position to bore under a road
                or railway
   Boxing a sag Squaring off the R.O.W. at a creek/river crossing
     Break joint The last joint in a section
Break over point The point in a section of pipe, at which, when it is picked up, the weight of the free end will be great
                 enough to cause the pipe to bend at the point at which the lift is being made.
        Breakers On hillsides and inclined slopes, the placement of sand bags or spraying of foam to surround the pipe,
                 as a dam, to the top of the ditch, to prevent water flow and subsequent erosion around the pipe. Water
                 breakers are berms built at an angle across the ROW to divert ground water and prevent ROW erosion
          Bronc New pipeline worker - greenhorn
      Brush hog An attachment to a farm tractor, that is used to chop or cut brush
          Buckle A deformity in the pipe where the pipe wall has collapsed inward due to excessive pressure such as
                 excessive point loading during a lift, dropping pipe onto a rock, or improper bending procedure.
  Buddy system An arrangement by which two workers work together to ensure the health and safety of each other.
         Buffing Grinding the pipe with a wire brush
             Bug The automatic welding machine that welds inside or outside the pipe on a track
          Bunks Planks set across the deck of a stringing trailer fitted with chocks, designed to keep the pipe from
                rolling off the trailer.
         C Dolly A trailer converter dolly, with a frame rigid in the horizontal plane that is towed from two hitches
                 located in a horizontal transverse line on the towing unit, that precludes any rotation in the horizontal
                 plane about the hitch points.
         C Train A combination of vehicles composed of a tractor, a semitrailer, followed by another semitrailer
                 attached to the first semitrailer by the means of a C Dolly.
         Cabling On a side boom tractor, twisting the hook block beyond a one half revolution (180°) relative to the
                 head sheaves
   CAD welding Welding test lead wire on the pipe and casing
        Calipers A type of tongs designed specifically for and used for lifting pipe - faster than hooking and unhooking
            Cap The top pass of the weld
     Carry back On setup and pipe gang, the distance the pipe section is brought back to a "start stake" to ensure that
                after the pipe section is lowered in, it will overlap the following section, necessitating the removal of a
                "pup". The start stake is placed by the engineering crew to ensure a sufficient overlap.
         Casing Larger pipe that the carrier pipe is put through to protect it
        Cat bar A one inch diameter steel bar 16" long, tapered on one end. Standard equipment for a side boom
      Catch off The side boom on lowering in whose function is to assist the cradle tractors at places where difficulties
                are encountered.
       Chainage The accumulated length of the pipeline from Kickoff marked in kilometers and meters
         Charge Any explosive which is loaded, placed or fixed and which may or may not contain a primer
Chase water out Displacing water with dirt to force it out of the ditch
        Cheater A length of pipe used to lengthen the handle of another tool for the purpose of increasing leverage
                and power
  Cherry Picker Truck mounted crane
       Chocker Cable with a loop on each end used to rig loads
   Chocker belt A specialized pipe lifting appurtenance, designed to prevent pipe rolling during hoisting, commonly
                used in pipeline construction
 Chocking pipe Wood skids, wedges or rock material used to stop pipe from rolling on a flat surface
        Choker A wire rope or synthetic sling used to encircle the pipe by passing one end through a loop in the other
               end thereby providing an attachment which can pull laterally as well as vertically
           Clam Excavating equipment with a free swinging bucket
        Clamps A circular clamp that is hinged in half to facilitate encircling the pipe. Control the ends of two pipe
                      joints or sections during tie in welding
             Coating The paint, plastic or dope the bare steel of the pipe is covered with from the factory or that is applied
                     on the "Coating" crew
           Cold dope A tar like substance used for repairing jeeps, breaks in the pipe coating
      Cold-wrapping Applying tape type coatings that do not require the application of heat
        Combination A bend incorporating a side bend and a sag or over bend
         Come along A hand operated mechanical device which uses a chain or cable for lifting or pulling
      Coming-in-side The upstream side of a section or tie in.
Concrete warning pad Pad placed over a pipeline to warn anyone who might dig in the area
                Cork A specialized bar welded onto the grousers for addition traction on ice and frost.
            Coupons Sections of cut pipe, used for practicing welding
               Cradle Roller slings for lowering in pipe
               Cradle Sling equipped with rollers designed to lift pipe while travelling
       Cradle tractor Side boom used to carry pipe cradle
              Cradles A lifting device through which the pipe slides, fitted with multiple padded rollers and wheels, used on
                      Lower-in that rolls along a section while supporting it. Used to lower the pipe into the ditch
         Crazy carpet Fiber material used on wetland to build a construction access road
          Cross over Ditch centerline moves to other side of the right of way
      Cross spooling Cable which has been unevenly laid on a winch drum, with subsequent potential damage to cable
              Crotch A cradle of skids which prohibits sideways movement of the pipe
              Crotch Skids supports constructed in a manner to prevent pipe from rolling
         Crotch pipe To prevent pipe from rolling
         Crowning A lifting practice where two side booms brace their booms against each other at the crown of the
                  booms, one on each side of a lifting point.
Crumbing the ditch Ahead of Lower-in removing material from the ditch that might damage the coating or cause a buckle
                   in the pipe.
         Cut stake Stake which indicated the required depth of a cut
        Cutting bit The business/cutting end of a road bore or directional drilling auger
  Cycle equipment Gradual increase in the movement of components to allow the hydraulic oil to warm up
        Cycle time Time it takes to move the bucket out of the ditch and back in again
     Danger Zone A location within 6 meters of a piece of heavy equipment
     Daylight pipe Excavate and remove soil away from the pipe so that it is visible
       Day lighting Exposing a utility that was previously buried
        Dead man The end of a cable that is held in a secure and stationary position
     Dead weights Mechanical device using weights to determine if a section of pipe being tested under pressure, is
                  maintaining pressure.
  Deadman tractor A tractor used as an anchor for a pipe section (such as on lowering-in) or when winching equipment
                  on steep slopes
         Deck logs Piling logs for removal
 Detonating chord A flexible chord containing high explosives which may be used to detonate other explosive materials
           Diapers Sorbent pads used to soak up oil spill
         Ditch line Centerline of ditch, marked by red stakes, stones or markers along the right of way
        Ditch spill Material removed from the ditch
 Ditching machine Machine which cuts a ditch using a turning wheel with scoops and/or cutting teeth
   Ditch side The side of the right of way on the opposite side of the ditch line from the work side, where the spoil
              pile is placed
         Dog On the side boom tractor, a coarse cog clutch used to engage draw works winch to draw works drive
       Dog in Dog clutch engaged
       Dog it Dog it Stop heavy equipment operation
     Dog out dog clutch disengaged
      Dogleg An irregularity in a straight line - in a pipe section, lay of the right of way etc.
       Donut Internal brace used in bending operation when end of pipe is near the die. Used to prevent egging of
    Dope pot Heating type container to turn hard dope into liquid so it can be spread on the pipe
   Dope, hot Liquid, tar like substance for coating pipe to protect it.
 Downstream The direction the product will flow when in the pipeline is in service
       Dozer Caterpillar tractor with a blade for pushing dirt or sand
 Drag section Section of pipe used at road or swamp crossings
     Drag up To quit or resign
     Drag up To quit or resign
Drag up Tank A large tank built into the deck of a welders rig
     Drawbar Structural member of a sled, full trailer, pony trailer or trailer converter dolly that includes a device for
             the purpose of coupling with a trailer hitch, fifth wheel or hook on a sling
 Draw works A gear train from input to output
        Dress To place topsoil on slopes or grades to match the original contours
  Drill pattern Predetermined pattern and spacing of bore holes for loading explosives on blasting crew
Drive sprocket Toothed sprocket that transfers power from the drive motor to the track on heavy equipment
     Duff soil Organic material found in wooded areas
    Easement Land used as right of way
       Egging Pipe becoming out of round, during bending process
   Eye balling Judging by sight rather than using an instrument
      False fill Loose dirt on the ditch line
      Field tile Buried drainage tiles
       Fill line Small inch light wall pipe 6-10 inches diameter used to carry water from a water source to a fill point,
                 during testing operation
     Fill point A test point used to fill a pipe section with water for testing
   Filter cloth Cloth laid in the ditch to filter sediment caused during the work in the ditch.
  Final Tie Ins The crew that welds together or ties in, after test, the tested sections to complete a continuous
 Fine material Soil which contains only very small rocks (i.e. not big enough to damage pipe covering), and contains
               no frozen lumps of dirt
    Flared out Extra edge on the side of a ramp which allows vehicles to turn in from the road.
         Flash Painful burn to the conjunctiva of the eyes, caused by exposure to the welding arc radiation
         Float A trailer or transport equipment
 Floating pipe Pipe that is physically floating on the water
   Flume Pipe Pipe used in ditches to control the flow of water
      Fly rock Rock projectiles ejected skyward from a blasting zone
     Foreign line A pipeline that crosses the centerline of a new pipeline under construction
    Freeze down When tracks are frozen to the ground
      Front End Those crews working along the pipeline corridor ahead of and including the welding crew
  Going-out-side The downstream side of a section, tie in, road bore etc.
          Goose Internal clamp on front end welding crew
           Grade Preparation of right of way surface to ensure work area is level
      Grade shot Measurement of elevation for depth of ditch or level of grade on right of way
    Green sticks Plastic sticks to repair damage to pipe coating
        Grousers Horizontal lugs on the track pads of tracked equipment
    Grub stumps Freeing stumps from the ground for removal
         Gunnite Concrete coating on a pipe section
Hammer Wrench Large wrench with square end designed to be struck by a sledge hammer. Use on final tie in crew
              when tightening flanges on valves
           Hand Pipeline worker
   Hanging pipe Any pipe in a ditch under which there is no support
 Headache Rack Strong (reinforced steel) barrier mounted on the back of athe cab of a truck to prevent the load sliding
               forward and breaching the rear cabin wall injuring the driver
    Heat number A number printed on the inside of a joint of pipe by the manufacturer identifying from which
                production run the pipe came
   Heating Coils Electrical coils, used on the coating crew that are hinged to enable encircling and heat the pipe
 Heavy wall pipe Mainline pipe with a thicker wall thickness than line pipe
Heel of the blade The end of the dozer blade that is angled back closest to the tractor
         High boy A conventional truck trailer with deck approximately 5 foot off the ground
        High spot Section at the bottom of the ditch which is higher than the required depth, usually comprised of a rock
                  or stone material which requires blasting
         High-low When the pipe and weld is slightly out of true alignment where the welding kerf does not line up 100%
         Hoarding Plastic sheeting over a wood frame used at a test point to maintain temperature of exposed test section
Hoe Rock Hammer Backhoe fitted with rock hammer
          Holiday Hole or gap in pipeline coating
    Hoosier spring On the side boom tractor, the return spring on the boom brake lever, which prevents accidental
                   release of the boom brake
         Hot bend A short radius bend prepared at the pipe mill
        Hot Dope Old method of coating pipe with hot melted tar like substance
    Hot line stakes Stakes which are marked a specific color to identify an underground pressurized pipeline, in proximity
                    to the work
         Hot Pass Second weld pass/layer
  Hot tap machine Machine which is used to drill and tap into a hot line
        Hot Tie in To weld a new pipeline into a pipeline that is already in service
           Hotline A buried pressurized pipeline
     Hotline ramp Earth ramp built over a hot line to allow safe passage of heavy equipment.
         Hot pass The filler pass of the weld
    Hot-wrapping Applying tape type coatings that require the application of heat
            House The pipeline yard and offices
      Hustle skids The work involved in the loading / unloading of skids, building cradles to support the pipe etc.
           Idler sprocket Smooth sprocket at the end of the side boom under carriage which turns the track back towards the
                          drive sprocket
 Jeep ( Holiday detector) Electrical device used to detect abnormalities/holidays/damage in the pipeline coating
                      Jib An extension attached to the main boom, to provide added boom length for lifting specified loads
                    Joint A single length of pipe as delivered from the pipe manufacturer
              Jump hour An extra hour of pay that is unearned but considered deserved by the foreman
                  Jungle A thrown together lunch
              Keeper pin A device for ensuring the security of an attachment pin, such as the boom base pin on a side boom
                Key way Notch dug out of the side of a ditch to allow work to be performed or equipment or sand/foam
                        breakers installed
                Kick Off Where the work starts on a pipeline project. The work site at the very beginning of a pipeline mainline
                         or looping project.
          Kilometer post A post indicating the kilometer chainage from kickoff
                     Lap Mark pipe where it is to be cut
            Latch spring On a side boom tractor, the spring used to keep the brake lever locked
                   Lathe A stake, sharpened on one end, driven into the ground and used to mark centerline of ditch, chainage,
                         or other purpose
               Line pipe The mainline pipeline pipe
Line up clamps (external) External mechanical clamps used to align two joints of pipe in preparation for welding
               Link seals A rubber chain inserted between the carrier pipe and the casing to keep the water out
              Live boom A boom that is operated by a boom hoist mechanism that will unwind unrestricted
               Load line Cable from the side boom draw works that is hooked to a load
     Load line hook The hook that supports the weight
       Load ratings Side boom lift capacity rating established by the manufacturer
       Loaded hole Any hole in which there is blasting material
        Loaded line Pipeline under pressure
       Long corner The corner of an angled blade farthest away from the tractor
              Loop A parallel section of pipeline
              Loop Section of pipeline, normally between valves
           Looping Work on a section of pipeline that parallels an existing pipeline system
         Loose end The free, open end of a longer section of pipe, which has not been connected
Low Boy / Low Bed A low slung trailer used to haul heavy equipment
       Magic carpet Heavy felt cloth, on top of which soil and/or gravel is place, used on soft ground to build an access
                    road to support vehicles and equipment
           Mandrel Internal, maneuverable support clamp inside the pipe used in bending operation to prevent buckling
       Marlin spike Tapered steel pin used as a tool for splitting/opening wire rope strands
      Master clutch On standard transmission tractors, the main clutch to make everything work, different from the tail
                    end clutch.
      Master switch A switch between the battery and all other components
    Mormon Board Backfilling attachment to a Linkbelt crawler crane, designed for and uniquely suited for pulling in
                 backfill. Most commonly used in swampy areas where dozers cannot work near the ditch or in areas
                 where a hot line is located under the spoil pile.
           M-Scope An electronic device used to locate buried facilities: pipelines, power lines etc.
      MSDS Sheets Material Safety Data Sheets - Sheets providing the worker with information of hazardous products so
                  he may protect himself
        Mud board A wooden elevated (4-5 inches) platform for welders to lie on when welding under the pipe
          Nightcap Caps made out of material, plastic, wood etc to fit over and close off the end of the pipe to prevent
                   entry of foreign material
Non rotating cable A wire rope cable especially designed to prevent unwinding
     Oilfield trailer A heavy duty high boy trailer with a live roller at the rear of the trailer
Operating pressure The pressure that the pump delivers, determined by the main circuit relief valves
      Ossie padder Machine used for sand padding pipe
        Over bend A bend in the pipe that is convex - low on the ends and high in the middle
                P.I. Change in the direction of the right of way centerline, usually identified by a stake/lathe with the
                     chainage written on it
          P.I. stake Point of intersection stake, located on a side bend to indicate the degree of bend required for the ditch
           Padding Selected finer material placed in the ditch, beneath, beside and on top of the pipe to prevent damage to
                   the pipe or coating by rocks. Usually 8" is required under the pipe and 12" beside and on top of the
               Pass A weld once around the pipe
                Pig Internal pipeline cleaning or inspection device
       Pig Catcher A device for receiving a pig
            Pillows Polyurethane pads placed under the pipe
       Pinion gear Gears which direct power from the pup engine to the main engine
         Pipe layer Caterpillar term for the Side boom tractor
         Pipe gang The front end mainline welding crew, including the welders, equipment operators and laborers.
               Plug Dirt which is temporarily pushed into a ditch to allow the passing of vehicles, wildlife etc
      Plug out Technique to remove dirt, a temporary plug, from a point where two sections of ditch meet .
Point of blade Corner of an angled blade farthest away from the tractor
     Poor boy A scaled down pipeline work crew
  Powder man The worker on a blasting crew whose job is to load explosives in the bore holes
Power take off A direct drive, friction clutch, fluid coupling, or hydrostatic auxiliary power driving source provided by
               the prime mover
Prep Machine (End Preparation or pipe facing machine) A portable lathe that machines the end of a joint of pipe to
             the specifications required for the particular welding process to be used.
           Pull A bending term referring to that segment of pipe that has been subjected to bending machine pressure
  Pulling head A heavy reinforced end cap for a pipe section with a towing eye, for sustained lateral pulling of that
               section, used on road bores and river/creek sections
           Pup Short length of pipe
   Pup engine An auxiliary engine used for starting the main engine
     Pup joint Short length of pipe cut off the end of a section, at the overlap of two loose ends
     Push out Extra work area where spill is stored off the right of way
         Quad Welding machines mounted on a tractor
       R.O.W. Pipeline right of way or corridor
         Ramp Level pile of dirt place over a bar ditch, rails etc to allow equipment to cross over without causing
Rated capacity The loads (breaking strength and safe working load) which a new wire rope or wire rope sling may
               handle, under given operating conditions and at an designated design factor
    Reach rod Length of 3/4" pipe, often with a wheel on end, extending from the internal line-up clamps to the
              end of the pipe, for the purpose of supplying air to the clamps, which is used to control the mandrel
                        inside the pipe when bending pipe
               Reamer A cutting head that increases the bore hole size
                   Rig Hook cables/slings to a load for lifting
               Rigging Any lifting appurtenances between the load and the hoisting equipment
               Rip rap A corduroy road formed by laying down branches and trees over soft ground to support vehicles or
                Ripper A vertical earth/rock cutting blade mounted on the back of a dozer
                  Riser Pipe that comes above ground at a valve
         River weights Circular concrete weights attached to the pipe when the pipe is laid under water or in wet lands and
                       swampy areas.
                Roach A berm (mound of earth) over the pipeline or a pile of snow placed, before freeze up, on the ditch
                      line to prevent freezing of the ground.
Road section insulators Neoprene bands which are placed at intervals on a drag section intended for a road bore to ensure
                        separation between carrier pipe and casing
           Rock shield Plastic or fiber sheets used to cover the pipe to protect it from rocks
              Rod pail Bucket or pail for used welding rod stubs
         Rolling Seams Rotating pipe in a sling to locate the longitudinal factory seam at a desired position for pipe bending
          Roping pipe On lowering in the pipe is "roped in"
      Rubber boot seal The seal between the casing and pipe on either ends of a road/river bore
               Run off To be fired/terminated from employment
   Safe Working Load The Safe Working Load (S.W.L.) is equivalent to the catalogue breaking strength divided by the factor
                     of safety.
          Safety factor In a wire rope, it is the ratio of the breaking strength to the safe working load, normally a factor of
  Safety Fuse A flexible chord containing powder which burns internally and is used to initiate a plain detonator
 Safety Lever A lock-out of the controls which, when engaged, prevents the starting of the engine.
          Sag A bend in the pipe that is concave - high on the ends and low in the middle
    Sauerman Equipment with used to yoyo a drag bucket at a river crossing, for excavation on the river bottom
        Seam A factory weld on the pipe when it is rolled - can be spiral or straight
      Section Two or more pipe joints welded together
        Seize To make secure by binding at the end of a wire rope or strand with seizing wire
 Set in tractor The tractor on the front-end pipe gang crew that picks up each succeeding joint and sets it into the
                welding clamps
        Setup The phase of pipe handling which immediately follows bending. This crew positions the pipe
              advantageously for the welding crew to ensure minimum required handling by the front-end pipe gang
              crew. It is also laid out as per carry back and other stakes left by the engineering crew
      Shackle Clevis, u-shaped rigging device with a pin across the end
        Shade Back filling with fine soil, which is the initial covering of the pipe to protect it from rocks.
Sharp shooter A long and narrow spade/shovel, used for cleaning mud, snow and ice out of the tracks of tracked
       Sheave A grooved pulley for wire rope
Shock loading Additional load imposed on a machine and rigging due to excessive deceleration of the load, by
              breaking the load too abruptly or other cause with similar effect
      Shoofly Access road to pipeline construction ROW from the nearby existing public or private road. Can be a
              road along the pipeline corridor built to bypass an obstacle such as a river, steep slope etc.
Shoot a bend To calculate the degrees of a bend with a transit
   Shot rock Broken rock fragments following a blast
Shrink sleeve A field joint coating comprised of a polyethylene tube which shrinks to the pipe when heated
   Side bend A bend in the pipe that directs the pipe to one side or the other
  Side boom A pipe layer tractor
      Signals Hand signal communication for directing operations
  Silk screen Fine mesh plastic screening used to filter sediment out of flowing water to comply with
              environmental requirements
        Skid Wooden timbers (usually 4"x6"x4") used to build supports for the pipe
  Slick track A crawler tractor with "street pads" (triple grousers) so that it can work on a paved street without
              damaging the road surface
       Slider A simple type of skid support for pipe joints/sections that can be adjusted in height by sliding the top
              skids up or down the inclined plane formed by two skids
        Sling Looped wire rope or packaged synthetic line or webbing used for lifting pipe
       Slush Mixture of water, soil and rock
        Snag Broken tree or branch sticking out of the ground
Snatch block A single sheave with hook attached
      Sneaky A manned internal pipe repair or inspection vehicle - motorized buggy.
   Soft plug A crossing over the ditch that has been back filled without the pipe
     Spacers Devices strapped/bolted to the pipe to prevent it being damaged by the metal casing when the pipe is
             inserted into the casing. Used on road or river bores
Spacing tool Welder's / fitter's tool used to maintain a uniform space between pipe bevels when lining up pipe for
   Spaghetti Small inch pipe
Spill/Spoil pile The excavated ditch material
Spill/Spoil side Side of the right of way opposite the work area, where top soil and spill from work area/ditch is stored
    Spiral Pipe Pipe with a spiral factory welded seam
       Splicing To join two wire or synthetic ropes by interweaving the strands
          Split Push soil to both sides
        Splitter A length of blasting safety fuse which notches at 50 millimeter (two inch) intervals and is used to ignite
                 safety fuses
 Spooled cable Cable which has been evenly laid on a winch drum
       Spoons Long handled (12-15 foot) shovels used ahead of lower-in cradles to remove rock from the centerline
              of the ditch, under the pipe, which could cause buckles, when regulations prohibit workers entering
              unsafe ditch
          Spot To locate equipment in a specific area
        Spotter A worker designated to work with a driver or operator to identify the appropriate location on the
                right of way to drop a load, park a vehicle etc.
        Spread The equipment and personnel that comprise a pipeline construction project
   Spread Man Construction Superintendent
     Spudding Intentional penetration as in "spudding" pipe into a bending machine
  Squeeze iron Pipe from squeeze pump to test head
Squeeze pump High pressure pump used to pressure up pipe for test
 Squeeze water Forcing water out of a ditch by displacing it with dirt
       Stabber Employee who helps line-up pipe for welding
       Stability The ability of a mobile machine to resist tipping
        Start joint First joint set up for welding a section
        Start stake Engineering stake which indicates the start of the pipe section
       Station site Location of compressors
        Stemming During blasting, the material placed in the open end of a loaded hole which confines the explosive gas
   Stemming piles Loaded bags of stemming material used in blasting
          Steward A representative of the union, dispatched to the job site that deals with the contract, working rules and
             Stick Portion of the excavator arm between the bucket and the boom
     Stick welding Hand held welding rod
           Stinger Welding rod and holder
            Strand Part of a cable made up of wires
       Straw boss Crew foreman's lead worker
       Street pads Triple grouser pads - "Street Pads"
     Stringer bead Welder's term: The first welding pass welders make on joining two pieces of pipe together
         Stringing The crew that moves the pipe from the pipe yard to the right of way and positions the pipe joints
                   along the right of way in a staggered formation, parallel to but sufficient distance from the ditch line
   Stringing hook A hook that fits into the end of the pipe for lifting pipe
   Stringing truck Truck which transports pipe joints along the right of way to their approximate installation positions
         Stripping Clearing off topsoil
      Strong back Lifting unit that transfers weight from a center point horizontally - e.g. weight hooks
Structural Strength The ability of the machine and it's components to withstand the stresses imposed by applied loads
         Sump pit Where mud from river or creek is stored
         Swabbing Using a ring of pipe cut to a slightly smaller diameter than the line pipe with an outer layer of soft
                  rubber which is pulled through a joint of pipe to clean out the inside of the pipe
      Swage fitting A 100% efficient cable and fitting. Fitting into which wire rope can be inserted and then permanently
                    attached by cold pressing (swaging) the shank that enclosed the rope.
Swamp / Bog mats Heavily constructed pads of timber, bolted together and used to support equipment in soft ground,
                 wet lands and swampy areas
   Swamp weights Saddle concrete weights designed to sit on the pipe and keep it from floating
         Swamper The laborer assigned to act as an operator's helper
            Swing Rotation of the superstructure for movement of loads in a horizontal direction about the axis of
      Swing brake Friction brake which prevents the boom from swinging
        Swing lock Safety pin used to prevent movement of the boom during transportation
          Tack rig Front end welding tractor
            Tackle An assembly of ropes and sheaves arranged for hoisting, lowering and pulling
          Tag line A length of rope attached to a suspended load which is used to control swinging motion in the load
         Tail chain Chain on the end of a equipment's winch line
        Tail clutch Side boom clutch used to transfer power to draw works transmission
        Tail swing Clearance distance from center of rotation to maximum rear extension of revolving superstructure
         Tamping Compressing of explosives into a hole usually by means of a rod designed for that purpose
        Tensioner Piston which keeps tension on the tracks of heavy equipment, adjusted by adding grease
         Test head A short section of pipe with a convex end cap and valves, welded to the end of a section. Used in the
                   filling of pipe and controlling pressure during testing operations.
         Test head A location in a pipe section chosen to be used as a work site for testing operations, where the welders
                           have left two loose ends.
                 Test lead Wires attached between the buried pipe and above ground test lead post, for the purpose of
                           monitoring pipeline coating integrity
               Test point A location of two loose ends in a pipe section where one test section ends and the next starts
              Test section A specific length of the pipeline which will be pressure tested independent of other test sections,
                           chosen by consideration of several factors: availability of water, elevation…
                Thimbles Grooved rings of thin metal used to fit in a spliced loop in a rope as protection from chafing and
                Thin wall Pipe with less than 3/8" thickness
                   Throat The throat of the ditch is the inside of a sag (bend).
                    Tie in The place in the pipe installation where lowering in is bypassed, leaving loose ends to be welded, such
                           as at roads, creeks and railways.
                  Tipping The point of machine equilibrium
            To the house Going home after shift
Torpedoes/Moles/Rockets Underground earth piercing tools
                 Tow Cat Tractor used to pull any equipment or vehicles stuck on the right of way.
                  Tractor The crawler portion of the side boom
            Tractor driver The person who runs or operates the side boom tractor
          Transition piece A short joint of heavy wall pipe machined on the inside at one end. It's purpose is to enable welding
                           of heavy wall pipe to line pipe
                   Travel The function of the machine moving from one location to another
             Turnaround A pipe joint that needs to be turned end for end before welding or a widened spot on the right of way
                        used in turning equipment around
 Two blocking When the hook block or headache ball comes in contact with the head sheaves
     Two tone Grade cut on two elevations along the right of way, to minimize the amount of spill cut from a side
     Upstream The direction from which the product pumped will come from when in service
        Utility Any pipeline, buried or overhead power line, fiber optic cable, sewer, water line, communications cable
    Virgin soil Undisturbed soil
         Walk To move a tractor with load or section of pipe suspended
   Warrington A type of strand in a wire rope cable
 Water breaker A line of raised soil placed across the face of a slope to slow water down and minimize erosion
 Wedge socket A steel wire rope attachment where the rope end is secured
  Winch truck A flatbed truck with a winch and "A" frame poles used for light hauling, also called a "gin truck"
Wire rope sling An assembly fabricated from wire rope which connects the load to the lifting device
       Wobble A strike. Workers collectively refuse to go to work in support of some demand
    Work area That side of the right of way, opposite the spill pile, where all working machinery is located
     Workside The side of the right of way on which the equipment and vehicular traffic move
         Yoyo Using bucket on a drag line to get ditch depth at a river crossing
     Yup stick A measuring stick used to measure the depth of the ditch

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