Positive Attributes for Continuous Production Biosecurity

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  Rainbow Trout Production in Water
        Recirculating Systems                          Positive attributes
                                                       Rainbow trout growth, FCR, & fillet attributes
                                                       Recirculating systems used for rainbow trout
Steven Summerfelt, John Davidson, Christopher          production
         Good, & Thomas Waldrop

     Conservation Fund Freshwater Institute
         Shepherdstown, West Virginia

Positive Attributes for Continuous                     Positive Attributes for Continuous
    Production & Biosecurity                               Production & Biosecurity
Domesticated strains are commercially available        Rainbow trout are generally more resistant to
   Eyed-eggs are relatively inexpensive                certain diseases than other salmonids
Eyed-eggs available 12 months a year                     Furunculosis & bacterial gill disease
   Available certified free of listed pathogens
      Critical for biosecurity!!!

Positive Attributes for Continuous                    Attributes for Continuous Production
    Production & Biosecurity                                      & Biosecurity
Aggressive feeders
   Floating feeds work – we use a slow sinking feed    Fin erosion can be a problem with rainbow trout
   Distributing feed reduces competition for feed
                                                                         Rainbow Trout Growth                                                                                                                                               Rainbow Trout Growth
                  Mean Final Weight:                                                                                                                                                                                       All female, diploids from Troutlodge
                     High makeup: 1401g
                     Low makeup: 1366g                                                 }             p = 0.108

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Continuous light and feed every 1-2 hrs, 24/7
                    Days Post Hatch: 372
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               606RBT (High, Low)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               207NCCWCRBT (CO2 Study)
                  Mean TGC:                                                                                                                                                                   1000

                                                                                                                                                                            Weight (grams)
                                                High makeup: 2.64 ± 0.13                                                                                                                                         800                           907RBT's (Ozone Study)

                                                Low makeup: 2.62 ± 0.17                                                                                                                                          600                           308RBT (High Ex, Ozone)

                                                High exchange: 0.74%
                                                Low exchange: 1.69%                        }          p = 0.0495

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0    50        100       150        200         250         300     350
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Age (Days Post Hatch)

                 Rainbow Trout Growth to 26 Months
                                                                                                                                                                                             Rainbow Trout Condition Factor
                                               All female, diploids from Troutlodge
                                                       Continuous light and feed every 1-2 hrs, 24/7
                 6000                                                                                                                               160
                                                                                                                                                                                             Fulton's Condition Factor (g/cm3)

                 5000                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.3
                                                                                                      Weight (grams)
                                                                                                      Density (kg/m3)
                 4000                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.1
                                                                                                                                                          Density (kg/m3)
Weight (grams)


                 3000                                                                                                                               80
                                0                                                                                                                    0                                                                              100   200      300      400      500       600         700     800    900
                                               0             100         200         300              400           500           600     700     800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Age (days post hatch)
                                                                                       Age (Days Post Hatch)

                 Rainbow Trout Processing Attributes                                                                                                                                         Rainbow Trout Feed Conversion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Approximate FCR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Smaller than 100 g                                ≤1:1
                                                70.0                                                                                                                                                                                 100 – 1000 g                                      1 : 1 to 1.3 : 1
                   Yield (% of Total Weight)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1000 g and larger                                 1.3 : 1 to 1.5 : 1

                                                                                            Head on & gutted yield, %
                                                                                            Butterfly Fillet yield (skin on), %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Fish were fed a 42:16 (protein:fat) feed
                                                30.0                                        Viscera somatic index, %
                                                                                            Gonadal somatic index, %


                                                       400         450         500         550              600            650      700     750     800
                                                                                                 Age (da ys post ha tch)
    Rainbow Trout Depuration                                                 WV Salmon & Trout (Man, WV)
                                                                             Three 3,000 gpm RAS’s for trout & salmon growout.
Off-flavor (geosmin & MIB) can occur in rainbow
trout cultured in partial reuse and recycle systems
Depurating fish off-feed for 5-7 days works for us.

    MCRA Hatchery (Delbarton, WV)                                          RAS for Rainbow Trout Production
                                                                             Danish Model Trout Farms
  Six 8-stack vertical              Partial reuse system & flow-
  incubators with insulated         through systems used in nursery.             Denmark has stringent discharge limits
  cabinets in RAS.                                                               RAS implemented to reduce waste discharge
                                                                                 10 commercial facilities (200-1000 MT each)
                                                                                 Outdoor RAS’s – NO BIOSECURITY
                                                                       Kongeaens Damburg produces 1000 MT/yr of 375 g RBT
                                                                       96% reuse (107 L/s makeup water to three 900 L/s raceway modules)
                                                                       Four 675 m3 raceways per RAS module

 RAS for Rainbow Trout Production                                          RAS for Rainbow Trout Production
Danish Model Trout Farms                                               Danish Model Trout Farms
  Airlift pumps (2 m depth) after each q-zone                             TSS removal:
     Four airlifts per module create total of 20 cm lift                      Settling in Q-zone cones
     Central blower location serves all airlifts                              Drum filtration (added later)

                                                                                                                                  (courtesy Lars-
                                                                                                                                  Flemming Pedersen)
 RAS for Rainbow Trout Production                                             RAS for Rainbow Trout Production
Danish Model Trout Farms – Very simple                                        Danish Model Trout Farms – 30% Govt funded
                                                                                 In 2008, expanded from 10 farms to 15 farms
     submerged structured packing (most)                                      Some are said to be commercially viable, but fish health
          TAN average 3.0 mg/L and NO2-N averages 1 mg/L                      is an issue
     moving bed biofilters (at least one)                                        No biosecurity
                                                                                 Fish brought to farms are not disease free
                                                           (courtesy Ivar        No buildings to keep out birds and mammals
                                                           Warrer-Hansen)        Less than ideal water quality
 submerged biofilter                                                             Mixed cohorts in raceways
                                                                                     an ‘all in and all out’ approach is not used

                                                   moving bed biofilter

                                                                            All research was supported by the Agriculture Research Service of
 Rainbow trout eggs are biosecure, inexpensive, and                         the United States Department of Agriculture, under Agreement No.
 available year round.                                                      59- 1930-
 Rainbow trout grow well in RAS.
 Partial water reuse and fully recirculating systems offer                                                                                and
                                                                            Opinions, conclusions, and recommendations are of the authors and
                                                                            do not necessarily reflect the view of the USDA.
 opportunities to expand the current levels of rainbow
 trout production.
                                                                            All experimental protocols involving live animals were in compliance
 Producing large 2-5 kg rainbow trout could provide a                       with Animal Welfare Act (9CFR) and have been approved by the
 niche-marketed product                                                     Freshwater Institute Animal Care and Use Committee.
    clearly distinguished from the rainbow trout that are presently