1 PRELIMINARY PLANS FOR CHEMSEM RESEARCH AND TEACHING FOR THE YEARS 2010-2013 This document describes the present state and the planned new organization of CHEMSEM graduate school. In addtion, the preliminary plan of the courses available from each laboratories is presented, as well as, in the end of the document, the short descriptions of the research of each unit. GROWTH OF CHEMSEM Our Graduate school started originally as a small network of 8 units from Helsinki University of Technology (HUT/TKK), Helsinki University, Åbo Akademi University (ÅAU), University of Turku (UTU) and VTT. Presently, CHEMSEM has already been considerably expanded to be composed of 14 units from the afore mentioned universities, Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) and VTT: Starting from the year 2010 our school has been planned to be further expanded. Then we will have all in all 26 member units from the present universities and VTT. The basic aims of CHEMSEM remain the same as currently: miniaturisation of chemical analysis. Our graduate school combines microfabrication, optical technology and electronics with modern analytical chemistry and is deeply dedicated to offering high quality education for the needs of the current and future analysts. 2 The new steering group has been planned to have the following composition: Member Substitute member Organisation Director prof. Sakari Kulmala TKK Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry Vice director Docent. Sami TKK Department of Micro and Franssila Nanotechnology Research professor Hannu VTT, MEMS and Heterogeneous Kattelus, Integration - Prof. Inger Vikholm-Lundin VTT Molecular sensors - Päivi Heimala, senior VTT Photonics and Microfluidics researcher Prof. Ari Ivaska - Prof.. Johan Bobacka ÅAU Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry - Prof. Andrzej Lewenstam, ÅA ProSens Prof. Keijo Haapakka - Prof. Jukka Lukkari UTU Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Chemical Analysis Prof. Pekka Hänninen - Docent Juhani Soini UTU Laboratory of Biophysics - Docent Timo Korpela, TY Joint Biotechnology Laboratory director Prof. Marja-Liisa Riekkola. UHE Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry - Docent Marc Baumann, UHE Biomedicum, Protein director chemistry - Prof. Edward Hæggström UHE Laboratory of Electronics Research Docent Raimo Ketola UHE Center for Drug Research - Prof. Tapio Kotiaho UHE Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry/ UHE Department of Pharmacy - Prof. Risto Kostiainen UHE Department of Pharmacy Prof. Pasi Kallio - Prof. Jukka Lekkala TUT Department of System Technology - Prof. Matti Karp TUT Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology - Prof. Helge Lemmetyinen TUT Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology PhD Robin Ras TKK Opticas and Molecular Materials - Prof. Jukka Seppälä TKK Laboratory of Polymer Technology - Prof. Maarit Karppinen TKK Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry - Prof. Ari Koskinen TKK Laboratory of Organic Chemistry FT Tarja Nevanen VTT Molecular Diagnostics - Prof. Heli Siren VTT Biotechnology LUT Separation Technique Center Docent Veijo Ilmavirta, director TKK Innovation Center Prof. Arto Lahti HSE Entrepreneurship and Managing of Small Companies N.N. Industry Student representative 3 SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT GOALS AND MEANS OF THE PRESENT AND THE EXPANDED CHEMSEM GRADUATE SCHOOL: Novel nstrumentation for chemical analysis Miniaturization of chemical analysis Microfabrication Thin films and coatings Microsensing for Materials and particles chemistry Parallelization of chemical analysis Particle-based methods in analysis Microanalytical systems Microfluidics Electro chemistry Materials & surfaces Optical detection Chemical sensors 4 RESEARCH AND TEACHING ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE SCHOOL The research and development of micro technology are still strongly centered in the Otaniemi area and the material services for this research will be made locally considerably stronger by joining the school new laboratories from Helsinki University of Technology. However, the strongest impacts in the actual analytical research will be provided by the former and the new analytical groups from several Finnish universities and VTT. Research and teaching Uni- Department Laboratory or Main research subject area ver- group sity MICROFABRICARTION TKK Department of Micro technology Micro- and nanofabrication TECHNOLOGY AND Micro- and Nano- group technology MATERIALS Technology VTT VTT Photonics and Application of MEMS- Microfluidics technologies in microfluidics and optical systems TKK Department of Bio Laboratory of Polymers for sensors and and Chemical Polymer Technology microsystems Technology TKK Department of Laboratory of Applications of ALD thin films Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry in sensors and mircrosystems TKK Department of Laboratory of Organic Organic linking reagents for Chemistry Chemistry sensors and microsystems TKK Department of Optics and Molecular Luminescent nanoparticles and Technical Physics Materials clusters usable in analytical systems MICROFLUIDICS UHE Department of Laboratory of Microanalytical in vitro- and in Chemistry Analytical Chemistry situ-techniques UHE Departments of Mass spectrometry Miniaturized methods in mass Chemistry and and bio-, and spectrometry Pharmaceutical environmental analysis Chemistry group UHE Department of Analytical Microchip Sample treatment methods Pharmaceutical group based on micro chips Chem. UHE Center of Drur Pharmaceutical Multidimensional analytical Research (CDR) Analysis group systems UHE Department of Laboratory of Optical tweezers and single Physics Electronics Research molecule fluorescence in combination with lab-on-chip sample treatment. TUT Department of Microfluidics group Basic phenomena in micro System Technology channels and their modelling. TKK Department of Optics and Molecular Microfluidic systems controlled Technical Physics Materials by light VTT/ Biotechnology/ Biotechnology On-line capillary electrophoresis LUT STC systems SENSORS, DETECTORS AND DETECTION METHODS ((i) Optical sensors and VTT VTT Photonics and Optical structures and microsystems and sensors Microfluidics photoluminescence in micro based on the measurement capillaries. 5 of mass changes VTT Molecular Sensors Measuring systems based on molecular recognition VTT Molecular Diagnostics Recombinant antibodies and their applications TKK Department of Laboratory of Electrochemiluminescence and Chemistry Analytical Chemistry its application in bioanalysis TKK Department of Optics and Molecular Luminescent nanoparticles and Technical Physics Materials metal clusters UTU Department of Analytical Chemistry Luminescent sensors based on Chemistry group carbon nanotubes and fullerens. UTU Department of Laboratory of Nonlinear optical transitions Biomedicine Biophysics and novel label molecules and label particles. UTU Department of Joint Biotechnology Luminescent porphyrin sensors Chemistry Laboratory and cell receptor studies. TUT Dept. of Chemistry Bioluminescence Bioluminescent micro systems. and Biochemistry group TUT Dept. of Chemistry Fluorescence group Sensors and methods based on and Biochemistry luminescent proteins. TUT Department of Microfluidics group Micro- and biosensors and System Technology implanted sensors and systems. (ii) Electrochemical UTU Department of Sensor Materials Sensors based on sensors Chemistry group polyelectrolyte and self- assembled monolayers. ÅAU Faculty. of Techno- Laboratory of Conductive polymers in logy/ Dept. of C-T Analytical Chemistry electrochemical sensors ÅAU Faculty. of Techno- ProSens Ion selective electrodes and logy/ Dept. of C-T their industrial applications. (iii) Proteomics, UHE Biomedicum Protein chemistry/ Microchips for proteomics metabolomics and Proteomics Research diagnostic chips and Education Unit VTT Molecular Diagnostics Small molecules-recognizing antibodies. UTU Department of Joint Biotechnology Tyrosinkinase receptors. Chemistry Laboratory ENVIRONMENTAL UHE Departments of Mass spectrometry Miniaturized methods for ANALYSIS Chemistry and and bio-, and environmental analysis. Pharmaceutical environmental analysis Chemistry group UHE Department of Laboratory of Entrapment and manipulation Physics Electronics Research of aerosol particles or droplets during nucleation. Department of Laboratory of Portable analytical instruments Chemistry Analytical Chemistry TUT Department of Bioluminescence Bio determinations of heavy System Technology group metal ions and toxins. INNOVATION ALL All the laboratories of All important research results PROCESSES AND UNITS the school and will be patented when ever PROFESSIONAL commercially obtained possible. READINESS teaching. UTU Department of Joint Biotechnology UTU JBL is having main Chemistry Laboratory responsibility in teaching patenting of analytical methods and instruments. TKK/ All the new innovation courses Aalto within Aalto University will be Univer utilized efficiently. -sity 6 PRELIMINARY PLANS OF TEACHING FOR YEARS 2010-2013 Only courses lectured in English or the courses with material in English are mentioned in the listing below. The CHEMSEM students are allowed to take part in any courses each laboratory has in its normal teaching program whenever this is beneficial for the student. The research and teaching of the school can be roughly divided to five categories below. (1) MICROFABRICATION TECHNOLOGY AND MATERIALS TKK Micro technology group (HUT MFG). PhD students are supervised by docent Sami Franssila and PhD Kestas Grigoras. Courses: Semiconductor Technology II (5 ECTS), Dr. Victor Ovchinnikov Microsystem Technologies (5 ECTS), Doc. Sami Franssila Microsystems Technology Lab course (5 ECTS), Dr. Kestas Grigoras Microfluidics and BioMEMS (5 ECTS), Doc. Sami Franssila & FT Tarja Nevanen Personal assignment in micro and nanoscience (1-10 ECTS), doc. Sami Franssila TKK Inorganic chemistry laboratory. PhD students are supervised by Prof. Maarit Karppinen, FiDiPro prof. Hisao Yamauchi, Docent Matti Putkonen ja PhD Markus Valkeapää Courses: Systematic Material Design (2 ects) Postgraduate Research Seminar on Inorganic Chemistry (2 - 3 ects) Licentiate Seminar on Inorganic Chemistry (12 ects) Putkonen: Challenges and Novel Applications of Atomic Layer Deposition (2 ects) Yamauchi: Physics and Chemistry of Materials in Future Electronics (2 ects) TUT Department of Automation Science and Engineering / Microfluidics Group (TUT Microfluidics). PhD students are supervised by prof. Pasi Kallio and TkT Johana Kuncová-Kallio. Courses: Introduction to Microsystem Technology (4 ects, Prof. Pasi Kallio) Laboratory Course in Microsystem Technology (4 ects, Prof. Pasi Kallio) Microrobotics and Microactuators (5 ects, Prof. Pasi Kallio) VTT. PhD students are supervised by prof. Hannu Kattelus and senior researchers Päivi Heimala and Ari Hokkanen. The degrees will be granted mainly by HUT. Courses will be announced later. 7 (2) MICROFLUIDICS UHE Laboratory of analytical chemistry (UHE ACHEM). Analytical chemistry group is lead by prof. Marja-Liisa Riekkola. PhD students are supervised also by docents Kari Hartonen and Susanne Wiedmer. Courses: Gas and Liquid Chromatography (5 ects) (M.-L. Riekkola) Capillary Electromigration techniques (3 ects) (M.-L. Riekkola) Mass spectrometry (5 ects) (K. Hartonen ja M. Jussila) Sample preparation techniques (3 ects) (S. Wiedmer) prof. Ernst Kenndler (University of Vienna, Wien, Austria) Band Broadening in Chromatography and Electrophoresis (2 ects). UHE Centre for Drug Research (UHE CDR), Research group of Pharmaceutical Analysis. PhD students are supervised by prof. Risto Kostiainen, prof. Tapio Kotiaho, prof. Jari Yli- Kauhaluoma and docent Raimo Ketola. Courses: Structural Analysis (6 op) Analysis of Metabolites (6 op) Medical Molecule Metabolics (3 op) Mass Spectrometry (3op) TUT Department of Automation Science and Engineering / Microfluidics Group (TUT Microfluidics). PhD students are supervised by prof. Pasi Kallio and TkT Johana Kuncová-Kallio. Courses: Microrobotics and Microactuators (5 ects, Prof. Pasi Kallio) Microfluidics (5 ects, TkT Johana Kuncová-Kallio) Assignment in Microfluidics (1-5 ects, TkT Johana Kuncová-Kallio) VTT Biotechnology/LUT Separation Technique Center (VTT BT/LUT STC). Research is directed by prof. Heli Sirén. The degrees will be granted by LUT and UHE. Courses: Membrane technology (4 ects) 8 (3) SENSORS, DETECTORS AND DETECTION METHODS VTT Photonics and microfluidics (VTT PHO MIC). PhD students are mainly supervised by senior researcher Ari Hokkanen. . TUT Sensor Technology (TUT ST) TTY/Systeemitekniikka/Anturitekniikka. PhD students are supervised by prof. Jukka Lekkala and prof. Jouko Halttunen. Courses MIT-4010 Sensor physics (7 ects) MIT-4030 Microsensors (5 ects) MIT-4050 Design of silicon sensors (7-8 ects) MIT-4070 Biosensors (5 ects) MIT-5216 Optical Methods in Bioanalysis (4 ects) TUT Bioluminescence group (TUT Bioluminescence). PhD students are supervised by Prof. Matti Karp and he is the director of international Master’s degree programme in Science and Bioengineering. All the courses are in English and approximately 155-159 ects will be available through these courses TUT Fluorescence group (TUT Fluorescence) PhD students are supervised by prof. Helge Lemmetyinen. Courses will be announced later. VTT Biotechnology/LUT Separation Technique Center (VTT BT/LUT STC). Research is directed by prof. Heli Sirén. The degrees will be granted by LTU and UHE. TKK Laboratory of Analytical chemistry (HUT ACHEM). PhD students are supervised by prof. Sakari Kulmala and docent Johanna Suomi. Courses Analytical Applications of Luminescence (6 op) Chemical Instrumentation (4 op) UTU Laboratory of Biophysics (UTU BIOP). PhD students are supervised by prof. Pekka Hänninen, FT Juhani Soini, TkT Juha Toivonen and FT Harri Härmä. UTU BIOP gives courses on biphotonic excitation and micro applications of photoluminescence for the school. In addition, a more general course is given: Fluorescence in bioanalytical research (3 ects) VTT Molecular Sensors. PhD students are supervised by docent Kirsi Tappura ja Prof Inger Vikholm-Lundin. The member universities will grant the degrees. 9 UTU Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Chemical Analysis (UTU MCA). PhD students are supervised by prof. Jukka Lukkari, prof. Keijo Haapakka and FT Mikko Salomäki. Courses given by prof. Haapakka Chemical Instrumentation A+B (6+6 cp, in Finnish but exams can be taken in English) Luminescence spectroscopy and analytical applications (4 cp¸in Finnish but exams can be taken in English) Courses given by prof. Lukkari Physical Chemistry of Materials A+B (5+5 cp, in Finnish but exams can be taken in English) ÅAU Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry (ÅAU ACHEM). PhD students are supervised by prof. Ari Ivaska, prof. Andrzej Lewenstam, prof. Johan Bobacka and dosentti Carita Kvarnström. Courses: Chemical sensors (4 ECTS) Electroactive materials (4 ECTS) Modeling in analytical chemistry (4 ECTS) Intensive course: Process Analytical Chemistry (4 ECTS) Biomedicum. PhD students are supervised by Docent Marc Baumann. Courses: -Basic Course in Protein Chemistry and Proteomics (6 op) -Advanced Course in Modern Proteomics (4 op) -Special Seminar in selected topics on the subject (1 op) (aiheina mm. mikrosiruteknologia proteomiikassa) - Basic course in MALDI-MS Imaging of functional nano- and micro-chip devices (aiheina mm. funktionaalisten nano- ja mikro pinnoitteiden käyttö lääketieteellisessä diagnostiikassa). VTT Molecular Diagnostics (VTT MD). PhD students are supervised by FT Tarja Nevanen and FT Lotta Amundsen. Courses: Tarja Nevanen (together with Sami Franssila) Microfluidistics and BioMEMS ( 5 ects) TY JBL. PhD students are supervised mainly by Docent Timo Kopela and FT Juha-Pekka Himanen. Courses will be announced later. 10 (4) ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS TKK ACHEM. Course: Analytical methods of environmental analysis ( 3 op) VTT BT/LUT STC. Course: Sample handling and environmental chemistry (6 ects), (5) INNOVATION PROCESSES AND PROFESSIONAL READINESS UTU JBL PhD students are supervised mainly by Docent Timo Korpela and FT Juha-Pekka Himanen. UTU JBL has several tens of granted patents and patent applications. UTU JBL will be mainly responsible for the courses on patenting and IPR-issues, but all the courses in these fields arranged by Aalto University and IPR University Center will be utilized carefully. Courses on entrepreneurship and managing small companies are designed by prof. Arto Lahti and other members from our steering group. 11 SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAIN RESEARCH FIELDS OF THE MEMBER UNITS (1) MICROFABRICATION TECHNOLOGY AND MATERIALS HUT MNS Microfabrication group focusses on micro- and nanofabrication for fluidic, chemical, thermal and biosystems. Both silicon, glass and polymer materials and fabrication techniques are being studied, especially patterning (self-organized nanopores, imprinting/embossing, casting, etching/DRIE, thick resists), thin film deposition (ALD, PECVD, LPCVD, LPD, sputtering) and wafer bonding (anodic, fusion, adhesive). Nanoporous silicon and silicon nanopillars have been applied to chemical sample treatment and analysis. Various spray and nozzle chips have been made for mass spectrometry interfacing (ESI, APCI), separation systems for small molecules and proteins (CE, ITP, IEF, SDS-PAGE), and affinity biosensors (hot electron tunneling electrochemiluminescence) and micro- and nanobeads in fluidic systems. Active collaboration on applications is done with various chemistry, pharmacy and biology groups. VTT Photonics and Microfluidics (VTT PM). MEMS technologies are applied in fabrication of microfluidical and optical structures on silicon and glass for applications in medical sciences and analytical chemistry. In addition, microfluidic systems are designed and fluorescence and electrical measurements are integrated in microfluidic systems. In addition to silicon technology, one of the special strengths of VTT is deep etching of glass which is also available for the need of the school. TKK Laboratory of Polymer Technology (HUT PT). Research within this school is directed especially at polymers not formerly applied in microsystems but also for developing novel applications of well-established polymers in microsystems and sensors. TKK Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry (HUT ICHEM). Research is focused on both (i) the basic science of transition metal oxides with various interesting properties, and (ii) materialization of new technologically attractive functional oxide materials. An important role in this research is played by the atomic layer deposition (ALD). At HUT ICHEM the technique is exploited not only to produce some of the new materials in thin-film form for the potential applications but also for coating various nanostructured objects (parts of the Microsystems, carbon-nanostructures, organic molecules, polymers, biomaterials, etc.) with functional oxide over-layers. For the latter purpose in particular, the ALD technique is definitely the method of choice as it facilitates by its nature the growth of perfectly conformal films under relatively mild conditions. At HUT ICHEM, there are three ALD research reactors available. The thermal analysis equipment (TG/DTA, TG-MS, TG- vacuum, DSC) is also comprehensive, enabling state-of-the-art characterization of the precursors used in the ALD thin-film depositions. Tools for the basic compositional (XRF) and structural (XRD, FTIR) characterization of the thin films are available at LIC. More thorough atomic- structure (HRTEM, ED, EXAFS/XANES, Mössbauer), morphology (SEM, AFM), composition- profile (SIMS, RBS, TOF-ERDA, TEM-EDX, SEM-EDX, FIB), transport-property, magnetic- property, etc., characterizations are also readily realized through the existing domestic and international collaboration routines based on long-term personal contacts. The HUT ICHEM laboratory has build up a rather versatile collaboration network of internationally acclaimed researchers from both domestic and foreign universities and research institutes and also from the industrial sector. 12 TKK Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (HUT OCHEM). Research efforts within this school are mainly aimed at developing and improving various linking reagents usable in combining biological molecules in analytical microsystems and biosensors. TKK Optics and Molecular materials (HUT OMM). Laboratory fabricates luminescent nanoparticles for the collaboration with the analytical groups of the school and researches their analytical applicability in bioaffinity assays together with HUT ACHEM and UTU BIOF. VTT Molecular Diagnostics (VTT MD). The main research fields of VTT MD are recombinant antibodies and their practical applications. Generation of antibody libraries, the screening of antibodies to obtain suitable antibodies, and modifying the antibodies e.g. for obtaining a better properties for labelling or immobilizing are of vital importance in this research. Antibodies are developed for varied diagnostic and analytical applications (point-of-care, rapid diagnostics, sensors, Microsystems and antibody-based sample pre-treatment) with many member laboratories of the school. The team is focused on antibodies recognizing small molecules (hormones, drugs, metabolites and toxins) but is able to develop antibodies also for proteins and other bio molecules. (3) MICROFLUIDICS UHE Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry (UHE ACHEM). Novel and efficient instrumental sample preparation and analytical tools and techniques, including different on-line coupled systems, are developed, modified and constructed. Theoretical, methodological and technical challenges, and creative approaches play an important role in the research activities. The research related to CHEMSEM-graduate school is mainly focused on capillary and microchip techniques, and new microanalytical in vitro- and in situ- techniques applicable to nanoscale interaction studies are developed. The feasibility to coat capillary and microchip channel inner walls with different human biomaterials are frequently exploited. Advanced chemical, molecular and computational concepts, and surface analytical techniques complete the studies for the achievement of new information e.g. about nanoscale structural units. UHE Microchips for analytical chemistry group. The goals of the group are in development of miniturized analytical devices and methods for drug analysis and metabolomics. The focus is on sample pretreatment, chromatographic and electrophoretic separations, and their integration with mass spectrometry. The group is specially strong in integrating separation systems with chip-based ionization methods, for creation of lab-on-chip systems. Several surface coating technologies are being investigated and applied in drug development. UHE Centre for Drug Research (CDR), Research group of Pharmaceutical Analysis (UHE CDR). The research of Pharmaceutical Analysis research group in CDR focuses on the development of multidimensional analytical microdevices, especially for the study of drug metabolism and metabolomics. The most important research fields are micropillar array electrospray chip, separations in microchannels using particles or monolithic columns, two- dimensional microseparations, and the integration of all these onto the same microchip. For detection we use either fluorescence detector or mass spectrometry. The main application field is the analysis of complicated biological samples in metabolism studies. The group leader is adjunct professor Raimo Ketola. 13 TUT Department of Automation Science and Engineering / Microfluidics Group (TUT Microfluidics). The main research areas of the group are microchannel liquid flows and modelling of their fundamental phenomena, development of control and characterization systems for microchannel liquid flows, and design and fabrication of disposable microfluidic channels on polymers. The primary application areas are (i) outside-of-laboratory analysis of patient, process, food and environment samples, and (ii) cultivation, differentiation and characterization of living cells in microfluidic environments. The group possesses several patents and patent applications and as a result of the research projects, one spin-off company has been established. The group has also been rewarded innovation prizes in IIDA and Venture cup competitions. The group is headed by Prof. Pasi Kallio. TKK Optics and Molecular Materials (HUT OMM). Laboratory is carrying out research on light-controllable microfluidic systems in collaboration with HUT MTG and with HUT ICHEM. In such microfluidic systems we expect to control the direction of liquid flow simply by light, which could enable novel applications for microfluidics. UHE Laboratory of Electronics Research (UHE ER). We develop lithotomic tools, optical tweezers incorporating single molecule fluorescence and lab-on-chip sample handlers, and apply these tools to problems in molecular science. Optical tweezers (OT) use light to exert 0-100 pN on nano- to micro-sized particles. OT offers promise for future analytical chemistry, biotechnology and nano science: to sequence a single copy of an organism’s entire genome or to detect a chemical substance with single molecule sensitivity. Manipulating and studying molecules one at a time avoids ensemble averaging, captures transient intermediate states, and allows observation of rarely occurring events. Single molecule fluorescence (SMF) uses fluorophores attached to biomolecules to detect nanometer scale movement. Combining OT (Micromanipulation and Mechanics) and SMF (Imaging) in one instrument permits manipulating and observing both mechanics and chemistry of single macromolecules in real-time. Microfluidics can be combined with OT and SMF to create lab- on-chip devices incorporating optical micromanipulation and imaging. Adding multipoint fiber- based photoacoustics into the microfluidic channel extends the force ranges available for experimentation and allows generating localized thermodynamic conditions for temporally and spatially controlled chemistry. Combining our existing knowledge on stroboscopic white-light interferometry with the OT allows potentially building minute structures that are concurrently analyzed for structural integrity. VTT Biotechnology/LUT Separation Technique Center (VTT BT/LUT STC). The Capillary electrophoresis (CE) group of VTT has been specialized in instrument design, construction and development of separation methods and transfer of these methods to large scale out of the laboratories and also to miniaturized systems. VTT has developed a miniaturized CE instrument the production of which starts in the end of year 2008. The group is also specialized in on-line sampling and environmental analysis and transfer of methods to microchip platforms. 14 (3) SENSORS, DETECTORS AND DETECTION METHODS (i) Optical sensors and microsystems and sensors based on the measurement of mass changes VTT Photonics and Microfluidics (VTT PM). MEMS technologies are applied in fabrication of microfluidic and optical structures on silicon and glass for applications in medical sciences and analytical chemistry. In addition, microfluidic systems are designed and fluorescence and electrical measurements are integrated in analytical systems. TKK Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry (HUT ACHEM). Principal research subject is electrochemiluminescence and its applications in bioaffinity assays. Most of the applications are based ob the use of thin insulating-film coated electrodes, such as silica-covered silicon electrodes, as micro and macro electrodes in disposable ECL cells or cartridges usable in point-of-care analysis or other non-centralized analysis. The group has several granted patents and patent applications in its field. UTU Analytical chemistry group (UTU ACHEM). Development and applications of luminescent sensors based on carbon nanotubes and nanofullerenes with the main emphasis on the development of novel analytical techniques. Leader of the research group is Keijo Haapakka, professor of analytical chemistry. The research group has several patents. UTU Laboratory of Biophysics (UTU BIOP). Principal research subjects are related with methods and techniques of measuring molecular interactions on the basis of fluorescence. Non- linear transitions, optical near field interactions and novel label molecules and nanoparticles are used as tools. Prof Pekka Hänninen is the head of the laboratory. Laboratory has several patents and patent applications in its research field. TKK Optics and Molecular Materials (HUT OMM). Laboratory develops different types of nanoparticle and metal cluster labels for the use in immunoassays and DNA probing assays in collaboration with HUT Analytical Chemistry laboratory and UTU Biophysics laboratory. UTU Joint Biotechnology Laboratory (UTU JBL). (www.sci.utu.fi/kemia/tutkimus/ orgkemia/jbl/contacts.html). UTU JBL is a unit with a principal task of creation of international collaboration between researchers of biotechnology. Docent Timo Korpela is the director of JBL and Docent Juha-Pekka Himanen is responsible for the scientific research. Docent Himanen has also a research laboratory in Sloan-Kettering University (New York). UTU JBL has several tens of patents and patent applications and has started 5 companies, Hytest Oy (www.Hytest.fi) and Biomarket Oy (www.Biomarket.fi) being the most successful. Within this school UTU JBL develops sensors based porphyrin fluorescence and carries out research on cell receptors. TUT Bioluminescence group (TUT BIOL). Bioluminescence and its applications are studied. Bioluminescence i.e. biological production of light is achieved by expressing the genes responsible for the production of light in new organisms. 15 TUT Fluorescence group (TUT FLUOR). Mainly fluorescent proteins and their application are studied within this school. Mutating the genes, which code the proteins, has produced new fluorescent proteins. These genes have been transferred e.g. from light-producing bacteria and fireflies. The expression of these genes in new organisms in a controlled way enables recognition of molecules by measurement of light in real time. TUT BIOL and TUT FLUOR groups are studying novel applications of fluorescent proteins in collaboration using time-resolved pico- and femtosecond fluorometers and fluorescence microscope having a molecular resolution. Practical applications are analysis environmental samples that contain toxic metal ions and other toxic substances. VTT The Molecular Sensors team (VTT MS). VTT MS is led by Docent Kirsi Tappura and develops molecular sensors, sensing surfaces and devices based on different detection methods. The sensing surfaces are based on molecule specific layers composed of self-assembled receptor molecules or synthetic receptors. The surfaces are designed to have a low non-specific binding of interfering molecules. Molecular and device simulations are used to predict the binding but also to design the sensing phenomena. Team has several patents and patent applications in their research area. TUT Sensor Technology group. Micro- and biosensors, implanted sensors and systems, wireless sensors, modelling, research and development of measuring methods and systems are the main subjects of the work carried out. Applications are developed mainly in the fields of diagnostics, medical devices, industrial measuring instruments and systems. For example, a method and an instrument for treating magnetic nanoparticles has been designed and constructed which has been adopted into a rapid-diagnostics product (ii) Electrochemical Sensors UTU Sensor materials group (UTU SM). The fabrication, basic physicochemical properties and analytical possibilities of polyelectrolyte multilayers, self-assembled monolayers and thin conducting polymer films. The emphasis is on the basic research of the materials and structures involved, which is motivated by the possibility to develop novel sensor materials, analytical techniques and systems. Leader of the group is Jukka Lukkari, professor of physical chemistry. ÅAU Laboratory of analytical Chemistry (ÅAU ACHEM). The Laboratory is specialized in the research and development of electrochemical sensors based on conducting polymers. Conjugated polymers offer unique possibilities to make robust electrochemical sensors that can be miniaturized. Another line of research is the development of flow injection analysis (FIA) and sequential injection analysis (SIA) towards microanalysis and on-line applications. In this context, our graduate school offers excellent possibilities. The research group is led by Professor Ari Ivaska. The group has several patents in this research area. ÅAU ProSens. The Center for Process Analytical Chemistry and Sensor Technology (ProSens) in specialized in the research and development of ion-selective electrodes and their industrial applications. The major research activities include mathematical modelling of the membrane potential of ion-selective electrodes. The research is done in collaboration with research groups and industry on an international scale. The research group is led by Professor Andrzej Lewenstam. The group has several patents in this research area. 16 (iii) Proteomics, metabolomics and diagnostics chips UHE Biomedicum Protein chemistry and peptide group (UHE BIOM). This group at Biomedicum has two major research topics: 1) neuroscience and protein folding diseases, and drugs for them. 2) Development of microchips for proteomic research and medical diagnostics. We actively collaborate with other CHEMSEM groups in this latter activity. Our aim is to speed up proteomic analysis by miniturization, and to expand the possibilities of biomedical diagnostics. VTT Molecular Diagnostics (VTT MD). The main research fields of VTT MD are recombinant antibodies and their practical applications. Generation of antibody libraries, the screening of antibodies to obtain suitable antibodies, and modifying the antibodies e.g. for obtaining a better properties for labelling or immobilizing are of vital importance in this research. Team is developing also nuclein acid probes and analysis in Microsystems together with Berkeley University of California (prof. R. Mathies). The method patented by VTT and Berkeley can be used e.g. for identification of microbes and for cancer diagnostics. The team provides collaboration with other analytical member laboratories developing varied types of microanalycal systems in the field of bioanalysis. UTU JBL Eph receptors compose the largest group of thyrosine kinase receptors. Their special property is that they only have a single sequence, which passes through the cell membrane. Therefore they are used as models of molecular recognition and transfer of information in proteomics and studied in JBL. (4) ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS UHE Mass spectrometry, bio- and environmental analysis. The research is directed in development of novel techniques and methods for environmental analysis and bioanalysis. This is mainly carried out by miniaturising systems of traditional mass spectrometry and ion mobility mass spectrometry using micro and nanotechnologies ( miniaturized ionization, simple preparation and separation techniques). Prof Tapio Kotiaho is the leader of the group and is working as a professor both in the Faculty of mathematics and natural sciences and Faculty of Pharmacy. The group has several patents and patent applications. UHE Laboratory of Electronics Research. Solid or liquid aerosol particles are studied by optically capturing them, and manipulating them in order to convolute the steps of nucleation processes. (5) INNOVATION PROCESSES AND PROFESSIONAL READINESS All the significant novel research results within in the school will be patented whenever this is financially possible. The aim is that each student would be participating as an inventor at least in one patent application during the CHEMSEM studies. However, the school cannot provide financial support for the patent applications but the inventors are guided to the possible sources of funding in each specific case. As a practical exercise, each student will carry out novelty investigation of her/his own research results.