PRELIMINARY PLANS FOR CHEMSEM RESEARCH AND TEACHING FOR THE by rockandrolldreams

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PRELIMINARY PLANS FOR CHEMSEM
RESEARCH AND TEACHING FOR THE
YEARS 2010-2013
This document describes the present state and the planned new organization of CHEMSEM
graduate school. In addtion, the preliminary plan of the courses available from each laboratories is
presented, as well as, in the end of the document, the short descriptions of the research of each unit.

GROWTH OF CHEMSEM

Our Graduate school started originally as a small network of 8 units from Helsinki University of
Technology (HUT/TKK), Helsinki University, Åbo Akademi University (ÅAU), University of
Turku (UTU) and VTT.

Presently, CHEMSEM has already been considerably expanded to be composed of 14 units from
the afore mentioned universities, Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Lappeenranta
University of Technology (LUT) and VTT:




Starting from the year 2010 our school has been planned to be further expanded. Then we will have
all in all 26 member units from the present universities and VTT.

The basic aims of CHEMSEM remain the same as currently: miniaturisation of chemical analysis.
Our graduate school combines microfabrication, optical technology and electronics with modern
analytical chemistry and is deeply dedicated to offering high quality education for the needs of the
current and future analysts.
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The new steering group has been planned to have the following composition:

  Member                             Substitute member              Organisation
  Director prof. Sakari Kulmala                                     TKK Laboratory of Analytical
                                                                    Chemistry
  Vice director Docent. Sami                                        TKK Department of Micro and
  Franssila                                                         Nanotechnology
  Research professor Hannu                                          VTT, MEMS and Heterogeneous
  Kattelus,                                                         Integration
                                     - Prof. Inger Vikholm-Lundin   VTT Molecular sensors
                                     - Päivi Heimala, senior        VTT Photonics and Microfluidics
                                     researcher
  Prof. Ari Ivaska                   - Prof.. Johan Bobacka         ÅAU Laboratory of Analytical
                                                                    Chemistry
                                     - Prof. Andrzej Lewenstam,     ÅA ProSens
  Prof. Keijo Haapakka               - Prof. Jukka Lukkari          UTU Laboratory of Materials
                                                                    Chemistry and Chemical Analysis
  Prof. Pekka Hänninen               - Docent Juhani Soini          UTU Laboratory of Biophysics

                                     - Docent Timo Korpela,         TY Joint Biotechnology Laboratory
                                     director
  Prof. Marja-Liisa Riekkola.                                       UHE Laboratory of Analytical
                                                                    Chemistry
                                     - Docent Marc Baumann,         UHE Biomedicum, Protein
                                     director                       chemistry
                                     - Prof. Edward Hæggström       UHE Laboratory of Electronics
                                                                    Research
  Docent Raimo Ketola                                               UHE Center for Drug Research
                                     - Prof. Tapio Kotiaho          UHE Laboratory of Analytical
                                                                    Chemistry/
                                                                    UHE Department of Pharmacy
                                     - Prof. Risto Kostiainen       UHE Department of Pharmacy
  Prof. Pasi Kallio                  - Prof. Jukka Lekkala          TUT Department of System
                                                                    Technology
                                     - Prof. Matti Karp             TUT Department of Chemistry and
                                                                    Biotechnology
                                     - Prof. Helge Lemmetyinen      TUT Department of Chemistry and
                                                                    Biotechnology
  PhD Robin Ras                                                     TKK Opticas and Molecular
                                                                    Materials
                                     - Prof. Jukka Seppälä          TKK Laboratory of Polymer
                                                                    Technology
                                     - Prof. Maarit Karppinen       TKK Laboratory of Inorganic
                                                                    Chemistry
                                     - Prof. Ari Koskinen           TKK Laboratory of Organic
                                                                    Chemistry
  FT Tarja Nevanen                                                  VTT Molecular Diagnostics
                                     - Prof. Heli Siren             VTT Biotechnology
                                                                    LUT Separation Technique Center
  Docent Veijo Ilmavirta, director                                  TKK Innovation Center
  Prof. Arto Lahti                                                  HSE Entrepreneurship and
                                                                    Managing of Small Companies
  N.N.                                                              Industry
  Student representative
                                                                                  3

  SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT GOALS AND MEANS OF THE PRESENT AND
  THE EXPANDED CHEMSEM GRADUATE SCHOOL:




                                          Novel nstrumentation for
                                          chemical analysis
     Miniaturization of
     chemical analysis


                            Microfabrication
                            Thin films and coatings            Microsensing for
                            Materials and particles            chemistry
Parallelization of
chemical analysis



                                 Particle-based methods in
                                 analysis




         Microanalytical systems


            Microfluidics

                                                         Electro
                                                         chemistry




           Materials &
           surfaces
                                                 Optical detection




         Chemical sensors
                                                                                                                   4



RESEARCH AND TEACHING ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE SCHOOL

The research and development of micro technology are still strongly centered in the Otaniemi area
and the material services for this research will be made locally considerably stronger by joining the
school new laboratories from Helsinki University of Technology. However, the strongest impacts in
the actual analytical research will be provided by the former and the new analytical groups from
several Finnish universities and VTT.


 Research and teaching Uni-        Department             Laboratory            or Main research subject
 area                  ver-                               group
                       sity

 MICROFABRICARTION          TKK    Department    of       Micro      technology    Micro- and       nanofabrication
 TECHNOLOGY    AND                 Micro- and Nano-       group                    technology
 MATERIALS                         Technology
                            VTT                           VTT Photonics and        Application      of MEMS-
                                                          Microfluidics            technologies in microfluidics
                                                                                   and optical systems
                            TKK    Department of Bio      Laboratory        of     Polymers for sensors and
                                   and        Chemical    Polymer Technology       microsystems
                                   Technology
                            TKK    Department        of   Laboratory          of   Applications of ALD thin films
                                   Chemistry              Inorganic Chemistry      in sensors and mircrosystems
                            TKK    Department        of   Laboratory of Organic    Organic linking reagents for
                                   Chemistry              Chemistry                sensors and microsystems
                            TKK    Department        of   Optics and Molecular     Luminescent nanoparticles and
                                   Technical Physics      Materials                clusters usable in analytical
                                                                                   systems

 MICROFLUIDICS              UHE    Department      of     Laboratory          of   Microanalytical in vitro- and in
                                   Chemistry              Analytical Chemistry     situ-techniques
                            UHE    Departments     of     Mass      spectrometry   Miniaturized methods in mass
                                   Chemistry      and     and      bio-,    and    spectrometry
                                   Pharmaceutical         environmental analysis
                                   Chemistry              group
                            UHE    Department      of     Analytical Microchip     Sample treatment methods
                                   Pharmaceutical         group                    based on micro chips
                                   Chem.
                            UHE    Center of Drur         Pharmaceutical           Multidimensional        analytical
                                   Research (CDR)         Analysis group           systems
                            UHE    Department      of     Laboratory          of   Optical tweezers and single
                                   Physics                Electronics Research     molecule      fluorescence      in
                                                                                   combination with lab-on-chip
                                                                                   sample treatment.
                            TUT    Department        of   Microfluidics group      Basic phenomena in micro
                                   System Technology                               channels and their modelling.
                            TKK    Department        of   Optics and Molecular     Microfluidic systems controlled
                                   Technical Physics      Materials                by light
                            VTT/   Biotechnology/         Biotechnology            On-line capillary electrophoresis
                            LUT    STC                                             systems

 SENSORS, DETECTORS
 AND        DETECTION
 METHODS
 ((i) Optical sensors and   VTT                           VTT Photonics and        Optical      structures     and
 microsystems and sensors                                 Microfluidics            photoluminescence in       micro
 based on the measurement                                                          capillaries.
                                                                                                                         5

of mass changes
                             VTT                             Molecular Sensors         Measuring systems based on
                                                                                       molecular recognition
                             VTT                             Molecular Diagnostics     Recombinant antibodies and
                                                                                       their applications
                             TKK      Department        of   Laboratory          of    Electrochemiluminescence and
                                      Chemistry              Analytical Chemistry      its application in bioanalysis
                             TKK      Department        of   Optics and Molecular      Luminescent nanoparticles and
                                      Technical Physics      Materials                 metal clusters
                             UTU      Department        of   Analytical Chemistry      Luminescent sensors based on
                                      Chemistry              group                     carbon nanotubes and fullerens.
                             UTU      Department        of   Laboratory          of    Nonlinear optical transitions
                                      Biomedicine            Biophysics                and novel label molecules and
                                                                                       label particles.
                             UTU      Department       of    Joint Biotechnology       Luminescent porphyrin sensors
                                      Chemistry              Laboratory                and cell receptor studies.
                             TUT      Dept. of Chemistry     Bioluminescence           Bioluminescent micro systems.
                                      and Biochemistry       group
                             TUT      Dept. of Chemistry     Fluorescence group        Sensors and methods based on
                                      and Biochemistry                                 luminescent proteins.
                             TUT      Department       of    Microfluidics group       Micro- and biosensors and
                                      System Technology                                implanted sensors and systems.
(ii)      Electrochemical    UTU      Department       of    Sensor       Materials    Sensors           based          on
sensors                               Chemistry              group                     polyelectrolyte      and       self-
                                                                                       assembled monolayers.
                             ÅAU      Faculty. of Techno-    Laboratory          of    Conductive        polymers        in
                                      logy/ Dept. of C-T     Analytical Chemistry      electrochemical sensors
                             ÅAU      Faculty. of Techno-    ProSens                   Ion selective electrodes and
                                      logy/ Dept. of C-T                               their industrial applications.
(iii)          Proteomics,   UHE      Biomedicum             Protein    chemistry/     Microchips for proteomics
metabolomics          and                                    Proteomics Research
diagnostic chips                                             and Education Unit
                             VTT                             Molecular Diagnostics     Small     molecules-recognizing
                                                                                       antibodies.
                             UTU      Department      of     Joint Biotechnology       Tyrosinkinase receptors.
                                      Chemistry              Laboratory
ENVIRONMENTAL                UHE      Departments     of     Mass     spectrometry     Miniaturized   methods          for
ANALYSIS                              Chemistry      and     and      bio-,    and     environmental analysis.
                                      Pharmaceutical         environmental analysis
                                      Chemistry              group
                             UHE      Department      of     Laboratory          of    Entrapment and manipulation
                                      Physics                Electronics Research      of aerosol particles or droplets
                                                                                       during nucleation.
                                      Department      of     Laboratory           of   Portable analytical instruments
                                      Chemistry              Analytical Chemistry
                             TUT      Department      of     Bioluminescence           Bio determinations of heavy
                                      System Technology      group                     metal ions and toxins.
INNOVATION                   ALL                             All the laboratories of   All important research results
PROCESSES           AND      UNITS                           the     school     and    will be patented when ever
PROFESSIONAL                                                 commercially obtained     possible.
READINESS                                                    teaching.

                             UTU      Department       of    Joint Biotechnology       UTU JBL is having main
                                      Chemistry              Laboratory                responsibility      in  teaching
                                                                                       patenting of analytical methods
                                                                                       and instruments.
                             TKK/                                                      All the new innovation courses
                             Aalto                                                     within Aalto University will be
                             Univer                                                    utilized efficiently.
                             -sity
                                                                                                    6


PRELIMINARY PLANS OF TEACHING FOR YEARS 2010-2013
Only courses lectured in English or the courses with material in English are mentioned in the listing
below. The CHEMSEM students are allowed to take part in any courses each laboratory has in its
normal teaching program whenever this is beneficial for the student.

The research and teaching of the school can be roughly divided to five categories below.


(1)     MICROFABRICATION TECHNOLOGY AND MATERIALS

TKK Micro technology group (HUT MFG). PhD students are supervised by docent Sami
Franssila and PhD Kestas Grigoras.

Courses:

Semiconductor Technology II (5 ECTS), Dr. Victor Ovchinnikov
Microsystem Technologies (5 ECTS), Doc. Sami Franssila
Microsystems Technology Lab course (5 ECTS), Dr. Kestas Grigoras
Microfluidics and BioMEMS (5 ECTS), Doc. Sami Franssila & FT Tarja Nevanen
Personal assignment in micro and nanoscience (1-10 ECTS), doc. Sami Franssila

TKK Inorganic chemistry laboratory. PhD students are supervised by Prof. Maarit Karppinen,
FiDiPro prof. Hisao Yamauchi, Docent Matti Putkonen ja PhD Markus Valkeapää

Courses:

Systematic Material Design (2 ects)
Postgraduate Research Seminar on Inorganic Chemistry (2 - 3 ects)
Licentiate Seminar on Inorganic Chemistry (12 ects)
Putkonen: Challenges and Novel Applications of Atomic Layer Deposition (2 ects)
Yamauchi: Physics and Chemistry of Materials in Future Electronics (2 ects)

TUT Department of Automation Science and Engineering / Microfluidics Group (TUT
Microfluidics). PhD students are supervised by prof. Pasi Kallio and TkT Johana Kuncová-Kallio.

Courses:

Introduction to Microsystem Technology (4 ects, Prof. Pasi Kallio)
Laboratory Course in Microsystem Technology (4 ects, Prof. Pasi Kallio)
Microrobotics and Microactuators (5 ects, Prof. Pasi Kallio)


VTT. PhD students are supervised by prof. Hannu Kattelus and senior researchers Päivi Heimala
and Ari Hokkanen. The degrees will be granted mainly by HUT.

Courses will be announced later.
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(2)    MICROFLUIDICS

UHE Laboratory of analytical chemistry (UHE ACHEM). Analytical chemistry group is lead
by prof. Marja-Liisa Riekkola. PhD students are supervised also by docents Kari Hartonen and
Susanne Wiedmer.

Courses:

Gas and Liquid Chromatography (5 ects) (M.-L. Riekkola)
Capillary Electromigration techniques (3 ects) (M.-L. Riekkola)
Mass spectrometry (5 ects) (K. Hartonen ja M. Jussila)
Sample preparation techniques (3 ects) (S. Wiedmer)
prof. Ernst Kenndler (University of Vienna, Wien, Austria) Band Broadening in Chromatography
and Electrophoresis (2 ects).


UHE Centre for Drug Research (UHE CDR), Research group of Pharmaceutical Analysis.
PhD students are supervised by prof. Risto Kostiainen, prof. Tapio Kotiaho, prof. Jari Yli-
Kauhaluoma and docent Raimo Ketola.

Courses:

Structural Analysis (6 op)
Analysis of Metabolites (6 op)
Medical Molecule Metabolics (3 op)
Mass Spectrometry (3op)


TUT Department of Automation Science and Engineering / Microfluidics Group (TUT
Microfluidics). PhD students are supervised by prof. Pasi Kallio and TkT Johana Kuncová-Kallio.

Courses:

Microrobotics and Microactuators (5 ects, Prof. Pasi Kallio)
Microfluidics (5 ects, TkT Johana Kuncová-Kallio)
Assignment in Microfluidics (1-5 ects, TkT Johana Kuncová-Kallio)

VTT Biotechnology/LUT Separation Technique Center (VTT BT/LUT STC). Research is directed
by prof. Heli Sirén. The degrees will be granted by LUT and UHE.

Courses:

Membrane technology (4 ects)
                                                                                              8


(3)       SENSORS, DETECTORS AND DETECTION METHODS

VTT Photonics and microfluidics (VTT PHO MIC). PhD students are mainly supervised by
senior researcher Ari Hokkanen.
.
TUT Sensor Technology (TUT ST) TTY/Systeemitekniikka/Anturitekniikka. PhD students are
supervised by prof. Jukka Lekkala and prof. Jouko Halttunen.

Courses

MIT-4010 Sensor physics (7 ects)
MIT-4030 Microsensors (5 ects)
MIT-4050 Design of silicon sensors (7-8 ects)
MIT-4070 Biosensors (5 ects)
MIT-5216 Optical Methods in Bioanalysis (4 ects)

TUT Bioluminescence group (TUT Bioluminescence). PhD students are supervised by Prof.
Matti Karp and he is the director of international Master’s degree programme in Science and
Bioengineering. All the courses are in English and approximately 155-159 ects will be available
through these courses

TUT Fluorescence group (TUT Fluorescence) PhD students are supervised by prof. Helge
Lemmetyinen.

Courses will be announced later.

VTT Biotechnology/LUT Separation Technique Center (VTT BT/LUT STC). Research is
directed by prof. Heli Sirén. The degrees will be granted by LTU and UHE.

TKK Laboratory of Analytical chemistry (HUT ACHEM). PhD students are supervised by prof.
Sakari Kulmala and docent Johanna Suomi.

Courses

Analytical Applications of Luminescence (6 op)
Chemical Instrumentation (4 op)


UTU Laboratory of Biophysics (UTU BIOP). PhD students are supervised by prof. Pekka
Hänninen, FT Juhani Soini, TkT Juha Toivonen and FT Harri Härmä. UTU BIOP gives courses on
biphotonic excitation and micro applications of photoluminescence for the school. In addition, a
more general course is given:

Fluorescence in bioanalytical research (3 ects)


VTT Molecular Sensors. PhD students are supervised by docent Kirsi Tappura ja Prof Inger
Vikholm-Lundin. The member universities will grant the degrees.
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UTU Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Chemical Analysis (UTU MCA). PhD students
are supervised by prof. Jukka Lukkari, prof. Keijo Haapakka and FT Mikko Salomäki.

Courses given by prof. Haapakka

Chemical Instrumentation A+B (6+6 cp, in Finnish but exams can be taken in English)
Luminescence spectroscopy and analytical applications (4 cp¸in Finnish but exams can be taken in
English)

Courses given by prof. Lukkari

Physical Chemistry of Materials A+B (5+5 cp, in Finnish but exams can be taken in English)


ÅAU Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry (ÅAU ACHEM). PhD students are supervised by
prof. Ari Ivaska, prof. Andrzej Lewenstam, prof. Johan Bobacka and dosentti Carita Kvarnström.

Courses:

Chemical sensors (4 ECTS)
Electroactive materials (4 ECTS)
Modeling in analytical chemistry (4 ECTS)
Intensive course: Process Analytical Chemistry (4 ECTS)


Biomedicum. PhD students are supervised by Docent Marc Baumann.

Courses:

-Basic Course in Protein Chemistry and Proteomics (6 op)
-Advanced Course in Modern Proteomics (4 op)
-Special Seminar in selected topics on the subject (1 op) (aiheina mm. mikrosiruteknologia
proteomiikassa)
- Basic course in MALDI-MS Imaging of functional nano- and micro-chip devices (aiheina mm.
funktionaalisten nano- ja mikro pinnoitteiden käyttö lääketieteellisessä diagnostiikassa).



VTT Molecular Diagnostics (VTT MD). PhD students are supervised by FT Tarja Nevanen and
FT Lotta Amundsen.

Courses:

Tarja Nevanen (together with Sami Franssila) Microfluidistics and BioMEMS ( 5 ects)


TY JBL. PhD students are supervised mainly by Docent Timo Kopela and FT Juha-Pekka
Himanen.

Courses will be announced later.
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(4)       ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS


TKK ACHEM.

Course:

Analytical methods of environmental analysis ( 3 op)

VTT BT/LUT STC.

Course:

Sample handling and environmental chemistry (6 ects),




(5)    INNOVATION PROCESSES AND PROFESSIONAL READINESS

UTU JBL PhD students are supervised mainly by Docent Timo Korpela and FT Juha-Pekka
Himanen. UTU JBL has several tens of granted patents and patent applications. UTU JBL will be
mainly responsible for the courses on patenting and IPR-issues, but all the courses in these fields
arranged by Aalto University and IPR University Center will be utilized carefully.

Courses on entrepreneurship and managing small companies are designed by prof. Arto Lahti and
other members from our steering group.
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SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAIN RESEARCH FIELDS OF THE
MEMBER UNITS

(1)     MICROFABRICATION TECHNOLOGY AND MATERIALS


HUT MNS Microfabrication group focusses on micro- and nanofabrication for fluidic, chemical,
thermal and biosystems. Both silicon, glass and polymer materials and fabrication techniques are
being studied, especially patterning (self-organized nanopores, imprinting/embossing, casting,
etching/DRIE, thick resists), thin film deposition (ALD, PECVD, LPCVD, LPD, sputtering) and
wafer bonding (anodic, fusion, adhesive). Nanoporous silicon and silicon nanopillars have been
applied to chemical sample treatment and analysis. Various spray and nozzle chips have been made
for mass spectrometry interfacing (ESI, APCI), separation systems for small molecules and proteins
(CE, ITP, IEF, SDS-PAGE), and affinity biosensors (hot electron tunneling
electrochemiluminescence) and micro- and nanobeads in fluidic systems. Active collaboration on
applications is done with various chemistry, pharmacy and biology groups.

VTT Photonics and Microfluidics (VTT PM). MEMS technologies are applied in fabrication of
microfluidical and optical structures on silicon and glass for applications in medical sciences and
analytical chemistry. In addition, microfluidic systems are designed and fluorescence and electrical
measurements are integrated in microfluidic systems. In addition to silicon technology, one of the
special strengths of VTT is deep etching of glass which is also available for the need of the school.

TKK Laboratory of Polymer Technology (HUT PT). Research within this school is directed
especially at polymers not formerly applied in microsystems but also for developing novel
applications of well-established polymers in microsystems and sensors.

TKK Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry (HUT ICHEM). Research is focused on both (i) the
basic science of transition metal oxides with various interesting properties, and (ii) materialization
of new technologically attractive functional oxide materials. An important role in this research is
played by the atomic layer deposition (ALD). At HUT ICHEM the technique is exploited not only
to produce some of the new materials in thin-film form for the potential applications but also for
coating various nanostructured objects (parts of the Microsystems, carbon-nanostructures, organic
molecules, polymers, biomaterials, etc.) with functional oxide over-layers. For the latter purpose in
particular, the ALD technique is definitely the method of choice as it facilitates by its nature the
growth of perfectly conformal films under relatively mild conditions. At HUT ICHEM, there are
three ALD research reactors available. The thermal analysis equipment (TG/DTA, TG-MS, TG-
vacuum, DSC) is also comprehensive, enabling state-of-the-art characterization of the precursors
used in the ALD thin-film depositions. Tools for the basic compositional (XRF) and structural
(XRD, FTIR) characterization of the thin films are available at LIC. More thorough atomic-
structure (HRTEM, ED, EXAFS/XANES, Mössbauer), morphology (SEM, AFM), composition-
profile (SIMS, RBS, TOF-ERDA, TEM-EDX, SEM-EDX, FIB), transport-property, magnetic-
property, etc., characterizations are also readily realized through the existing domestic and
international collaboration routines based on long-term personal contacts. The HUT ICHEM
laboratory has build up a rather versatile collaboration network of internationally acclaimed
researchers from both domestic and foreign universities and research institutes and also from the
industrial sector.
                                                                                                 12

TKK Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (HUT OCHEM). Research efforts within this school are
mainly aimed at developing and improving various linking reagents usable in combining biological
molecules in analytical microsystems and biosensors.

TKK Optics and Molecular materials (HUT OMM). Laboratory fabricates luminescent
nanoparticles for the collaboration with the analytical groups of the school and researches their
analytical applicability in bioaffinity assays together with HUT ACHEM and UTU BIOF.

VTT Molecular Diagnostics (VTT MD). The main research fields of VTT MD are recombinant
antibodies and their practical applications. Generation of antibody libraries, the screening of
antibodies to obtain suitable antibodies, and modifying the antibodies e.g. for obtaining a better
properties for labelling or immobilizing are of vital importance in this research. Antibodies are
developed for varied diagnostic and analytical applications (point-of-care, rapid diagnostics,
sensors, Microsystems and antibody-based sample pre-treatment) with many member laboratories
of the school. The team is focused on antibodies recognizing small molecules (hormones, drugs,
metabolites and toxins) but is able to develop antibodies also for proteins and other bio molecules.



(3)    MICROFLUIDICS

UHE Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry (UHE ACHEM). Novel and efficient instrumental
sample preparation and analytical tools and techniques, including different on-line coupled systems,
are developed, modified and constructed. Theoretical, methodological and technical challenges, and
creative approaches play an important role in the research activities. The research related to
CHEMSEM-graduate school is mainly focused on capillary and microchip techniques, and new
microanalytical in vitro- and in situ- techniques applicable to nanoscale interaction studies are
developed. The feasibility to coat capillary and microchip channel inner walls with different human
biomaterials are frequently exploited. Advanced chemical, molecular and computational concepts,
and surface analytical techniques complete the studies for the achievement of new information e.g.
about nanoscale structural units.


UHE Microchips for analytical chemistry group. The goals of the group are in development of
miniturized analytical devices and methods for drug analysis and metabolomics. The focus is on
sample pretreatment, chromatographic and electrophoretic separations, and their integration with
mass spectrometry. The group is specially strong in integrating separation systems with chip-based
ionization methods, for creation of lab-on-chip systems. Several surface coating technologies are
being investigated and applied in drug development.


UHE Centre for Drug Research (CDR), Research group of Pharmaceutical Analysis (UHE
CDR). The research of Pharmaceutical Analysis research group in CDR focuses on the
development of multidimensional analytical microdevices, especially for the study of drug
metabolism and metabolomics. The most important research fields are micropillar array
electrospray chip, separations in microchannels using particles or monolithic columns, two-
dimensional microseparations, and the integration of all these onto the same microchip. For
detection we use either fluorescence detector or mass spectrometry. The main application field is
the analysis of complicated biological samples in metabolism studies. The group leader is adjunct
professor Raimo Ketola.
                                                                                                  13



TUT Department of Automation Science and Engineering / Microfluidics Group (TUT
Microfluidics). The main research areas of the group are microchannel liquid flows and modelling
of their fundamental phenomena, development of control and characterization systems for
microchannel liquid flows, and design and fabrication of disposable microfluidic channels on
polymers. The primary application areas are (i) outside-of-laboratory analysis of patient, process,
food and environment samples, and (ii) cultivation, differentiation and characterization of living
cells in microfluidic environments. The group possesses several patents and patent applications and
as a result of the research projects, one spin-off company has been established. The group has also
been rewarded innovation prizes in IIDA and Venture cup competitions. The group is headed by
Prof. Pasi Kallio.

TKK Optics and Molecular Materials (HUT OMM). Laboratory is carrying out research on
light-controllable microfluidic systems in collaboration with HUT MTG and with HUT ICHEM. In
such microfluidic systems we expect to control the direction of liquid flow simply by light, which
could enable novel applications for microfluidics.

UHE Laboratory of Electronics Research (UHE ER). We develop lithotomic tools, optical
tweezers incorporating single molecule fluorescence and lab-on-chip sample handlers, and apply
these tools to problems in molecular science. Optical tweezers (OT) use light to exert 0-100 pN on
nano- to micro-sized particles. OT offers promise for future analytical chemistry, biotechnology and
nano science: to sequence a single copy of an organism’s entire genome or to detect a chemical
substance with single molecule sensitivity. Manipulating and studying molecules one at a time
avoids ensemble averaging, captures transient intermediate states, and allows observation of rarely
occurring events. Single molecule fluorescence (SMF) uses fluorophores attached to biomolecules
to detect nanometer scale movement. Combining OT (Micromanipulation and Mechanics) and SMF
(Imaging) in one instrument permits manipulating and observing both mechanics and chemistry of
single macromolecules in real-time. Microfluidics can be combined with OT and SMF to create lab-
on-chip devices incorporating optical micromanipulation and imaging. Adding multipoint fiber-
based photoacoustics into the microfluidic channel extends the force ranges available for
experimentation and allows generating localized thermodynamic conditions for temporally and
spatially controlled chemistry. Combining our existing knowledge on stroboscopic white-light
interferometry with the OT allows potentially building minute structures that are concurrently
analyzed for structural integrity.

VTT Biotechnology/LUT Separation Technique Center (VTT BT/LUT STC). The Capillary
electrophoresis (CE) group of VTT has been specialized in instrument design, construction and
development of separation methods and transfer of these methods to large scale out of the
laboratories and also to miniaturized systems. VTT has developed a miniaturized CE instrument the
production of which starts in the end of year 2008. The group is also specialized in on-line sampling
and environmental analysis and transfer of methods to microchip platforms.
                                                                                                   14




(3)    SENSORS, DETECTORS AND DETECTION METHODS


(i)    Optical sensors and microsystems and sensors based on the measurement
       of mass changes


VTT Photonics and Microfluidics (VTT PM). MEMS technologies are applied in fabrication of
microfluidic and optical structures on silicon and glass for applications in medical sciences and
analytical chemistry. In addition, microfluidic systems are designed and fluorescence and electrical
measurements are integrated in analytical systems.

TKK Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry (HUT ACHEM). Principal research subject is
electrochemiluminescence and its applications in bioaffinity assays. Most of the applications are
based ob the use of thin insulating-film coated electrodes, such as silica-covered silicon electrodes,
as micro and macro electrodes in disposable ECL cells or cartridges usable in point-of-care
analysis or other non-centralized analysis. The group has several granted patents and patent
applications in its field.

UTU Analytical chemistry group (UTU ACHEM). Development and applications of luminescent
sensors based on carbon nanotubes and nanofullerenes with the main emphasis on the development
of novel analytical techniques. Leader of the research group is Keijo Haapakka, professor of
analytical chemistry. The research group has several patents.

UTU Laboratory of Biophysics (UTU BIOP). Principal research subjects are related with
methods and techniques of measuring molecular interactions on the basis of fluorescence. Non-
linear transitions, optical near field interactions and novel label molecules and nanoparticles are
used as tools. Prof Pekka Hänninen is the head of the laboratory. Laboratory has several patents
and patent applications in its research field.

TKK Optics and Molecular Materials (HUT OMM). Laboratory develops different types of
nanoparticle and metal cluster labels for the use in immunoassays and DNA probing assays in
collaboration with HUT Analytical Chemistry laboratory and UTU Biophysics laboratory.

UTU Joint Biotechnology Laboratory (UTU JBL). (www.sci.utu.fi/kemia/tutkimus/
orgkemia/jbl/contacts.html). UTU JBL is a unit with a principal task of creation of international
collaboration between researchers of biotechnology. Docent Timo Korpela is the director of JBL
and Docent Juha-Pekka Himanen is responsible for the scientific research. Docent Himanen has
also a research laboratory in Sloan-Kettering University (New York). UTU JBL has several tens of
patents and patent applications and has started 5 companies, Hytest Oy (www.Hytest.fi) and
Biomarket Oy (www.Biomarket.fi) being the most successful. Within this school UTU JBL
develops sensors based porphyrin fluorescence and carries out research on cell receptors.

TUT Bioluminescence group (TUT BIOL). Bioluminescence and its applications are studied.
Bioluminescence i.e. biological production of light is achieved by expressing the genes responsible
for the production of light in new organisms.
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TUT Fluorescence group (TUT FLUOR). Mainly fluorescent proteins and their application are
studied within this school. Mutating the genes, which code the proteins, has produced new
fluorescent proteins. These genes have been transferred e.g. from light-producing bacteria and
fireflies. The expression of these genes in new organisms in a controlled way enables recognition of
molecules by measurement of light in real time. TUT BIOL and TUT FLUOR groups are studying
novel applications of fluorescent proteins in collaboration using time-resolved pico- and
femtosecond fluorometers and fluorescence microscope having a molecular resolution. Practical
applications are analysis environmental samples that contain toxic metal ions and other toxic
substances.

VTT The Molecular Sensors team (VTT MS). VTT MS is led by Docent Kirsi Tappura and
develops molecular sensors, sensing surfaces and devices based on different detection methods. The
sensing surfaces are based on molecule specific layers composed of self-assembled receptor
molecules or synthetic receptors. The surfaces are designed to have a low non-specific binding of
interfering molecules. Molecular and device simulations are used to predict the binding but also to
design the sensing phenomena. Team has several patents and patent applications in their research
area.

TUT Sensor Technology group. Micro- and biosensors, implanted sensors and systems, wireless
sensors, modelling, research and development of measuring methods and systems are the main
subjects of the work carried out. Applications are developed mainly in the fields of diagnostics,
medical devices, industrial measuring instruments and systems. For example, a method and an
instrument for treating magnetic nanoparticles has been designed and constructed which has been
adopted into a rapid-diagnostics product




(ii)   Electrochemical Sensors
UTU Sensor materials group (UTU SM). The fabrication, basic physicochemical properties and
analytical possibilities of polyelectrolyte multilayers, self-assembled monolayers and thin
conducting polymer films. The emphasis is on the basic research of the materials and structures
involved, which is motivated by the possibility to develop novel sensor materials, analytical
techniques and systems. Leader of the group is Jukka Lukkari, professor of physical chemistry.

ÅAU Laboratory of analytical Chemistry (ÅAU ACHEM). The Laboratory is specialized in the
research and development of electrochemical sensors based on conducting polymers. Conjugated
polymers offer unique possibilities to make robust electrochemical sensors that can be miniaturized.
Another line of research is the development of flow injection analysis (FIA) and sequential injection
analysis (SIA) towards microanalysis and on-line applications. In this context, our graduate school
offers excellent possibilities. The research group is led by Professor Ari Ivaska. The group has
several patents in this research area.

ÅAU ProSens. The Center for Process Analytical Chemistry and Sensor Technology (ProSens) in
specialized in the research and development of ion-selective electrodes and their industrial
applications. The major research activities include mathematical modelling of the membrane
potential of ion-selective electrodes. The research is done in collaboration with research groups and
industry on an international scale. The research group is led by Professor Andrzej Lewenstam. The
group has several patents in this research area.
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(iii)   Proteomics, metabolomics and diagnostics chips
UHE Biomedicum Protein chemistry and peptide group (UHE BIOM). This group at
Biomedicum has two major research topics: 1) neuroscience and protein folding diseases, and drugs
for them. 2) Development of microchips for proteomic research and medical diagnostics. We
actively collaborate with other CHEMSEM groups in this latter activity. Our aim is to speed up
proteomic analysis by miniturization, and to expand the possibilities of biomedical diagnostics.

VTT Molecular Diagnostics (VTT MD). The main research fields of VTT MD are recombinant
antibodies and their practical applications. Generation of antibody libraries, the screening of
antibodies to obtain suitable antibodies, and modifying the antibodies e.g. for obtaining a better
properties for labelling or immobilizing are of vital importance in this research. Team is developing
also nuclein acid probes and analysis in Microsystems together with Berkeley University of
California (prof. R. Mathies). The method patented by VTT and Berkeley can be used e.g. for
identification of microbes and for cancer diagnostics. The team provides collaboration with other
analytical member laboratories developing varied types of microanalycal systems in the field of
bioanalysis.

UTU JBL Eph receptors compose the largest group of thyrosine kinase receptors. Their special
property is that they only have a single sequence, which passes through the cell membrane.
Therefore they are used as models of molecular recognition and transfer of information in
proteomics and studied in JBL.


(4)     ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS
UHE Mass spectrometry, bio- and environmental analysis. The research is directed in
development of novel techniques and methods for environmental analysis and bioanalysis. This is
mainly carried out by miniaturising systems of traditional mass spectrometry and ion mobility mass
spectrometry using micro and nanotechnologies ( miniaturized ionization, simple preparation and
separation techniques). Prof Tapio Kotiaho is the leader of the group and is working as a professor
both in the Faculty of mathematics and natural sciences and Faculty of Pharmacy. The group has
several patents and patent applications.


UHE Laboratory of Electronics Research. Solid or liquid aerosol particles are studied by
optically capturing them, and manipulating them in order to convolute the steps of nucleation
processes.



(5)     INNOVATION PROCESSES AND PROFESSIONAL READINESS

All the significant novel research results within in the school will be patented whenever this is
financially possible. The aim is that each student would be participating as an inventor at least in
one patent application during the CHEMSEM studies. However, the school cannot provide financial
support for the patent applications but the inventors are guided to the possible sources of funding in
each specific case. As a practical exercise, each student will carry out novelty investigation of
her/his own research results.

								
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