Purpose Average Cost Based Reimbursement Plans pervade intraand inter by johanpetro

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									                        Purpose                                                                  Average Cost Based Reimbursement and Risk Theory: Implications for Health Care Policy and Practice                                                                                                            Thomas Cox, BA, BSN, MS, MSW, MS
Average Cost Based Reimbursement Plans pervade intra-                                      Thomas Cox, RN, MS, MSW. MS School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA                                                                                                                      Mathematician, statistician, social worker, nurse
and inter-organizational health care financing throughout
the world. These mechanisms are primarily, rather than                                                                                                        Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy                                                                                          Extensive experience in insurance pricing, reserving,
incidentally, risk transfer agreements, frequently a form of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  expense accounting
unregulated reinsurance for nominal health care insurers.                                        Model of ACBRP Impact
This report focuses on the consequences of risk transfers to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Doctoral Student in Nursing
professional caregivers (PCs), that place PCs in the roles of
                                                                                      Risk Transfer            MEDIATING
                                                                                                               VARIABLES
                                                                                                                                      MODERATING VARIABLES                   OUTCOMES
                                                                                                                                                                                                       How are Average Cost Based Reimbursement Plans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Conclusions
insurers rather than providers, seriously upsetting the                      RISKS                         Amount of risk
                                                                                                                                                                            OUTCOMES
                                                                                                                                                                                                        and Traditional Insurance Similar and Different                                                                          Conclusions
balance between these two roles, compromising PC                             Insurance transfer
                                                                             Claims Management
                                                                                                           premium
                                                                                                           Legal
                                                                                                                                                                            Bankruptcy/Profitability
                                                                                                                                                                            Service denials
                                                                                                                                                                            Undiagnosed conditions                                                                                                            PCs cannot perform the functions of trusted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ACBRP                        INSURANCE
                                                                                                           environment
financial stability, service quality, and provider-consumer
                                                                             No risk/insurance premium                                                                      Ethical conflict

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   This data lend beginning support insurance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              informants and care provision and theto our
                                                                             Portfolio quality             Willing providers                                                Claims management
                                                                             Uncertain portfolio results   Interest rates      Organizational                               Professional caregiver
                                                                             Future cost estimate errors                                                  Portfolio         dissatisfaction
relationships by greatly increasing overall financial risk for
                                                                                                                               Characteristics
                                                                             Mismatched timing of                                                         Characteristics
                                                                             income/expenses                                   Size
                                                                                                                                                          Size                                          Capital and Income                                                                                         larger model. While management functions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              underwriting and claims condition variables
PCs and their patients…
                                                                                                                               Under-utilized resources
                                                                                                                                                          Prior Tx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Nonexistent for PCs           Varies by state
                                                                                                                               Capitalization
                                                                                                                               Borrowing capacity         Chronicity
                                                                                                                                                          (age, gender,
                                                                                                                                                          ethnicity)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Amount
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        None                    Secure Investments/Cash
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   have some impact on outcomes,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              implicit in insurance risk assumption.
         Comparison of Insurer v. Provider Risk                                                                                                                                                         Form
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   neuropsychological functioning (the ability
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Oversight                                       None                    SAP/GAAP/FASB
  Risk = Probability of a Loss Greater than Loss Ratio                                                                 Overall Findings                                                                 Investment expertise                            Little                  Substantial                           compensation, including risk premiums will
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Properorganize sequence, and use working
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   to
 Due to Size Differentials Between Insurer and Provider                                                                                                                                                 Usual source of profits                    Service delivery             Premiums and investments           more than adolescents can charge.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              cost memory in aggregators of normal
   Loss     Insurer Provider Relative                            Capital and Income: PCs that accept insurance risks are under-funded,                                                                  Risk Management
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   intelligence) as well as adolescent and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Reinsurance further depletes loss premiums while
                                                                 undercapitalized, inadequately resourced for the insurance business,                                                                   Loss Premium                                       Yes                             Yes
   Ratio      Risk    Risk     Risk                                                                                                                                                                     Expense Premium                                    Yes                             Yes                paying reinsurers to assume be criticalPCs should
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   family factors may also the risks in
      0. 85    0. 500  0.500    1. 000                           unregulated for insurance, and unable to benefit from actuarial and                                                                    Risk Premium                                      None                             Yes                     explaining adaptation outcomes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              not have accepted.
                                                                 underwriting expertise. Policy aggregators that transfer such risks avoid                                                              Risk management expertise                         None                    Actuaries/Underwriters
      0. 86    0. 421  0.482    1. 146                                                                                                                                                                  Overall Risk                                    Increases                       Decreases
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A high index of suspicion of unethical actions should
                                                                 insurance risk, compete unfairly with true insurers, and through differential                                                          Who really bears the risk                        Patients                  Contracted Providers
      0. 87    0. 345  0.464    1. 348                           knowledge of insurance and risk theory, advantage themselves at the expense                                                            Who is the real insurer                  Professional caregivers            Insurance company         be presumed in such relationships – rather than a
      0. 88    0. 274  0.447    1. 629                           of providers and consumers.                                                                                                            Reinsurance                             Further depletes premium          Calculated in premium       low index of suspicion. Wolves should not provide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Consequences of large losses          Unanticipated – Bankruptcy,         Anticipated/Managed
      0. 89    0. 212  0.429    2. 025                                                                                                                                                                                                        takeovers and consolidations                                    security for lambs.
      0. 90    0. 159  0.412    2. 594                           Risk Management: Premiums provided to PCs are inadequate                                                                               Time value of money 1                                                Substantial investment
                                                                 compensation for the insurance risk assumed, transferring risk to patients.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Costs precede income            income potential                                Implications
      0. 91    0. 115  0.394    3. 426                                                                                                                                                                  Time value of money 2                                                 Premium available for
                                                                 Inadequate premiums implies that reinsurance is not viable as a risk                                                                                                         Substantial premium withheld     secure investments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Unregulated risk transfers to PCs should be
      0. 92    0. 081  0.377    4. 670                           management strategy for PCs. Delays in payments further exacerbate PC’s                                                                Results                                   Highly unpredictable          Highly predictable
      0. 93    0. 055  0.360    6. 574                                                                                                                                                                  Profitability due to inefficiency        Unproven assumption        Profitability due to LLN          prohibited under extant insurance law. Hidden
                                                                 financial experience as do compensation plans that kick in when least needed –                                                                                                                               and CLT, risk spread,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           actuarial, underwriting, and       insurance transfers in politically supported finance
      0. 94    0. 036  0.344    9. 565                           when losses are low. ACBRPs violate fundamental principles of risk theory and                                                                                                                                  financial expertise
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              plans must be examined as insurance transfers –
      0. 95    0. 023  0.327   14. 389                           insurance – eliminating the essential social benefit of insurance.                                                                     Legal and Ethical Issues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              even within organizations. The consequences of PC
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Regulation                                         None                 State and Federal laws/regs
      0. 96    0. 014  0.311   22. 396                                                                                                                                                                  Accounting Requirements                            None                     SAP/GAAP/FASB             insurance risk assumption: financial, ethical,
                                                                 Legal and Ethical Issues: Largely unregulated insurance transfers, with                                                                Contract Law/Case Law                            Emergent                       Substantial
      0. 97    0. 008  0.296   36. 078                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        criminal, must be explored and documented
                                                                 no specific accounting standards, inadequate regulation and oversight, result in                                                       Rights of consumers                               Unclear                       Substantial
      0. 98    0. 005  0.281   60. 176                           ethical conflicts, violated consumer trust, inadequate and unreliable service
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ethical issues of service provision      Inherent role conflicts         Dispassionate/Imperfect
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Duties                                Pt v pt, self v pt, family v pt       Duty to contractees
      0. 99    0. 003  0.266 103. 955                            delivery, as well as substantial risk of white collar crime in the form of denial                                                      Non-performance of duties             Difficult to detect and pursue     Much oversight and case              Funding Acknowledgements:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            law
      1. 00    0. 001  0.251 186. 054                            of services.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Partial funding for this presentation from Virginia
Portfolio transfer = 1/20th of insurers                                                                                                                                   Average Cost Based Reimbursement Plans                                                                                              Commonwealth University - School of Nursing 1220
Different risk characteristics based on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       East Broad Street, Richmond, VA. Major funding
                                                                 Capitation contracts, Diagnosis Related Groups plans, Preferred Provider agreements, Managed Care, Unrealistic budgeting constraints in                                                                                                      for this work is by the author.
normal sampling distribution                                     highly variable units such as nursing.
Financial failure risk is higher because of                      Whereas product line operating characteristics are good models in manufacturing, especially in assembly line operations, the inherent
                                                                 variability in health care settings, particularly when patients are already known ill makes such approaches injurious rather than helpful, since                                                                                                              June 23, 2002
undercapitalization, timing, bonus plans                         they assume higher levels of rationality and predictability than apply.

								
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