Soft-Side of Logistics Apr 04

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					ASC and AFIT

           Soft-Side of
            Logistics
                   Apr 04
   Maj Steven Glazewski
   Maj John Reisner
   Air Force Institute of Technology
   School of Systems and Logistics
   steven.glazewski@afit.edu
   john.reisner@afit.edu
   255-7777 x3274, x3270
                    Purpose
            Rapidly delivering war-winning capability




    Reexamine the ILS Elements, with
particular attention paid to the challenges
associated with Software-Intensive Systems.




                                                        2
       Integrated Logistics Support
                     Elementscapability
              Rapidly delivering war-winning




Maintenance      Manpower &   Supply Support    Support
 Planning         Personnel                    Equipment      Training &
                                                                Support



                  Computer                       Packaging, Handling
Technical Data    Resources       Facilities          Storage, &
                   Support                          Transportation
                               DESIGN
                              INTERFACE


                                                                           3
                               SYSTEM
                    Definitions
               Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Logistics: Getting the right thing;
  to the right place;
    at the right time;
     in the right quantity;
        at the right price.

• Acquisition Logistics: Activities that ensure
  supportability is considered throughout the
  acquisition process to minimize support
  costs; as well as activities that provide the
  user with resources to sustain the system in
  the field.                                               4
                   Definitions
              Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• “Soft-side of Logistics”: Logistics planning
  and processes required to support the life
  cycle sustainment of software and software
  intensive systems



  D041




                                                          5
             Software Supportability
                What’s Involved?
                 Rapidly delivering war-winning capability
           Development                       Sustainment
           Environment                       Environment




                                      Ground Support     Diagnostic/Operating
Avionics            Simulator
Software                                Equipment         Systems Software
                    Software




                                                                           6
                 Hardware / Software
                    Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

  • Significant Differences in Supportability
    Requirements!
    Hardware                                 Software
• Tangible, Materiel Intensive         • Intangible, Labor Intensive
• Deteriorates Over Time               • Adapts Over Time
• Requires Preventative                • No Physical Preventative
  Maintenance                            Maintenance Needed
• Problem Caused by                    • Problem Caused by
  Component Failure                      Embedded Error




                                                                       7
                  Software Lifecycle
                     Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

   Typical Software Lifecycle Cost/Effort Distribution




Development: 25-33%                 Support or Maintenance: 67-75%
• Requirements Definition           • Adaptive Changes
• Architectural Design              • Corrective Changes
• Detailed Design                   • Software Enhancements
• Code / Implementation
• Testing
                                                                     8
                                              Source: Pigoski 1997
   Software Supportability Guidance
             Rapidly delivering war-winning capability



Interim Defense Acquisition Guidebook
     - Para 2.8, Supportability
    - Para 6.4, Command Control,
          Communications, Computers &
          Intelligence Support (C4ISP)
AFI 63-107, Integrated Product Support
    Planning & Assessment
    - Attach #2, Product Support
         Management Plan
                                                         9
                     Logistics Management Process
                                           Rapidly delivering war-winning capability
                                                                                                                           Single Step or
                     Technology Opportunities & User Needs                                                                Evolution to Full
                                                                                                                             Capability
                A             B                          C          IOC                      FOC
       PRE-ACQUISITION                       SYSTEMS ACQUISITION                        SUSTAINMENT
     Concept       Technology    System Development &           Production &       Operations and Support
    Refinement    Development        Demonstration               Deployment
     Concept      Component       System       System      Low-Rate     Full-Rate Sustainment       Disposal
    Exploration    Advanced     Integration Demonstration   Initial   Production &
                  Development                             Production Deployment            BLOCK II

  Concept Decision                           Design Readiness Review                            FRP Decision Review                                            BLOCK III


 Readiness &                 Inputs to:                                                 Produce Product
Total Ownership               • CDD                                                                                 Demonstrate
                                                    GOAL 1




                                                                                                                                      GOAL 4
Cost Objectives               • TEMP                          Design Product                                        Supportability
                                                                                                                                               Maintain/Improve Readiness
                              • APB                           for Supportability                                     & Life Cycle
                              • Contract                                                                             Affordability
                                                                                                                                                & Improve Affordability
                                                                                                                                                                                Demil
                                                                                                                                                                                  &
 Acquisition                                                                                                                                                                   Disposa
 Strategy                                                              Demonstrate                                                                                                l
                               Support




                                                                                                     GOAL 3
                                                                                                                                     Modifications and Technology
  Support                                                              Supportability
                               Concept                                                                        Acquire & Deploy Insertion
  Strategy                                                              & Life Cycle
                                                                                                              Supportable System Post Deployment Evaluations
                                                                        Affordability

            Evaluate Alternative
                                                     GOAL 2




                                                                                                                                                     Post Production Support
Performance Logistics Concepts                                Design & Develop                                    IOC
 Based                                                        Support System
 Logistics                                                                                 Produce
                                                                                        Support System
                          Product                                 Product                                        Product                                    Product
                          Support                                 Support                                        Support                                    Support
                          Management                              Management                                     Management                                 Management
                          Plan                                    Plan                                           Plan                                       Plan       10
                  Integrated Logistics Support
                            Elements
                             Rapidly delivering war-winning capability




         Maintenance
          Planning




Maintenance Planning:
Software: - Should begin early in the acquisition process. Establishes software
support concepts and requirements for the lifecycle of the system. Should address who
will maintain the software, what facilities, personnel skill-sets, support equipment,
support software, test resources, training facilities,… will be required to support
Should be documented in a Software Supportability Plan. Program Management Office
oversees establishment of lifecycle development and support of the software system
and support infrastructure. Includes development platforms, test platforms, software
development tools, operating systems, data bases, Configuration Control Boards, Help  11
Desks, Sustainment Support, Config Management, Software Code, Software Security,..
          Software Maintenance
             Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Approx. 80% of maintenance effort is
  expended to support changing user
  requirements and environments (adaptive &
  perfective software changes)

• 20% maintenance effort expended to correct
  software problems (corrective changes)




                                                         12
                      Failure Rate Trends
                          Rapidly delivering war-winning capability


                         Hardware
                         Software (if software never changed)
                         Software (in the real-world of changing SW)
FAILURE RATE




                                                                      TIME   13
               Bathtub Curves for Hardware and Software, GSAM v3, p 12-8
                       Cost During Program Life
                              Rapidly delivering war-winning capability
                                                           ~70 - 75%
                 Software system
                                                             ~16%
                 Space system
                                                           ~53 - 54%
                 Surface vehicle
Program Cost %




                                        ~0%                ~66 - 68%
                 Ship
                                       ~66%              Operations &
                    ~25 - 30%                              Support
                                       ~37%                                          ~0%
                      ~18%
                                       ~31%                                         ~0%
                       ~9%
                                   Investment                                      ~0 - 1%
                      ~1%
                                                                                   ~0 - 2%
                    RDT&E
                                                                                   Disposal

                    Design                         Time
                                   Manufacture
                                                               Logistics Support

                                     LCC = Total Ownership Cost
                                                                                              14
                 Integrated Logistics Support
                               Elementscapability
                        Rapidly delivering war-winning




         Maintenance   Manpower &
          Planning      Personnel




Manpower & Personnel:
Software: Labor hours and skill levels required to develop, operate, maintain, and
support systems over its lifetime. Involves choosing “In-House”, “Developer”, or
“Outside Maintenance” activity to perform maintenance. Includes Systems Engineers
to develop, day-day users, on-site IT personnel to install upgrades/reboot system, and
programmers to modify system functional/operational performance as a result of a
PR/SCR. Early identification is essential.
                                                                                     15
            Manpower & Personnel
                Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

 • Who Should Perform Software Maintenance?
   – Developer?
   – Outside Maintenance Activity?




Developer                                                   Outside
                                                            Activity
                                                                       16
          Manpower & Personnel
              Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• How Many People Do We Need?

• What Skill Levels Are Required?

• Government or Contractor Resources?




                                                          17
       Maintenance Performer Advantages
                      Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

Developer Pros:                           Separate Maintainer Pros:
• Better Knowledge of System              • Fresh Look at System Design
• Less Reliance on Documentation          • Better Documentation?
• Better Communications                   • Identify Strong/Weak Points of
  Developer & Maintainer                    System
• Continue working with                   • Leaves Maintenance with
  known/proven organization                 Maintainers

Developer Cons:                           Separate Maintainer Cons:
• Poorer Quality - Documentation          • Slower Transition
• Possible Loss of Development            • Learning Curve for New Staff
  Staff / Poor Morale                       (Slow Transition)
• Too Much Time Spent                     • User Support May Suffer -
  Perfecting System Design                  Credibility

                                                                             18
                Integrated Logistics Support
                              Elementscapability
                       Rapidly delivering war-winning




        Maintenance    Manpower &   Supply Support
         Planning       Personnel




Supply Support:
Software: In the Software world there are no spare/replacement parts to acquire,
catalog, receive, store, transfer, and dispose. Supply Support for software consists of
ensuring management actions, procedures, and resources are in-place to support
customer requirements to fix software deficiencies (Software Deficiency Reports) or
expand software system capabilities (Software Change Reports). Also to ensure
changes are tracked/documented in a Configuration Control Board/Documentation.
In other words to create/field a new software configuration.                          19
                   Supply Support
                   Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Setup Process to Handle Customer Requests:
  – Software Deficiency Reports (SDR’s)
  – Software Change Requests (SCR’s)
  – Configuration Management
    • Configuration Boards and Control




                                                               20
            Supply Support
            Rapidly delivering war-winning capability



Helpdesk                          Computer Resources



                  all for the
Buildings         long haul                     Programmers



                                                              21
               Integrated Logistics Support
                             Elementscapability
                      Rapidly delivering war-winning




       Maintenance   Manpower &   Supply Support    Support
        Planning      Personnel                    Equipment




Support Equipment:
Software: All equipment required to support the creation, testing, operation and
maintenance of a system. Support equipment includes: On-line maintenance and
diagnostic programs, built-in test software, Test Program Sets, and support Software
(operating systems, database management systems, configuration management, etc.).


                                                                                   22
            Support Equipment
             Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

  Network                                                Development
                                                         Environment
                   all in a
                 warfighting
                environment?

Test/Pre-Production                       Test/Development
   Environment                                 Software

                                                                   23
                 Integrated Logistics Support
                               Elementscapability
                        Rapidly delivering war-winning




         Maintenance   Manpower &   Supply Support    Support     Training &
          Planning      Personnel                    Equipment     Support




Training & Support:
Software: Training and Training Support consists of the processes, procedures,
training software (such as CBT and WBT) used to train civilian and military
personnel to operate and support a software intensive system. Training support can
also include management processes and procedures in-place to support training
software problems or needed modifications.
                                                                                     24
               Training & Support
                  Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Who Should be Trained?
  – Functional Users
  – System Maintainers
      True, like HW, but much different skill sets
  – System Administrators



• How Should Training be Given?
  – Classroom Lecture
  – Computer Based Training (CBT)
  – System Tutorials
                                                              25
               Training & Support
                  Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Who will Develop/Conduct Training?
  For How Long?
  –   Developer
  –   Maintainer
  –   In-House Organization
  –   Third-Party Contractor
Updated training for major releases!

• Don’t Forget about Resources Needed
  Training!
  – PC’s
  – Servers
  – Software Engineers                                        26
                  Integrated Logistics Support
                                Elementscapability
                         Rapidly delivering war-winning




         Maintenance     Manpower &   Supply Support    Support    Training &
          Planning        Personnel                    Equipment    Support




        Technical Data




Technical Data:
Software: Technical Data consists of recorded information regardless of form or
character consisting of manuals, system/system-related, and program documentation.
(e.g. Operations/Training/Programming Manuals, Source Code, Testing Code,
Software Specification and Design Documents, etc.)

                                                                                  27
             Technical Documentation
                       Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Create/Update Life Cycle Documentation
  – J-STD-016
       • Identifies Life Cycle Documentation/Processes For
         Software Development
       • Replaces Mil-STD-498 Documentation/Process
         Requirements
  – IEEE/EIA 12207* or ISO/IEC 12207
       • Equivalent Commercial Process Description


*adopted by DoD; 3 vols.




                                                                   28
         Technical Documentation
                Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Configuration Management - Tracking
  – Software Change Requests (SCR)s
  – Software Deficiency Reports (SDR)s
  – Software Releases (Versions/Patches)
     • How Many Configurations are being Managed??
     • Both Planned and Previous...




                                                            29
                           CPINs
                Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Computer Program Identification Number
  – The software equivalent of a NSN
  – Managed by OC-ALC/TILUC, Tinker AFB, OK
• Automated Computer Program Identification
  Number System (ACPINS)
  – See CROSSTALK The Journal of Defense
    Software Engineering March 2000, pgs 16-17
  – http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/crosstalk/2000/03/index.
    html



                                                            30
                  Integrated Logistics Support
                                Elementscapability
                         Rapidly delivering war-winning




         Maintenance       Manpower &         Supply Support    Support    Training &
          Planning          Personnel                          Equipment    Support




                         Computer Resources
        Technical Data
                             Support




Computer Resources Support:
Software: Computer Resources Support encompasses the facilities, hardware,
software, documentation, manpower, and personnel needed to operate and support
software intensive systems.



                                                                                        31
      Computer Resources Support
                 Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• CRS
  – Begin Early in the Life Cycle
  – Ensures Supportability Considered Throughout Life
    Cycle
     • Generational Change 18-24 Months
  – Develops Support Plans – Functional IPT
  – Required to ensure System Availability/Sustainability




                                                             RIP

                                                                   32
             Computer Resources Support
                          Umbrella capability
                  Rapidly delivering war-winning




                             Development
Software Updates              Facilities               Software
                                                       Engineers




   Repair
 Technicians                                      Computers
                                               Operating Software
                        Weapons System
  Helpdesk                                 Simulator               33
               Source Code                 Software
      Computer Resources Support
                Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Computer Resources Support Team
  – Team of Functional Experts - Develops and Refines
    Computer Resources Support (CRS) Strategy
  – Begin Early in the Acquisition Process




                                                            34
          Computer Resources Support
                   Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

  • Supporting Documents
     – C4ISP – Command Control Communications,
       Computers, and Intelligence Support Plan (Interim
       Guidebook, formerly DOD 5000.2-R)
     – CRLCMP – Computer Resources Life Cycle
Older Management Plan (Computers) (AFR800-14 and
Docs   DODI5000-2AFSUP1)
     – CRISD – Computer Resources Integrated Support
       Document (Software) (MIL-STD-2167A and DI-
       MCCR-80024A)



                                                               35
               DII/COE IMPACTS
                 Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• DII/COE for Affected Systems:

  – Ensure Operating System and Windowing are
    Compliant with Latest Version of Kernal
     • E.G. Unix _._, Windows XP, Kernal 4.1


  – Ensure Mission Application Meets Min. Level 5
    Compliance with goal of Achieving Level 8


  – Ensure Mission Applications are Installed Using
    the COE Tools
                                                             36
                  Integrated Logistics Support
                                Elementscapability
                         Rapidly delivering war-winning




         Maintenance       Manpower &         Supply Support    Support    Training &
          Planning          Personnel                          Equipment    Support




                         Computer Resources      Facilities
        Technical Data
                             Support




Facilities:
Software: Facilities consist of the permanent and semi-permanent real property
assets required to support a system (Primary/COOP), including studies to define types
of facilities or facility improvements, location, space needs, environmental
requirements, connectivity to LAN/WAN, access to primary/backup power supply,
security, and equipment. Includes computer terminals, servers (Development/Test/
Production), Fire-Walls/Intrusion detection services, …
                                                                                        37
                          Facilities
                  Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Facility Requirements
  – Identifies the Resources Needed to
    Create/Support a Sustainment Environment
     •   Offices
     •   Cubicles
     •   PCs
     •   LAN/WAN Connectivity
     •   Computer Room




                                                              38
                         Facilities
                 Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Organizational Maintenance Facilities:
  –   Repair Shop
  –   Work Benches
  –   Computers/Servers
  –   Special Diagnostic Equipment


• Depot Maintenance Facilities:
  – Computers/Servers
  – Offices/Conference Rooms
  – Cubicles for Developers

                                                             39
                  Integrated Logistics Support
                                Elementscapability
                         Rapidly delivering war-winning




         Maintenance       Manpower &         Supply Support          Support              Training &
          Planning          Personnel                                Equipment              Support




                         Computer Resources      Facilities       Packaging, Handling
        Technical Data                                         Storage, & Transportation
                             Support




Packaging, Handling, Storage & Transportation:
Software: This element ensures processes are in place to distribute software and
documentation updates to the system operators and maintainers. Software updates
may be made available via web downloads, or mailed CD/disk.


                                                                                                        40
        Packaging Handling, Storage,
              Transportation
              Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Getting Software/Updates to the Field:
  –   CD
  –   Web-Download (not a HW option!)
  –   Electronic Transfer (FTP/MQ Series)
  –   IC-Chip Replacement




                                                          41
                  Integrated Logistics Support
                                Elementscapability
                         Rapidly delivering war-winning




         Maintenance       Manpower &         Supply Support          Support              Training &
          Planning          Personnel                                Equipment              Support




                         Computer Resources      Facilities       Packaging, Handling         Design
        Technical Data                                         Storage, & Transportation
                             Support                                                         Interfaces




Design Interfaces:
Software: This element ensures processes and resources are in-place to establish
and update interfaces between the software system and external systems such as
GCCS. Configuration Management and documentation of Interface Requirements
Specifications (IRS) are key elements required to document and track the
establishment and update of interfaces.
                                                                                                          42
             Design Interfaces
               Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Most likely thing to eat your lunch!
  – Who is in charge of the “seams” between
    systems?
• C4ISP, Interface Control Documents (ICDs)




                                                           43
Condition-Based Maintenance Plus
             (CBM+)
        Rapidly delivering war-winning capability




                                                    44
      Condition-Based Maintenance Plus
                   (CBM+)
                    Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• CBM
  – Goal: To Perform Maintenance Only When Needed
  – Embedded Sensors or External Tests Evaluate the Health of a
    Weapons System
  – Utilizes Automatic Identification Technology (BIT-Test, Prognostic
    Health)
• CBM+
  – Expands upon CBM to include Integration of Logistics Information
    Systems Technologies and Enhanced Business Processes
  – Encompasses Other Technologies, Processes, and Procedures
    that enabled Improved Maintenance and Logistics Practices




                                                                         45
       Condition-Based Maintenance Plus
                    (CBM+)
                     Rapidly delivering war-winning capability



• Characteristics:
   – Hardware – embedded sensors; integrated data bus
   – Software – decision support and analysis capabilities, on/off
     equipment
   – Design – open system architecture; integration of maintenance and
     logistics information systems; interface with operational systems.
     Joint Total Asset Visibility (JTAV)
   – Processes – Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) program
     development; a balance of reactive, preventive, and predictive
     maintenance processes
   – Tools – Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs) (digitized
     data); automatic identification technology (AIT); portable
     maintenance aids (PMA); embedded, data based, interactive
     training
   – Functionality – fault: detection, isolation, and prediction


                                                                           46
C-17 Maintenance Tools
     Rapidly delivering war-winning capability
      Support Equipment                            Fault-Function
       Computer (SEC)                              Indicator Panel




                                                  Maintenance
                                                  Management Panel




                                                                 47
                                         Condition-Based Maintenance
     F-16 Maintenance Tools
                Rapidly delivering war-winning capability
   F-16 Enhanced
Diagnostic Aid (EDNA)




                                                            48
F-22, Portable Maintenance Aid
       Rapidly delivering war-winning capability
                                                    -
                                                   F 22 DataTrak
                                                        11 lb




           Palm V




                                     •Verifies System Failures
                                     • Electronic Tech Manuals
                                     • Order Parts from Flight-line
                                     • Records Maintenance Action

                                                                   49
 F-35 LM-STAR
Rapidly delivering war-winning capability


          Prognostic Health Management
               - Diagnose Health
                      - Predict Failures
                      - Linked to Ground




                                            50
                                                                                                                              Aviation
                        PADHM Generic Approach                                                                                Logistics
                                                                                                                              Board
                                               Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

Intelligent Air
Vehicle                          Prognostics         Operational
                                     &              Requirements                          Repair
                                 Diagnostics                                             Required
 JSF           PHM                Download

                                                                                Replenishable             Repair Recommendation
                                                                                Requirements
            Aircraft                                                                                            Simulated World
            Available



                                                                                       Onboard
                                                                                        Stock
                                                                                                        Audio                     Graphical
                                                                                                                         Haptic
                                                                                                          Maintenance Rehearsal



                                                   Aircraft Turn-round &
                                                           Repair
              Supply of AOG item/
           Replenishment of Ship Stock                                                                                                         Integrated
                                                         Return of
                                                                                                                                                Supply/
                                                       Defective Item
                                                                                                                                              Engineering
                                                                                                                                              Info systems
                                                                        Automated Logistics
                                                                             Update

                             Automatic/JIT                                                Lessons          Service/Industry
                              Re-Supply                                                   Learned/
       Wholesale                                                                        Failure Rates
                                                                                                         Support Organization
       Stockpoint                                                          Industry                                                                      51
Provide the right information at the
   right time, in the right way, so                             Future combat
                           right delivering               operations
commanders can do the Rapidly things war-winning capability
  at the right time in the right way
                                       COMMERCIAL           RECCE               COMMERCIAL
              MILSTAR                                                                            SBIRS/H
                                         SATCOM                                   SATCOM

                                              GPS
                                                                          GPS
GPS                                                                                                      GPS
              SBL
                                                           SBIRS/L
                    SBIRS/L        RECCE NPOESS                                       SBL
                                 SMALL SAT                              RECCE                S/B RADAR
 S/B RADAR
                                                                      SMALL SAT
               AWACS
                                                  CAV
                                            ABL                                               PREDATOR
               Airborne
                                                  JSTARS
                  JFACC

                                      B-2
                      JSF                                     F-22
        RLV



                                 COALITION
  THAAD                             FORCES
                                                                                                 NBC
                                                                                                THREAT

                                                                                  COUNTER AIR     52
                              THAAD                                     INDUSTRIAL  THREAT GOVERNMENT
                                                                     INFRASTRUCTURE          INFRASTRUCTURE
                      Key Points
                 Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Address software supportability issues early.
  Nearly 70 percent of a software system’s lifecycle
  cost is allocated to software support.
• Initiate support planning early to ensure that the
  capability to support the software exists before it
  is needed.
• Ensure the software developed is supportable:
  – Facilities, Tools, Documentation
  – Data Rights
• Many similarities between
  hardware, software support,
  but many significant differences,
  too.                                                       53
        Tips to live in the real world
                Rapidly delivering war-winning capability

• Enforce contract deliverables
  – Especially if the maintenance organization is the
    same as the development organization
  – Assure the maintainers get to review data
  – Don’t delay down-streaming equipment, tools, etc.
• Make use of “fall out money” to buy:
  – Data, tools & equipment, target systems, etc.
• Champion formal planning documents
  – Most notably, the CRLCMP, if there is one
• Take a maintainer to a meeting
• Have version 1.1 built jointly with the
  maintainers                                               54