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Industrialization and Segregation by yxx13897

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									     Industrialization and Segregation          Industrialization and Segregation
                Study Guide                                  Answers

   1. Between the Civil War and World          1. Corporations
      War I, what replaced the family-
      owned business as the main form of
      business organization?
   2. Define the term corporation.             2. a type of business that raises capital
                                                  (money) through the sale of stock
   3. Define stock.                            3. shares of ownership in a
                                                  corporation
   4. Define stockholders.                     4. part owners of a corporation
   5. What are two advantages of a             5. 1) ability to raise large amounts of
      corporation?                                money
                                                  2) limited liability
   6. What does it mean for a corporation      6. the corporation itself, rather than
      to have limited liability?                  the individual stockholders, is
                                                  responsible for the business’s
                                                  actions
     7. Why was the development of the         7. made possible the large-scale
         Bessemer steel process important?        production of steel
     8. What type of buildings could be        8. skyscrapers
         constructed with steel?
     9. Name the invention for which each      9. A. light bulb
         of the following inventors is most       B. telephone
         famous:                                  C. airplane
         A. Thomas Edison                         D. conveyor belt assembly line
         B. Alexander Graham Bell
         C. Orville and Wilbur Wright
         D. Henry Ford
    10. Name the industry with which each      10. A. steel
of the following businessmen is associated:        B. banking or finance
         A. Andrew Carnegie                        C. oil
         B. J.P. Morgan                            D. railroads
         C. John D. Rockefeller
         D. Cornelius Vanderbilt
     11. List three reasons for the economic   11. 1) federal gov’t. followed laissez
         transformation of America during          faire capitalism
         the late 19th century.                    2) labor supply grew, because of
                                                   immigration and migration from
                                                   farm to the city
                                                   3) natural resources and navigable
                                                   rivers
   12. Define capitalism.                      12. capitalism = an economic system
                                                   based on private ownership and free
                                                   competition
   13. What is the goal of business under      13. profit
capitalism?
   14. Who developed the laissez faire         14. Adam Smith; The Wealth of
theory, and what book did he write?                Nations
   15. Define laissez faire.                   15. the theory that gov’t. should leave
                                                   business alone; it should neither
                                                   help nor hinder business
    16. During the nineteenth century, did     16. No: Helped but did not regulate
the United States government follow a
strict laissez faire policy? Explain.
    17. Give two examples of ways the          17. 1) protective tariffs
federal government helped American                 2) land grants to railroads
business
during the nineteenth century.
    18. What two factors increased the labor   18. 1) immigration
supply in American cities during the late          2) migration from farm to city
nineteenth century?
    19. What was the trend of racial           19. increased
discrimination in the United States during
the late nineteenth and early twentieth
centuries?
    20. Define racial segregation.             20. separation of the races
    21. What were “Jim Crow” laws, who         21. “Jim Crow” laws = segregation
passed them, when were they passed, and            laws; Southern states; late 1800s
what did they do?                                  and early 1900s
    22. By the early twentieth century, what   22. South
region of the United States required racial
segregation and denied most African-
Americans the right to vote?
    23. What is lynching, and how was it       23. hanging without a trial
used during the late 19th and early 20th
centuries?
    24. Why did African-Americans hope         24. They hoped the supreme Court
the judicial branch would safeguard their          would interpret the laws in a way
rights?                                            that would honor the intent of the
                                                   14th and 15th Amendments.
   25. How did the Supreme Court rule in       25. Plessy v. Ferguson = Supreme
the case of Plessy v. Ferguson?                    Court ruled that “separate but
                                                   equal” facilities did not violate the
                                                   14th Amendment
   26. What was the result of the Plessy v.    26. racial segregation in the South
Ferguson decision?
   27. Explain Booker T. Washington’s          27. Booker T. Washington believed the
position on racial segregation in the South        way to African-American equality
and racial discrimination in the North.            was through vocational education
                                                   and economic success; political
                                                  equality would come later
    28. Explain W.E.B. DuBois’ position on    28. W.E.B. DuBois wanted immediate
racial segregation in the South and racial        political equality for African-
discrimination in the North.                      Americans
    29. When was the National Association     29. NAACP; 1909; gain legal rights for
for the Advancement of Colored People             African-Americans
formed, and what was its purpose?
     30. What African-American woman          30. Ida B. Wells
led an anti- lynching crusade and called
upon the federal government to take action
on this issue?
   31. How was agricultural expansion in      31. through wars against the Plains
       the West accomplished?                     Indians
   32. What was the result of the federal     32. harsh new federal Indian policies
       government’s wars against the Plains
       Indians?
   33. What were results of industrial        33. 1) raised the standard of living
       development in the United States           2) rise of national labor unions
       during the late nineteenth century?        3) clashes between industry and
                                                  labor
  34. Define rural.                           34. country
  35. Define urban.                           35. city
  36. What were the results of the            36. led to the Progressive movement
      development of social problems in
      rural and urban America during the
      late nineteenth century?
  37. What social problems did                37. 1) dangerous working conditions
      industrialization create in American        2) use and abuse of child labor and
      cities during the late nineteenth           women workers
      century?
  38. What problems did factory workers       38. long hours, low wages, no job
      face?                                       security, no benefits
  39. What were company towns?                39. Company towns = Workers had to
                                                  rent housing owned by their
                                                  employer and pay rent, even when
                                                  they were laid off
  40. What is a union?                        40. union = an organization of workers,
                                                  which tries to gain higher wages,
                                                  improved working conditions, and
                                                  better employee benefits
  41. What was the first important union in   41. Knights of Labor
      the United States?
  42. What destroyed the Knights of           42. Haymarket Riot
      Labor?
  43. What was the Haymarket Riot?            43. Haymarket Riot = a violent fight in
                                                  Chicago in 1886 between workers
                                                and police
44. Describe the early history of the       44. grew slowly and at first lost most of
    American Federation of Labor.               its struggles with big business
45. What happened at the Homestead          45. Homestead Strike = a bloody and
    Strike?                                     unsuccessful strike by the AF of L
                                                at the Carnegie Steel Company in
                                                1882
46. Who was Samuel Gompers?                 46. founder and first major leader of the
                                                AF of L
47. Describe the situation of the AF of L   47. now called the AFL-CIO; today, the
    today.                                      most powerful union in the U.S.
48. Who was Eugene V. Debs?                 48. leader of the American Railway
                                                Union
49. What event destroyed the American       49. Pullman Strike
    Railway Union?
50. What was the Pullman Strike?            50. Pullman Strike = an 1894 strike by
                                                railroad employees against the
                                                Pullman Company, which made
                                                railroad sleeping cars
51. What was the International Ladies’      51. an early attempt to organize women
    Garment Workers Union?                      who worked in textile factories

								
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