Communism and Fascism
Fascism Both Communism
Class Society dictatorship rule Classless
Each group has
its place and Denial of Internationalists
function individual rights
Nationalists State/nation all workers
Fascists believed was supreme
in extreme loyalty
to the nation and its Non-democratic
Post War Uncertainty in
Lack of Multiple Germans Inflation as
strong political blamed a result of
Democratic the the war and
in Germany Instability
The stock market collapse of 1929
and the resulting Great
Depression hit Germany and its weak economy hard
Post War Uncertainty in Italy
Italians unhappy with WWI results:
– poor economy
– lack of growth.
Benito Mussolini creates Fascist Party
(1919) promised to rescue Italy’s
economy & make her dominant.
King Victor Emmanuel III appoints
Mussolini (Il Duce) leader of Italy:
– Abolished democratic practices
– Outlawed political parties except for the Fascist
– Jailed political enemies using secret police
– Took control of the media
• Media only broadcasted pro-fascist propaganda
Hitler’s Rise to Power
Saw brief action in WWI.
Hitler joined the National Socialist
German Worker’s Party (NAZI).
– party’s goal was to undo Treaty of Versailles.
His fiery rhetoric and anti - govt. speeches
landed him in jail for treason.
In jail he wrote Mein Kampf:
– Germans were master race(Aryans) all others
(Jews, Slavs, and Gypsies) were inferior
– Treaty of Versailles was an outrage; Germany
would/should re-acquire its lost land(s)
– Hitler used society’s long resentment of the
Jewish people as his rationale for his actions.
Great Depression helped Hitler capitalize
on German peoples’ need for strong,
charismatic leader who could restore
Banned opposing political parties
SS/Gestapo captured political
Created a command economy
Took control of media outlets
– Pro Nazi propaganda
Indoctrinated German youths
Blamed Jewish people for
– deprived Jews of many basic human rights.
November 9th, 1938
– German storm troopers
– Retribution for assassination
of German Diplomat by
Germany relocated Jews into
– Poor living conditions.
Hitler’s plan to create pure race.
Groups deemed inferior rounded up
Millions sent to concentration camps:
– forced labor
• gas chambers
The US and European countries limited the
number of Jewish immigrants
Nationalists vs. Second Republic
– Nationalist believed tradition Spanish
society was being threatened by policies
of the Second Republic.
– military junta chose Franco as
Generalísimo of the Nationalists.
• later appointed Caudillo
– military should overthrow the republic
and replace it with a strong authoritarian
Spain’s Role in WWII
– Franco practiced fascist principles
– recognized debt to Axis Powers for financial/military
assistance throughout Spain’s civil war.
– Different goals prohibited full Spanish involvement in war
– Once war shifted in favor of Allies, Spain's neutrality
– Spain exported raw materials to Germany
– did not abandon hope of German victory until defeat was
certain in 1944.
Avoiding direct involvement in World War II
– spared Spain of wide-scale death and destruction.