Communism and post-communism

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					Communism and post-
   communism
     Post-communist states
• State Population     GDP per capita
• Russia 142,893,540   $12,100 (P.P.P.)
• Poland 38,536,869    $14,100 (P.P.P.)
Communist states under reform
• State Population     GDP per capita
• P.R.C. 1,313,973,713 $7,600 (P.P.P.)
• Vietnam 84,402,966 $3,100 (P.P.P.)
        Communist states
• State Population    GDP per capita
• Cuba     11,382,820 $3,900 (P.P.P.)
• D.P.R.K. 23,113,019 $1,800 (P.P.P.)
Historical origins of the regimes
• October Revolution in Russia (1917)
  – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
• East Europe and North Korea after WWII
• Chinese revolution (1911-1949)
  – Chinese Communist Party
• Vietnamese revolution (1945-1975)
• Cuban revolution (1959)
“Arc of Containment”
            A Soviet camp?
• Warsaw Pact was established in 1955 in
  Eastern Europe to counter NATO
• divisions within world communist
  movement
  – Albania and Yugoslavia broke free from
    Soviet control after the late 1940s
  – USSR-PRC ideological and military conflicts
    after the late 1950s
  3 pillars of communist regime
• Marxist ideology
  – Karl Marx (1818 - 1883)
• Communist Party
  – Lenin (1870 - 1924)
• command economy
  – Stalin (1879 - 1953)
              Leninist party
• Party monopoly
  – of the “correct ideology”
  – of political power
• Communist Party
  – proletarian vanguard
  – alone could comprehend and represent the
    objective long-term interests of the masses
            The Party State
• Communist Party held monopoly on real
  decision-making power
  – government responsible for implementation
• Communist Party leaders
  – cult of personality around Stalin
  – de-Stalinization after 1956
  – collective leadership
  Organization of Leninist party
• nomenklatura
  – Party control of government
  – appointment to key positions
• “democratic centralism”
  – centralized decision-making
• internal discipline
  Organization of Leninist party
• hierarchy
  – General Secretary
  – Secretariat
  – Politburo
  – Central Committee
  – Party Committees at local levels
    • republics, provinces, counties, etc.
  – Party Committees/Branches in firms etc.
        Command economy
• state ownership of property
• state management of firms
• central planning
        Command economy
• Early successes
  – mobilization of resources
  – heavy industry
  – reduce poverty
• later problems
  – consumer goods shortage
  – technologically backward
  – international competition
               Reforms
• Deng Xiaoping’s “reform and opening up”
  since late 1970s
Gorbachev’s Reforms (1985-91)
• glasnost
  – openness in the political system
• perestroika
  – economic restructuring
• foreign policy
  – improved relationship with the West
  – transformed relationship with East European
    states
Collapse of communism (1989)
• Democratization in East Europe
  – Poland, Hungary, East Germany,
    Czechoslovakia, Romania, etc.
• pro-democracy student movement in
  China
  – Tian’anmen Square
• breakup of the Soviet Union
  – 1991