Characterization of Commercial Optical Fiber Cables for Space

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					 Characterization of Commercial
    Optical Fiber Cables for
  Space Flight Environments at
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
                 Melanie Ott
        Sigma Research and Engineering
         / Goddard Space Flight Center
    301-286-0127, melanie.ott@gsfc.nasa.gov
       http://misspiggy.gsfc.nasa.gov/tva

             IMAPS/NEPP ATW May 24, 2000
                     Outline
•   Background
•   Definitions
•   Lessons Learned
•   Characterization Testing on cable
•   Results of Thermal Testing of COTS Cables
•   MTP Ribbon Cable Assembly Characterization Results
•   Optical Fiber Electron Scintillation Testing Results
•   Optical Fiber Total Dose Radiation Testing
•   Conclusion
                            Background
• Goals of COTS Cable Characterization Program
  – Cable assembly using Commercial-Off-the-Shelf Technology
    (COTS).
  – Wide variety of products with parameters for usage.
  – NASA wide use.
  – Multimode and singlemode applications.
  – Parnerships with vendors.
• Issues
  –   NASA qualified cable is obsolete.
  –   No more full qualification programs.
  –   Need for characterization of available COTS parts.
  –   Technological advancements.
        Optical Fiber Cable Definitions

                          Jacket            Cladding
            Strength
            Members                Core
  Coating
                                          Cladding

                       Buffer      Core
Glass Fiber Hermetic Seal
                        Lessons Learned
• Optical fiber cable can have failures
• Shrinkage of Fluoropolymers: Teflon & Tefzel (TFE, ETFE, PFA, FEP) - causes
   optical losses and reliability problems.

• Connector/cable incompatibility
• Destructive strength testing on fiber, post cabling.
• Proof testing (100% on fiber) implemented properly during
  draw
• Traceability of parts
• Outgassing of acrylate coating, passes in configuration.
• Clean terminations prior to testing and integration, inspect
  terminations
• Use space flight parts only for space flight hardware.
   Characterization of Cable and Assemblies

• Technology Validation of the COTS part: knowledge of
  the failure mechanisms associated with part and good knowledge
  of environment for use.
• Testing to bring out known failure mechanisms.
   – Radiation, Vibration, Thermal, Outgassing, Strength.
• Specify environment for cable assemblies, post testing.
• Recommendations on how to bring product to the next
  harsher environment.
• Some generic testing for a variety of missions based on
  a common environment.
                  Thermal Testing of COTS cables


Thermal Test 1: -30 °C to 140 °C, 5 min dwell, 1 °C /min, 28 & 60 cycles
•   Spectran Flightguide,
•   W.L.Gore 8838 (prototype I) & FON1008
•   Brand Rex 1008
•   Northern lights: 1-HYMC62CFD, 1-HYMC10C


Thermal Test 2: -55°C to +125°C, 20 min dwell, 2°C /min, 72 cycles
•   W.L. Gore FON1004 (prototype II)
•   Brand Rex 1614
•   Brand Rex 1008
•   Northern Lights (RIFOCS) H06
•   Northern Lights (RIFOCS) HL1
Testing: Cable Component Shrinkage from Temperature Cycling
                                         -30 to 140 degrees C, 1 degree C/min, 5 min dwell at extremes

                                              Cable Component Shrinkage vs. Thermal Cycle

                               1.6

                               1.4
        % Relative Shrinkage




                               1.2

                                1                                                                Spectran
                               0.8                                                               Brand Rex
                                                                                                 W.L. Gore
                               0.6

                               0.4

                               0.2

                                0
                                     6       12    18    24     31     38   46    52     60
                                                           Thermal Cycle


                               Generic Environmental Parameter Testing:
                               Spectran Flightguide, Brand Rex 1008, W.L.Gore 8838
Optical Testing for Shrinkage From Thermal Cycling
                                  Optical Power Output After Thermal Cycling of Northern
                                       Lights Hytrel Cable and W.L. Gore FON 1008

                             12
 Output Power (microwatts)




                             10

                             8                                                     Northern Lights

                             6                                                     W.L. Gore
                                                                                   W. L. Gore
                             4

                             2

                             0
                                  0       7      14       22      28      36
                                                 Thermal Cycle



                                        Generic Environmental Parameter Testing
                       Summary of Test Results and Cable Parameters from
                                  Generic Shrinkage Testing,

                                                                       Northern         Northern
   Manufacturer           W.L. Gore      Spectran      Brand            Lights           Lights       W. L. Gore
                                                        Rex           Microcable        Microcable
   Part Number               8388       Flightguide   OC 1008         1-HY-MC-        1-HY-MC-10C      FON 1008
                         Prototype 1                                    62CFD
Total samples tested           4            6             4                3                3               2
 Length of samples           ~3m          ~3m           ~3m            ~ 3, 4 m           ~3m            100 m
   Measurement              Length       Length        Length       Length, Optical      Length          Optical
  Jacket Material       Fluoropolymer     Tefzel       Tefzel           Hytrel           Hytrel      Fluoropolymer
  Outer Diameter           2.5 mm        1.8 mm       2.75 mm           .9 mm            .9 mm          1.16 mm
 Total Number of              60            60           60               36               36              36
       cycles
   Ave Total %                 3           1.58          2.43            1.14             2.25
     shrinkage            (60 cycles)   (60 cycles)   (60 cycles)     (28 cycles)      (28 cycles)
 Total attenuation             --            --            --              --               --        .25 dB/100m
     (28 cycles)
 Total Attenuation            --            --            --          3.6 dB/4 m           --        .084 dB/100m
        (36)


    Thermal Environment: -30 to 140 degrees C, 1 degree C/min, 5 min dwell at extremes
    General conclusions:
    - Large outer diam = more shrinkage.
    - Shrinking reduced to less than 0.1% after 60 cycles.
    - FON 1008 good optical stability, Spectran Flightguide: construction stability.
    - Hytrel usually a poor choice for a thermally stable jacket.
    Thermal Optical Cable Testing Description and % Shrinkage Summary, 3m
                    lengths, -55°C to +125°C, 20 min dwell,

Vendor               Cable              Fiber Type         Outer      Thermal     Total %
Cable Part #         Configuration                         diameter   rating      Shrinkage

W.L. Gore            Tight Tube with    Single mode,                  -55C to      2.94
FON1004              Metal braid over   1310/1550 nm       2.5 mm     +125C
                     GoreTex buffer     acrylate buffer

Brand Rex            Tight tube         Multimode                     -100C to
OC1614                                  100/140/170        2.1 mm     +75C         0.13
(SSQ-21654 Rev. B)                      hermetic seal/
                                        polyimide buffer
                                        Multimode
Brand Rex            Loose tube         100/140/500                   - 55C to     1.80
OC1008                                  acrylate buffer    2.77 mm    +85C
                                        from corning now
                                        discontinued

RIFOCS               Tight tube         Multimode          2.4 mm     -40C to      1.87
H06                                     62.5/125/250                  +95C


RIFOCS               Tight tube         Single mode,       2.4 mm     -40C to      2.13
HL1                                     1310/1550 nm                  +95C
                                        acrylate buffer
Thermal Cycling Test Results COTS and Space Flight Cables

                  % Shrinkage of cable jacketing vs. thermal cycle, sample set 1

               2.20
               2.00
               1.80
               1.60
               1.40
% Shrinkage




                                                                              FON1004
               1.20
                                                                              OC1614
               1.00
                                                                              OC1008
               0.80
                                                                              H06
               0.60
                                                                              HL1
               0.40
               0.20
               0.00
              -0.20 0    8    16   24   32   40   48    56   64   72   80

                                        Thermal Cycle

                        -55°C to +125°C, 20 min dwell at extremes, 2 °C/min
    Thermal Cycling Length Shrinkage and Optical Performance
             Summary, -55°C to +125°C, 72 cycles

Cable        Total %       Total %      Cycles to      Insitu            Comments
            Shrinkage     Shrinkage      < 0.1%     transmission             on
                           after 24                 changes, 3m         transmission
                            cycles.
W.L. Gore                                                          After 2 cycles, steady
FON1004     2.94 (2.99)   0.75 (0.24)   56 (40)     < .05 dB
                                                                   below
                                                                    .05 dB
Brand Rex                                                          Increased from less <
OC1614      0.12 (0.13)   0.03 (0.0)    < 8 (< 8)   < .10 dB
                                                                   .025 dB upto .10 dB as
                                                                   test progresses
Brand Rex                                                          Increases from .05 dB
OC1008      1.90 (1.80)   0.44 (0.44)   56* (56)    < .50 dB
                                                                   to .45 dB as test
                                                                   progresses
RIFOCS                                                             After 2 cycles steady
H06         1.90 (1.87)   0.14 (0.17)   24 (24)     < .10 dB
                                                                   below
                                                                    .10 dB
RIFOCS                                                             After 13 cycles drops
HL1         2.12 (2.13)   0.10 (0.17)   16* (16)    < .40 dB
                                                                   to below .05 steady for
                                                                   the rest of test
FODB COTS Application, MTP connector with
  12 Channel FO Ribbon Cable Assembly
    » Pictures
  MTP Ribbon Cable Assembly Characterization
                            3 m length, 1300 nm

• Random vibration testing: insitu monitoring of one channel/test
  and post measurements of all 12 channels.
  (14.1 grms, 1 minute/axis)


• Thermal testing (insitu testing of one channel/test):
          – 30 cycles, -20 °C to +85 °C, 1 °C /min.
          – 42 cycles, -20 °C to +85 °C, 3 °C /min up, 2 °C /min down.

• Random vibration testing 2: insitu monitoring of one
  channel/test and post measurements of all 12 channels.
  (20 grms, 3 minutes/axis)
      MTP Ribbon Cable Assembly Testing Summary
• Twelve channel MTP connector/ribbon cable assembly with
  62.5/125 micron fiber, characterized for EO-1 environment.
• During vibration test one (1 min/axis): transients < .25 dB, post test
  optical loss < -.01dB.
• Thermal cycling: -.03 dB & -.16 dB (loss) @ -20 °C, post test
  average post test loss < -.50 dB.
• Post vibration test two (twice levels of test one for 3 minutes/axis)
  transients < .25 dB, average post test loss < -.10 dB,
• One fiber in 48 pistoned (cracked) as a result of testing.




              Pre thermal testing   Post thermal testing
    Radiation Effects on Optical Fiber
                     Scintillation
luminescence as a result of electron induced photons.

           Total Ionizing Dose Effects
   Operating Wavelength
   Materials used as dopants
   Fabrication procedure
   Fiber Coating Materials
   Temperature of Operation
   Dose Rate
   Total Dose
Electron Induced Scintillation Testing on Optical Fiber
                     Test Index
    A: Tested at energies 0.5 MeV and 1.0 MeV
B: Tested at energies 0.1 MeV, 0.5 MeV and 1.0 MeV
        *: indicates fiber tested at 1.5 MeV

                     Scan Index
  1. Indicates testing for a minute duration monitoring
    all wavelengths simultaneously.

  2. Indicates testing for a minute duration monitoring a
    single wavelength scan at 532 nm.

  3. Indicates testing for a minute duration monitoring a
    single wavelength scan at 816 nm.

  4. Indicates testing over several minutes to capture
    data from a full scan of wavelengths from 185 nm to
    900 nm.
     Optical Fiber Tested For Radiation Induced Scintillation
Manufacturer      Part Number          Dimensions      Abbrev.      Coating      Profile     Test   Scan
 Polymicro       FVA200240320         200/240/320       PM1      acrylate     step, high      B     1,4
                                                                              OH
 Polymicro        FIP200220240        200/220/240       PM2      polyimide    step, low OH    A     1,4
 Polymicro        FVP200220240        200/220/240       PM3      polyimide    step, high      A     1,4
                                                                              OH
 Polymicro        FIA100140250        100/140/250       PM4      acrylate     step, low OH    A     1,4
    3M         FS-SN-4224, 816 nm     4.95/125/250       M3      acrylate     step            A      3
    3M         FS-VS-2614, 532 nm       3/80/200         M4      acrylate     step            A      2
    3M         FS-SC-5624, 1064 nm    5.95/125/250       M5      acrylate     step            A      1
    3M            FG-200-UCR         200/240/260/400     M1      Tecs/acrylate high OH        B     1,4
    3M            FG-200-LCR         200/240/260/400     M2      Tecs/acrylate low OH         A     1,4
  Spectran      SMCA0780, 816 nm       4.9/125/250      SP1      acrylate     step            A      3
  Spectran      SMCA0515, 532 nm        3/125/245       SP2      acrylate     step            A      2
  Spectran     SMCA0980D, 1064 nm      6.2/125/250      SP3      acrylate     step            B      1
  Spectran      C1032XA BF05444       100/140/500       SP4      acrylate/    graded         B*     1,4
                                                                 hermetic     index
CeramOptec       UV200/220/245P       200/220/245       CO1      polyimide    step, high      B     1,4
                                                                              OH
CeramOptec       WF200/220/245P       200/220/245       CO2      polyimide    step, low OH    A     1,4
CeramOptec       UV100/140/155P         100/140         CO3      polyimide    step, high      A     1,4
                                                                              OH
CeramOptec       WF100/140/155P         100/140         CO4      polyimide    step, low OH    A     1,4
  Litespec                            100/140/900       LS1      buffer       step index      A     1,4
 Results of Electron Induced Scintillation Testing of
                    Optical Fiber
• Events that occurred during testing were never over 250
  photons/s, over the range 185 nm to 900 nm.
• Events that were recorded were attributed to arcing or
  discharging inside of the electron accelerator casing; from
  the stabilization corona points to the casing, and from the
  accelerator plates as a result of impurities in the beam line.
• Concluded that no radiation induced scintillation was
  occurring above the noise floor of the PMT at 50 photons/s
  since recorded events were not a result of radiation induced
  scintillation in the optical fiber but were events occurring
  inside the electron accelerator casing and causing RF
  spikes through the grounding of the equipment that was
  recording data in the room with the accelerator.
                               Testing: Radiation Induced Attenuation of Spectran Hermetic Acrylate Rad Hard
                                            Fiber, BF0544, 0 to 215 Krads dose rate = 50 rads/min



                                            Induced Attenuation and Extrapolated Induced Attenuation for Spectran
                                               BF0544 Acrylate Hermetic 100/140 Graded Index Multimode Fiber
                                                           vs. Total Dose, dose rate = 50 rads/min
                              14
Induced Attenuation (dB/Km)




                              12

                              10

                               8
                                                                                                                      Actual Data

                               6
                                                                                                                      Extrapolated
                                                                                                                      Data
                               4

                               2

                               0
                                   0

                                       15

                                            30

                                                 45

                                                      60

                                                           75

                                                                 90

                                                                      105

                                                                            120

                                                                                  135

                                                                                        150

                                                                                              165

                                                                                                    180

                                                                                                          195

                                                                Total Dose (Krad)                               210
                            Total Ionizing Dose Radiation Induced Attenuation on Lucent
                            SFT Flight guide and Commercial 100/140/172 Optical Fiber
                                    TID Induced Optical Attenuation for Lucent SFT Optical Fiber, 28.3
                                               rads/min & .34 rads/min at -121 degrees C

                           14
Optical Attenuation (dB)




                           12
                           10

                           8                                                                    BF04436
                                                                                                BF05202 (old)
                           6                                                                    BF05202 (new)
                           4

                           2

                           0
                                1     122 243 364 485 606 727 848 969 1090 1211
                                                          Time (min)
                   Total Dose Testing of Optical Fiber
• Spectran 100/140/500 Hermetic graded index optical fiber, Total dose testing at
  25C and at two different dose rates.
    –   50 rads/min, TID 100 Krads, Attenuation = 9.59 dB/Km
                    »   TID 15 Krads, Attenuation = 2.53 dB/Km
                    »   TID 150, Saturation @ 12.21 dB/Km
    –   34 rads/min, TID 100 Krads, Attenuation = 6.45 dB/Km
                    »   TID 15 Krads, Attenuation = 1.69 dB/Km
                    »   TID 160, Saturation @ 9.18 dB/Km

• Testing of Lucent SFT 100/140/172 Hermetic polyimide optical fiber, 100 m.
         3 hrs @ 28.3 rads/min (5094 TID), 18 hours following 15 min rest at .34 rads/min with
             temperature steady at -125C during exposure.
         BF04436: 1st dose rate, optical loss ~ 3.82 dB,
                    2nd dose rate loss ~ 4.7 dB and rising
         BF05202 (new process) : 1st dose rate, optical loss ~ 11.5 dB,
              Flightguide          2nd dose rate loss ~ 7.3 dB and falling
         BF05202 (old process, SL PREM BASE): 1st dose rate, loss ~ 11.32 dB
              Flightguide:                          2nd dose rate, loss ~ 7.1 dB
                             Conclusion
Thermal Characterizations
Length Shrinkage and Optical Stability:
W.L. Gore (8388, FON1008, FON1004), 12 optical fiber ribbon cable with MTPs
Spectran Flightguide,
Northern Lights Hytrel Jacketed, MM and SM & RIFOCS H06, HL1
Brand Rex OC1008, OC1614

Vibration Characterization
12 fiber ribbon cable (W.L.Gore) and MTP (USCONEC)


Radiation Characterization (Scintillation)
Variety: Polymicro, 3M, Spectran, CeramOptec, Litespec

Radiation Characterization (TID)
Spectran: BF05444,
Lucent SFT: BF05202, BF04436

Outgassing: FON1008 passed with acrylate coated fiber
                 IMAPS/NEPP Advanced Technology Workshop
                    Session on Photonics/Optoelectronics
                               May 24, 2000
8:05 am - 8:40 am
Space Qualification of Optoelectronic and Photonic Devices, Dr. Quiesup Kim, JPL

8:40 am - 9:15 am
Kilowatt Peak Power Semiconductor Laser Arrays, The Challenge of Space Flight
Qualification, Dr. Carl J. Magee, NASA Langley Research Center

9:20 am - 9:55 am
Characterization of Commercial Optical Fiber Cables for Space Flight Environments at
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Melanie Ott, Sigma Research and Engineering

9:55 am - 10:30 am
Implementation of Optical Cables in a Spacecraft Environment, Doug Hardy, W.L. Gore

10:30 am - 10:55 am
Defects in NFOC-2FFF-1GRP-1 Optical Cable Used in International Space Station
Hardware, Jeannette Plante, Swales Aerospace

10:55 am - 11:30 am
High Speed InP Based 1 x 2 Optical Switch, Simarjeet Saini, University of Maryland