Cognitive-Behavior Modification - PowerPoint by aoa29226

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									Cognitive-Behavior
   Modification
          Cognitive A-B-C Model


    A              B                C
Antecedents      Beliefs      Consequences
environment      rational     emotional reaction
beliefs          irrational   behavioral response
Antecedents                 Belief                          Consequences


Teacher asks question       “I know the answer!”            Emotion: joy
                                                            Behavior: raise hand

Billy c alls Jimmy a jerk   “If I let him talk to me that   Emotion: hurt
                            way I’m a sissy.”               Behavior: hits Bill y

Spelling test               “I’m lousy at spelling.”        Emotion: inadequacy
                                                            Behavior: complains of
                                                            stomachache
   Four Irrational Conclusions
1. Awfulizing. Individuals express a belief that a situation is
   more than 100% bad, worse then it absolutely should be.
2. I-can’t-stand-it-its (low frustration tolerance). Individuals
   say they cannot envision being able to endure situations
   or having any happiness at all if what they demand must
   not exist actually exists.
3. Damnation. Individuals tend to be excessively critical of
   self, others, and/or life conditions.
4. Always-and-never thinking. Individuals will insist on
   absolutes (e.g., that they will always fail or never be
   approved by significant others).
 Past Trends in Cognitive
         Therapy
• Dissatisfaction with behavior
  modification

• Focus on social learning theory

• Development of cognitive
  psychology
    Reciprocal Determinism


           Cognition




Behavior               Environment
Personal preferences influence when and which
programs, from among the available alternatives,
individuals choose to watch on television. Although the
potential televised environment is identical for all
viewers, the actual televised environment that impinges
on given individuals depends on what they select to
watch. Through their viewing behavior, they partly
shape the nature of the future televised environment.
Because production costs and commercial
requirements also determine what people are shown,
the options provided in the televised environment partly
shape the viewers’ preferences.
Problems Assessing Cognition

• It is difficult to assess individuals’ cognitions.
• Cognitive activity is covert—it occurs internally
  and is not subject to direct observation.
• The behavior of a child does not always
  correspond with certain cognitions.
• Just because a child engages in negative self-talk
  does not mean her beliefs are dysfunctional.
• Whenever we make an inference about cognition
  from one’s behavior, error is introduced into the
  process.
 CONCURRENT                                   UNSTRUCTURED
                LEVEL l
                  1. Recording Spontaneous
                     Speech
                  2. Free Association
                  3. Thinking-Aloud

                LEVEL ll
                  4. Random Sampling
                     of Thoughts
                  5. Self-Monitoring Procedures

                LEVEL lll
                  6. Videotape Thought
                     Reconstruction
                  7. Self-Statement Inventories
                  8. Thought-Listing

                LEVEL lV
                  9. Clinical Interview
RETROSPECTIVE                                     STRUCTURED
     Self-Instruction Training
1. Cognitive Modeling. The teacher performs a task while
   talking aloud; the student observes.
2. Overt External Guidance. The student and teacher both
   perform the task while talking aloud together.
3. Overt Self-Guidance. The student performs the task
   using the same verbalizations as the teacher.
4. Faded Self-Guidance. The student whispers the
   instructions (often in an abbreviated form) while going
   through the task.
5. Covert Self-Guidance. The student performs the task,
   guided by covert self-speech.
     Types of Self-Statements
1. Problem Identification. “What is it I have to do?”
2. Focusing of Attention. “I have to concentrate, think only
   about my work.”
3. Planning and Response Guidance. “Be careful . . . Look
   at one at a time.”
4. Self-Reinforcement. “Good—I got it!”
5. Self-Evaluation. “Am I following my plan . . . Did I look at
   each one?”
6. Coping and Error-Correcting Option. “That’s OK . . .
   even if I make an error I an back up and go slowly.”
    Levels of Self-Statements

• Task-approach statements refer to general
  strategies that can be used across a
  variety of related tasks.

• Task-specific statements refer to
  strategies that are specific to a particular
  task at hand.
 Factors Influencing the Effectiveness
          of Self-Instructions

• If students have successfully used self-instructions in
  the past, they are more likely to use them again.
• The effectiveness of self-instructions will be affected
  by the cognitive ability of a child.
• Children are more likely to use self-instructions when
  they are targeted to the specific behavior to increase
  or decrease.
• Self-instructions do not teach student skills.
• Students should be reinforced for using self-
  instructions.
         Attribution Retraining
Attribution retraining is
based on the theory that
a child’s causal
explanations for why she
is performing well or
poorly have implications
for her behavioral
persistence,
expectancies for future
performance, and
emotional reactions to
success and failure.
     Considerations for Using
      Attribution Retraining
• The teacher should tell a child that increased
  effort leads to success rather than believing that
  he is not sufficiently trying.

• A child should experience some success in order
  to increase the effectiveness of the self-statement
  “increased effort will lead to increased success.”

• The teacher should convey to a child that the self-
  statement will contribute to future success.
        Thought Stopping

The goal of thought
stopping is to help a
child control
unproductive or self-
defeating thoughts
and images by
suppressing or
eliminating them.
       Usefulness of Thought
             Stopping
• Persons who ruminate about a past event that
  cannot be changed (“crying over spilled milk”)

• Persons who ruminate about an event that is
  unlikely to occur (e.g., being stuck b lightening)

• Persons who engage in repetitive, unproductive,
  negative thinking or repetitive anxiety-producing
  or self-defeating images
  Situations to Avoid Thought
           Stopping

• It may not be appropriate for persons who have
  very intense and uncontrollable thoughts, such
  as those characterized by schizophrenia.

• Thoughts stopping seems to be more effective for
  persons with intermittent rather than continuous
  self-defeating thoughts.
    Thought Stopping Steps

• Treatment Rationale
• Practitioner-Directed Thought Stopping: Overt
  Interruption
• Child-Directed Thought Stopping: Overt
  Interruption
• Child-Directed Thought Stopping: Covert
  Interruption
• Shift to Assertive, Positive, or Neutral Thoughts
• Homework and Follow-Up
Problem-Solving Thinking
         Skills

   Problem Identification

   Alternative Thinking

   Consequential Thinking

   Means-Ends Thinking
Problem-Solving Model

 Problem Orientation
 Problem Definition and Formulation
 Generation of Alternative Solutions
 Decision Making
 Solution Implementation and
 Verification
    Problem-Solving Steps and
           Questions

Steps                           Questions
Problem identification          What is the concern?
Goal selection                  What do I want?
Generation of alternatives      What can I do?
Consideration of consequences   What might happen?
Decision making                 What is my decision?
Implementation                  Now do it.
Evaluation                      Did it work?
            Turtle Technique
• The teacher
  introduces the turtle
  response by selling
  the students a story.
• Students are taught
  muscle relaxation
  exercises.
• Problem solving is
  introduced through
  the use of role playing
  and discussion.
Rational-Emotive Therapy


 Situation (activating event, antecedent)

 Belief (meaning, interpretation)

 Emotional Reaction

 Behavioral Response
Irrational Thinking Styles


   Demandingness

   Awfulizing

   I-can’t-stand-it-it’s

   Condemning and Damning
     The Sentence that Drops
       Out Emotional Pants

That event (whatever it was) shouldn’t have happened,
its awful that it did, I can’t stand it, and somebody
around here needs to be condemned and damned as
rotten and worthless—let’s see, is it me, is it you, or
is it the way the world works?
Physical Injury Scale
100% — worst
 95% — 4 limbs cut off
 90% — 3 limbs cut off
 85% — 2 limbs cut off
 80% — dominant arm cut off
 75% — nondominant arm cut off
 70% — 1 hand cut off
 65% — 1 foot cut off
 60% — 3 fingers cut off
 55% — big toe cut off
 50% — 3 broken limbs
 45% — 2 broken limbs
 40% — dominant arm broken
 35% — nondominant arm broken
 30% — broken nose
 25% — badly sprained ankle
 20% — laceration (6 stitches)
 15% — cut
 10% — bruise
  5% — small bump
  1% — gnat bite
  0% —
     The Sentence that Keeps
     Our Emotional Pants Up


That event (whatever it was) should have
happened, and it’s about ____% bad, and
I can stand a ____ (                )
          Cognitive Therapy
• A child identifies dysfunctional thoughts and
  maladaptive assumptions that may be causing
  unpleasant emotions.

• Implementation of techniques to counteract the
  debilitating thought or dysfunctional assumption.

• A child is assigned homework assignments that
  require practice appropriate behaviors.

								
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