Cognitive-Behavior Modification Cognitive A-B-C Model A B C Antecedents Beliefs Consequences environment rational emotional reaction beliefs irrational behavioral response Antecedents Belief Consequences Teacher asks question “I know the answer!” Emotion: joy Behavior: raise hand Billy c alls Jimmy a jerk “If I let him talk to me that Emotion: hurt way I’m a sissy.” Behavior: hits Bill y Spelling test “I’m lousy at spelling.” Emotion: inadequacy Behavior: complains of stomachache Four Irrational Conclusions 1. Awfulizing. Individuals express a belief that a situation is more than 100% bad, worse then it absolutely should be. 2. I-can’t-stand-it-its (low frustration tolerance). Individuals say they cannot envision being able to endure situations or having any happiness at all if what they demand must not exist actually exists. 3. Damnation. Individuals tend to be excessively critical of self, others, and/or life conditions. 4. Always-and-never thinking. Individuals will insist on absolutes (e.g., that they will always fail or never be approved by significant others). Past Trends in Cognitive Therapy • Dissatisfaction with behavior modification • Focus on social learning theory • Development of cognitive psychology Reciprocal Determinism Cognition Behavior Environment Personal preferences influence when and which programs, from among the available alternatives, individuals choose to watch on television. Although the potential televised environment is identical for all viewers, the actual televised environment that impinges on given individuals depends on what they select to watch. Through their viewing behavior, they partly shape the nature of the future televised environment. Because production costs and commercial requirements also determine what people are shown, the options provided in the televised environment partly shape the viewers’ preferences. Problems Assessing Cognition • It is difficult to assess individuals’ cognitions. • Cognitive activity is covert—it occurs internally and is not subject to direct observation. • The behavior of a child does not always correspond with certain cognitions. • Just because a child engages in negative self-talk does not mean her beliefs are dysfunctional. • Whenever we make an inference about cognition from one’s behavior, error is introduced into the process. CONCURRENT UNSTRUCTURED LEVEL l 1. Recording Spontaneous Speech 2. Free Association 3. Thinking-Aloud LEVEL ll 4. Random Sampling of Thoughts 5. Self-Monitoring Procedures LEVEL lll 6. Videotape Thought Reconstruction 7. Self-Statement Inventories 8. Thought-Listing LEVEL lV 9. Clinical Interview RETROSPECTIVE STRUCTURED Self-Instruction Training 1. Cognitive Modeling. The teacher performs a task while talking aloud; the student observes. 2. Overt External Guidance. The student and teacher both perform the task while talking aloud together. 3. Overt Self-Guidance. The student performs the task using the same verbalizations as the teacher. 4. Faded Self-Guidance. The student whispers the instructions (often in an abbreviated form) while going through the task. 5. Covert Self-Guidance. The student performs the task, guided by covert self-speech. Types of Self-Statements 1. Problem Identification. “What is it I have to do?” 2. Focusing of Attention. “I have to concentrate, think only about my work.” 3. Planning and Response Guidance. “Be careful . . . Look at one at a time.” 4. Self-Reinforcement. “Good—I got it!” 5. Self-Evaluation. “Am I following my plan . . . Did I look at each one?” 6. Coping and Error-Correcting Option. “That’s OK . . . even if I make an error I an back up and go slowly.” Levels of Self-Statements • Task-approach statements refer to general strategies that can be used across a variety of related tasks. • Task-specific statements refer to strategies that are specific to a particular task at hand. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Self-Instructions • If students have successfully used self-instructions in the past, they are more likely to use them again. • The effectiveness of self-instructions will be affected by the cognitive ability of a child. • Children are more likely to use self-instructions when they are targeted to the specific behavior to increase or decrease. • Self-instructions do not teach student skills. • Students should be reinforced for using self- instructions. Attribution Retraining Attribution retraining is based on the theory that a child’s causal explanations for why she is performing well or poorly have implications for her behavioral persistence, expectancies for future performance, and emotional reactions to success and failure. Considerations for Using Attribution Retraining • The teacher should tell a child that increased effort leads to success rather than believing that he is not sufficiently trying. • A child should experience some success in order to increase the effectiveness of the self-statement “increased effort will lead to increased success.” • The teacher should convey to a child that the self- statement will contribute to future success. Thought Stopping The goal of thought stopping is to help a child control unproductive or self- defeating thoughts and images by suppressing or eliminating them. Usefulness of Thought Stopping • Persons who ruminate about a past event that cannot be changed (“crying over spilled milk”) • Persons who ruminate about an event that is unlikely to occur (e.g., being stuck b lightening) • Persons who engage in repetitive, unproductive, negative thinking or repetitive anxiety-producing or self-defeating images Situations to Avoid Thought Stopping • It may not be appropriate for persons who have very intense and uncontrollable thoughts, such as those characterized by schizophrenia. • Thoughts stopping seems to be more effective for persons with intermittent rather than continuous self-defeating thoughts. Thought Stopping Steps • Treatment Rationale • Practitioner-Directed Thought Stopping: Overt Interruption • Child-Directed Thought Stopping: Overt Interruption • Child-Directed Thought Stopping: Covert Interruption • Shift to Assertive, Positive, or Neutral Thoughts • Homework and Follow-Up Problem-Solving Thinking Skills Problem Identification Alternative Thinking Consequential Thinking Means-Ends Thinking Problem-Solving Model Problem Orientation Problem Definition and Formulation Generation of Alternative Solutions Decision Making Solution Implementation and Verification Problem-Solving Steps and Questions Steps Questions Problem identification What is the concern? Goal selection What do I want? Generation of alternatives What can I do? Consideration of consequences What might happen? Decision making What is my decision? Implementation Now do it. Evaluation Did it work? Turtle Technique • The teacher introduces the turtle response by selling the students a story. • Students are taught muscle relaxation exercises. • Problem solving is introduced through the use of role playing and discussion. Rational-Emotive Therapy Situation (activating event, antecedent) Belief (meaning, interpretation) Emotional Reaction Behavioral Response Irrational Thinking Styles Demandingness Awfulizing I-can’t-stand-it-it’s Condemning and Damning The Sentence that Drops Out Emotional Pants That event (whatever it was) shouldn’t have happened, its awful that it did, I can’t stand it, and somebody around here needs to be condemned and damned as rotten and worthless—let’s see, is it me, is it you, or is it the way the world works? Physical Injury Scale 100% — worst 95% — 4 limbs cut off 90% — 3 limbs cut off 85% — 2 limbs cut off 80% — dominant arm cut off 75% — nondominant arm cut off 70% — 1 hand cut off 65% — 1 foot cut off 60% — 3 fingers cut off 55% — big toe cut off 50% — 3 broken limbs 45% — 2 broken limbs 40% — dominant arm broken 35% — nondominant arm broken 30% — broken nose 25% — badly sprained ankle 20% — laceration (6 stitches) 15% — cut 10% — bruise 5% — small bump 1% — gnat bite 0% — The Sentence that Keeps Our Emotional Pants Up That event (whatever it was) should have happened, and it’s about ____% bad, and I can stand a ____ ( ) Cognitive Therapy • A child identifies dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive assumptions that may be causing unpleasant emotions. • Implementation of techniques to counteract the debilitating thought or dysfunctional assumption. • A child is assigned homework assignments that require practice appropriate behaviors.
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