Critical Thinking by dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar by shadiabanjar

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              Critical Thinking?
Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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                  Everyone thinks …..

Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But
much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased,
unclear, partial, uninformed or down-right
prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that
of what we produce, make, or build depends
precisely on the quality of our thought. Poor
thinking is costly, both in money and in
quality of life. Excellence in thought,
however, must be systematically cultivated.
 - Richard Paul
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            Critical Thinking History
                 •Socrates – 400 BC
   2,500 years ago Socrates established the
   importance of asking deep questions,
   seeking evidence, analyzing basic concepts
   before we accept ideas as worthy of
   beliefs .

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  •   Questioning
  •   Inquiring
  •   Search for meaning
  •   Search for truth

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     •Plato, Aristotle, Greek skeptics
     Plato, Aristotle, and Greek skeptics
     emphasized that things are often very
     different from what they appear to be and
     that only the trained mind is prepared to see
     though the way thing look to us on the

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In the middle ages
            •Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica)
Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica)
ensures that his thinking met the tests of
critical thinkers by answering criticisms of his

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  15th & 16th C.
                               •European scholars
      (Colet, Erasmus, More in England)
      started thinking critically about religion, art,
      society, human, law, and freedom.

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             Francis Bacon in England
            • wrote The Advancement of Learning,
            the 1st book in critical thinking.
            •argued for the importance of studying
            the world empirically.
            •laid the foundation for modern science
            with his emphasis on the information-
            gathered process.

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            Francis Bacon
• Father of the Scientific Method
• “We must become as little children in order to
  enter the kingdom of science”

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                         •Descartes in France
   50 years later        •Sir Thomas More in England
Descartes in France
• wrote the 2nd book Rules for the Direction of the Mind
 - developed a method of critical thought based on the
principle of systematic doubt.

•In the same period, Sir Thomas More:
 - developed a model for a new social order Utopia in
which every domain the present world was subject to
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16th &17th C.           Hobbes & Locke
- not to accept the traditional cultural beliefs
dominant in the thinking of their day as being
rational and normal.
- everything in the world should be explained
by evidence and reasoning.

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   17th & 18th C.

   • Robert Boyle & Isaac Newton in Chemistry &
   • other French thinkers in sociology & politics
   Adam Smith produces Wealth of Nations in

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   19th C.
   • Darwin's Descent of Man in the biological
   domain focused on the history of human
   culture and the basis of biological life
   • Sigmund Freud study in the unconscious
   •Plus other studies in the Anthropological &
   Linguistics domains.

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20th C.
•Number of thinkers have increased in every
domain of human thought and within which
reasoning takes place.
•Dewey – 1930’s
•Ennis – 1980’s

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               Reflective Thinking

• Dispositions of thinking                      • Native Resources
  – Open mindedness                                    – Curiosity
  – Whole heartedness                                  – Suggestion
  – Intellectual Responsibility                        – Orderliness

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• Critical thinking is “reasonable, reflective
  thinking focused on deciding what to believe or

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  Ennis -  Actions a learner usually
 must take in order to think critically
• Judge the credibility of sources
• Identify conclusions, reasons and assumptions
• Judge the quality of an argument including the
  acceptability of its reasons, assumptions, and evidence
• Develop and defend a position on an issue

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    Ennis - Actions a learner usually must take in
                order to think critically

•   Ask appropriate clarifying questions
•   Plan experiments and judge experimental designs
•   Define terms in a way appropriate for the context
•   Be open-minded
•   Try to be well-informed
•   Draw conclusions when warranted, but with caution

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 Students in school should be taught
 how to think critically. Classes should
 be designed based on reasoning and
 rational grounds and not as series of

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             What Is Critical Thinking?

“Critical thinking is the ability to apply reasoning and
logic to unfamiliar ideas, opinions, and situations.
Thinking critically involves seeing things in an open-
minded way. This important skill allows people to look
past their own views of the world and to adopt a more
aware way of viewing the world.”
                            What is Critical Thinking?
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                Definition of Critical Thinking

•Critical thinking means correct thinking in the
pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge
about the world.
•Another way to describe it is reasonable,
reflective, responsible, and skillful thinking
that is focused on deciding what to believe or

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•Critical thinking is to know to stop for red lights or
information well enough
                        not being able to process

whether you received the correct change at the
•  Such low-order thinking, critical and useful though it
may be, is sufficient only for personal survival; most
individuals master this.

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   •True critical thinking for higher-order thinking,
   enabling a person to,
                               example, responsibly
   judge between political candidates, serve on a
   murder trial jury, evaluate society's need for
   nuclear power plants, and assess the
   consequences of global warming.
   •  Critical thinking enables an individual to be a
   responsible citizen who contributes to society, and
   not be merely a consumer of society's

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  •questions, who thinks critically can ask appropriate
    A person
               gather relevant information, efficiently
     and creatively sort through this information, reason
     logically from this information, and come to reliable
     and trustworthy conclusions about the world that
     enable one to live and act successfully in it.
  •   Children are not born with the power to think
     critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally
     beyond survival-level thinking. Critical thinking is a
     learned ability that must be taught. Most individuals
     never learn it.

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  •students by peers or by most parents. reliably to
    Critical thinking cannot be taught

  •necessary andimpart the proper information and
                     knowledgeable instructors are

  •scientificthinking canapplied by ordinary
                            be described as the

     people to the ordinary world.

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•  This is true because critical thinking mimics the well-known
   method of scientific investigation: a question is identified, an
   hypothesis formulated, relevant data sought and gathered,
   the hypothesis is logically tested and evaluated, and reliable
   conclusions are drawn from the result.
•   All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by
   critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than
   scientific method used in everyday life rather than in
   specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors.
•  Critical thinking is scientific thinking.
   A scientifically-literate person, such as a math or science
   instructor, has learned to think critically to achieve that level
   of scientific awareness. But any individual with an advanced
   degree in any university discipline has almost certainly learned
   the techniques of critical thinking.

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•  Critical thinking is the ability to think for one's self and
  reliably and responsibly make those decisions that affect
  one's life.
•  Critical thinking is also critical inquiry, so such critical
  thinkers investigate problems, ask questions, pose new
  answers that challenge the status quo, discover new
  information that can be used for good or ill, question
  authorities and traditional beliefs, challenge received
  dogmas and doctrines, and often end up possessing power
  in society greater than their numbers.

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      •     It may be that a workable society or culture can tolerate only a
            small number of critical thinkers, that learning, internalizing, and
            practicing scientific and critical thinking is discouraged. Most
            people are followers of authority: most do not question, are not
            curious, and do not challenge authority figures who claim
            special knowledge or insight. Most people, therefore, do not
            think for themselves, but rely on others to think for them. Most
            people indulge in wishful, hopeful, and emotional thinking,
            believing that what they believe is true because they wish it,
            hope it, or feel it to be true. Most people, therefore, do not think

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    •  Critical thinking has many components. Life can be
       described as a sequence of problems that each
       individual must solve for one's self. Critical thinking skills
       are nothing more than problem solving skills that result
       in reliable knowledge. Humans constantly process
       information. Critical thinking is the practice of processing
       this information in the most skillful, accurate, and
       rigorous manner possible, in such a way that it leads to
       the most reliable, logical, and trustworthy conclusions,
       upon which one can make responsible decisions about
       one's life, behavior, and actions with full knowledge of
       assumptions and consequences of those decisions.

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Raymond S. Nickerson (1987) characterizes a good critical thinker in
 terms of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and habitual ways of
Here are some of the CHARACTERISTICS of such a thinker:
  uses evidence skillfully and impartially
  organizes thoughts and articulates them concisely and coherently
  distinguishers between logically valid and invalid inferences
  suspends judgment in the absence of sufficient evidence to support a
  understands the difference between reasoning and rationalizing
  attempts to anticipate the probable consequences of alternative actions

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understands the idea of degrees of belief
sees similarities and analogies that are not superficially apparent
can learn independently and has a long-lasting interest in doing
applies problem-solving techniques in domains other than those
in which learned
can structure informally represented problems in such a way that
formal techniques, such as mathematics, can be used to solve
can strip a verbal argument of irrelevancies and phrase it in its
essential terms

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   habitually questions one's own views and attempts to
understand both the assumptions that are critical to those views
and the implications of the views
   is sensitive to the difference between the validity of a belief
and the intensity with which it is held
   is aware of the fact that one's understanding is always limited,
often much more so than would be apparent to one with a
noninquiring attitude
   recognizes the fallibility of one's own opinions, the probability
of bias in those opinions, and the danger of weighting evidence
according to personal preferences
This list serves to indicate the type of thinking and approach to
life that critical thinking is supposed to be

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A Definition:
Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and
evaluating thinking with a view to improving it.

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            • Critical thinking
              –A set of conceptual tools used to make
                 • Intellectual skills and strategies
                 • Reasonable process
              –A mental ability
                 • Disciplined intelligence
                 • Problem solving

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                       Why Critical Thinking?

    “It is human irrationality, not a lack of knowledge that threatens human
                  potential” (Nickerson cited in Kurfiss, 1986).

    It . . .
•   underlies listening and speaking, reading and writing, the basic language
•   plays an important part in social change. All institutions in any society:
    courts, governments, schools, businesses, are the products of critical
•   plays a key role in technological advances.
•   frees the human mind from false beliefs and deceptions.

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       Who Uses Critical Thinking?
• Parents
• Nurses
• Doctors
• Athletic coaches
• Teachers/Professors
• Air Traffic Controllers
• Military Commanders
• Lawyers, Judges
• Supervisors
• Day Care Workers
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    W ho    SH O U LD            think critically?

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            Types of thinkers

            Novice thinkers

            Expert thinkers

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 Novice Versus Expert Thinker

• Expert thinkers
   – Quickly identify relevant information.
   – Can formulate a solution with “sketchy” information .
• Novice thinkers
   – Consider all information equally important.
   – Develop hypothesis, test hypothesis.
   – Cannot focus on central issues.

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           Cultivated Critical Thinkers
Well cultivated critical thinkers:
• are able to raise vital questions and problems, as well as
  formulate and present them clearly.
• can gather and assess information and interpret it
• can reach well-reasoned conclusions and solutions to
  problems while testing them against relevant criteria
  and standards.
• can be open-minded.
• can communicate effectively with others in figuring out
  solutions to complex problems.

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     Benefits of critical thinking
     Critical thinking empowers and improves
       chances of success
     • in a career
     • as a consumer
     • in social roles in our community
        – personally, essential to personal autonomy
        – socially, essential to democratic system

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• Teaching for critical thinking takes more time
  to prepare.
• Teaching for critical thinking will reduce the
  amount of “material” covered.
• Teaching for critical thinking is not popular
  with students in the beginning.
• BUT…

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    How Can One Become a Critical Thinker?
• By asking pertinent questions
  (of self as well as others);
                                                   • By listening carefully towhat
                                                     others, thinking about
                                                        they say, and giving feedback;
• By assessing statements and
  arguments;                                       • By observing with an open
• By developing a sense of
  observation and curiosity;                       • on makinglogic and solid
                                                     By        assertions based
• By becomingsolutions; in
  finding new
               interested                               evidence;

                                                   • By sharing ideas with others;
• By examining and opinions
                                                   • By becomingreader;
                                                                    an open-minded
    and weighing them against                        listener and
•   By developing a “thinker’s                     • By engaging in active reading
    vocabulary”.                                     and active listening!
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Critical thinking begins when you
question beyond what is given.

    You want to know more:
    • how something happens,
    • why it happens, and further
    • what will happen if something changes.

    Critical thinking therefore requires a conscious level of
    processing, analysis, creation and evaluation of possible
    outcomes, and reflection.

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If you’re a critical thinker,
you think.

  ….No surprise….

  •You are willing to examine your beliefs, assumptions,
  and opinions and weigh them against facts.
  • You are willing to evaluate the generalizations and
  stereotypes you have created and are open to change,
  if necessary.

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Critical thinkers listen carefully.

  •If you’re a critical thinker, you listen carefully to what
  others are saying and are able to give feedback.
  •You are able to suspend judgment until all the facts
  have been gathered and considered.

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Critical thinkers look for

    •If you’re a critical thinker, you look for
    evidence to support your assumptions and
    • You examine problems closely and are
    able to reject information that is incorrect
    or irrelevant.
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Critical thinkers are curious.

  They are interested in knowing all there is
  about a topic. They look for new and better
  ways to do everything. They are not the
  person who will settle for “…because that is
  the way we have always done it.”

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Therefore…through experience, as a critical
thinker, you will:
• identify information that is being put forth as an
argument and break it down to its basic components for
• construct alternative interpretations
• be willing to explore diverse perspectives
• be willing to change personal assumptions when
presented with valid information
• be willing to ask difficult questions and the ability to
receptive to opposing viewpoints.
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• Critical   thinking is, in short, self-directed, self-
disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking.
• It requires accurate standards of excellence and
mindful command of their use.
• It entails effective communication and problem solving
abilities and a commitment to overcome our native
egocentrism and sociocentrism.

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1. Purpose, Goal, Objective, or End in View
2. Question at Issue (or Problem to Be Solved)
3. Point of View, Frame of Reference, Perspective,
4. Assumptions (presuppositions, what is taken for granted)
5. Information (data, facts, observations, experiences)
6. Concepts (theories, definitions, axioms, laws, principles,
7. Interpretation & Inferences (conclusions, solutions)
8. Implications & Consequences (Where does this thinking
   lead? What will result if this thinking is turned into action?)
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Whenever we think,
 we think for a purpose,
 within a point of view,
 based on assumptions,
 leading to implications and consequences.

We use data, facts, and experiences,
  to make inferences and judgments,
  based on concepts and theories,
 in attempting to answer a question or solve a problem.

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STRUCTURES OF THOUGHT: [Use these questions
when beginning work]
•What is my fundamental purpose?
•What is the key question I am trying to answer?
•What information do I need in order to answer my
•What is the most basic concept in the question?
•What assumptions am I using in my reasoning?
•What is my point of view with respect to the issue?
•What are my most fundamental inferences or
•What are the implications and possible consequences
of my reasoning (if my reasoning is valid?
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      Universal Intellectual Standards

• Clarity : If a statement is unclear we cannot
  evaluate its fit with the other standards.
• Accuracy : Accuracy = TRUTH. Is it true?
• Precision : Is there enough detail to completely
  understand the statement.
• Relevance : Is the information connected to the
  question at hand?

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• Depth: Does the statement, fact, etc. address the
  complexity of the issue?
• Breadth: Are there other points of view or other ways to
  consider this question? Are you considering the key
• Logic: Does it make sense? Can you make that
  conclusion based on the information and evidence?
• Significance: Is this the most important problem to
  consider? Is this the central idea to focus on? Which of
  these facts are most important?
• Fairness: Do I have any vested interest in this issue?
  Am I sympathetically representing the viewpoints of
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Robert Platt Crawford 1931 provides a list that can
serve as a bridge to creative thinking

1.    The intent of Crawford’s Attribute Listing was to enable students
     to operate at the creativity or synthesis level of Bloom’s
     Cognitive Taxonomy. Additional cognitive operations, however,
     are needed to implement the four-step process. The steps are:
2.   Select a problem, product, or system (problem designation)
3.   Break it into key attributes or stages or parts
     (analysis/synthesis/creative thinking)
4.    Identify various ways to achieve each attribute or part
     (brainstorming or any idea-generating technique)
5.   Design or create a solution by manipulating and recombining the
     variables (structured synthesis)

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            Application     Evaluation                 Decision Making
            Comprehension   Synthesis                  Problem Solving
            Knowledge       Analysis                   Concept attainment

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            Critical Thinking
    • Engagement
       – Looking for opportunities to use reasoning
       – expecting situations that require reasoning
       – Confident in reasoning ability
    • Innovativeness
       – Intellectually curious
       – Wants to know the truth
    • Cognitive maturity
       – Aware that real problems are complex
       – Open to other points of view
       – Aware of biases and predispositions

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To understand reasoning properly, however, we need to
understand how it differs from mere thinking.
•When we are merely thinking our thoughts simply come to us,
one after another: when we reason we actively link thoughts
together in such a way that we believe one thought provides
support for another thought.
•This active process of reasoning is termed inference.
• Inference involves a special relationship between different
thoughts: when we infer B from A, we move from A to B because
we believe that A supports or justifies or makes it reasonable to
believe in the truth of B.

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The difference between mere thinking and reasoning or inference is easy to
understand through examples. Consider the following pairs of sentences:
1. Alan is broke, and he is unhappy.
    Alan is broke, therefore he is unhappy.
2. Anne was in a car accident last week, and she deserves an extension
     on her essay.
    Anne was in a car accident last week, so she deserves an extension on
     her essay.
3. This triangle has equal sides and equal angles.
  This triangle has equal sides; hence it has equal angles.
Notice that the first sentence in each pair simply asserts two thoughts but
says nothing about any relationship between them, while the second
sentence asserts a relationship between two thoughts. This relationship is
signaled by the words therefore, so, and hence. These are called inference
indicators: words that indicate that one thought is intended to support (i.e., to
justify, provide a reason for, provide evidence for, or entail) another thought.

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                Critical Thinking
               skills and sub-skills
• Interpretation
   – categorization, decoding, clarifying meaning
   – Notes, matrices, charts, patient history
• Analysis
   – examining ideas, identifying arguments, analyzing
   – Elements of reasoning, listening, data
• Evaluation
   – assessing claims, assessing arguments
   – Questioning, credibility, reasonableness, trust.

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• Inference
   –Querying claims, conjecturing alternatives, drawing
   – Problem solving, decision making, differential, diagnosis
• Explanation
   – Stating results, justifying procedures, presenting arguments
   – Elements of reasoning, stating the case, clarity
• Self-regulation
   – Self examination, self correction
   – Self critique, questioning, changing, recognizing personal
      errors in thinking

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                  Aspects of critical thinking
      • Issues
            –   factual
            –   interpretive
            –   evaluative
            –   mere verbal dispute
      • Claims
            – truth-statement with adequate support
            – assumption: claim without support
                • hidden assumptions undermine reliability of reasoning

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     Resolving Obstacles To Critical
    Obstacle—relativism or subjectivism
    • Remedy—patience and tenacity in pursuit of the truth
    Obstacle—egocentrism and ethnocentricity
    • Remedy— intellectual humility
    Obstacle—intimidation by authority
    • Remedy—intellectual independence
    • Remedy—intellectual courage
    Obstacle—unexamined and inferential assumptions, and
    • Remedy—examination of assumptions

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            Characteristics of Critical
•   Strive for understanding
•   Are honest with themselves
•   Base judgment on evidence
•   Are interested in other people’s ideas
•   Control their feelings/emotions
•   Recognize that extreme views are seldom

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• Keep an open mind
• They are very observant
• Identify key issues and raise questions
• Obtain relevant facts
• Evaluate the findings and form judgments

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            What does the absence of
            critical thinking look like?
• We blindly accept at face value all justifications
  given by organizations and political leaders.
• We blindly believe TV commercials.
• We blindly continue to hold on to old beliefs.

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                                       Young girl? Or old

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                                       Man playing
                                       horn? Or a

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                                       A face of a native
                                       American? Or an
                                       Eskimo’s back?

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            Thinking Barriers
– Emotions
   • Anger
   • Passion
   • Depression
– Stress
– Bias (values and beliefs)

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              Personal Barriers to thinking
                    (Ego Defenses)
• Denial
  – Refuse to accept reality.
• Projection
  – We see in others what is really happening to us.
• Rationalization
  – Lying to ourselves about the real reasons for our
    behaviors and feelings.

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               Thinking Errors
• Personalization
  – Thinking in which the world revolves around an
• Polarized Thinking
  – There is only black or white – no gray
• Catastrophizing
  – Always consider the worst possible outcome (all
    the time)
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• Selective abstraction
  – Focusing on one detail of a situation
    and ignoring the larger picture
• Overgeneralization
  – Drawing broad conclusions on the
    basis of a single incident.

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Five Phases of Critical Thinking

• Phase 1: Trigger Event
  – Usually an unexpected event that causes
    some kind of inner discomfort or confusion.
• Phase 2: Appraisal
  – A period of reflection and the need to find
    another approach to deal with the issue.
• Phase 3: Exploration
  – People start asking questions and gathering
    more information.

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 • Phase 4: Finding Alternatives
       –Also called the transition stage when old
        ideas are either left behind and a new way
        of thinking begins.
 • Phase 5: Integration
       –Involves fitting new ideas and information
        into everyday usage.

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 Key Questions to Critical
•   What are the issues and the expected conclusions?
•   What are the reasons?
•   What words or phrases are ambiguous?
•   What are the value conflicts and assumptions?
•   What are the assumptions?

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  •   Are there any fallacies in the reasoning?
  •   How good is the evidence?
  •   Are there rival causes?
  •   Are the statistics deceptive?
  •   What significant information is omitted?
  •   What reasonable conclusions are possible?

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Critical thinking involves evaluating information or
 arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth

• Verbal Reasoning
       – Understanding and evaluating the persuasive techniques
         found in oral and written language
• Argument Analysis
       – Discriminating between reasons that do and do not
         support a particular conclusion

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Critical thinking involves evaluating information or
 arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth

• Decision Making
   – identifying and judging several alternatives and selecting
     the best alternative
• Critical Analysis of Prior Research
   – evaluating the value of data and research results in terms
     of the methods used to obtain them and their potential
     relevance to particular conclusions.

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                 Problem Solving Procedure

•      Define the problem (not the symptom)
•      Remove thinking barriers (bias and logical)
•      Gather all relevant facts
•      Generate solutions (brainstorming, creative thinking)
•      Select a solution and have a back up plan
•      Implement and evaluate

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Characteristics of Critical Thinking & Decision
• University of Phoenix Model
  – Framing the question
  – Making the decision
  – Evaluating the decision

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   University of Phoenix Model

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            How to Apply Bloom’s
                 Six Levels
•     Knowledge
•     Comprehension
•     Application
•     Analysis
•     Synthesis
•     Evaluation

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    Level 1 – Recall
    Remembering previously learned material, recalling facts,
    terms, basic concepts from stated text
•     Name                   Relate
•     List                   Tell
•     Recognize              Recall
•     Choose                 Match
•     Label                  Define

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Level 2 – Understand
Demonstrating understanding of the stated meaning of
facts and ideas

•   Compare        Explain
•   Describe       Rephrase
•   Outline        Show
•   Organize       Relate
•   Classify       Identify

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 Level 2 1/2 – Infer
 Demonstrating understanding of the unstated meaning
 of facts and ideas

 •   Speculate
 •   Interpret
 •   Infer
 •   Generalize
 •   Conclude

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Level 3 – Put to Use
Solving problems by applying acquired knowledge,
facts, and techniques in a different situation

•     Apply            Dramatize
•     Construct        Restructure
•     Model            Simulate
•     Use              Translate
•     Practice         Experiment

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Level 4 – Break down
Examining and breaking down information into parts
•   Analyze            Simplify
•   Diagram            Summarize
•   Classify           Relate to
•   Contrast           Categorize
•   Sequence           Differentiate

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Level 5 – Put together
Compiling information in a different way by combining elements
in a new pattern
•     Compose            Elaborate
•     Design             Formulate
•     Develop            Originate
•     Propose            Solve
•     Adapt              Invent

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Level 6 – Judge
Presenting and defending opinions by making judgments
about information based on criteria

•   Judge             Defend
•   Rank              Justify
•   Rate              Prioritize
•   Evaluate          Support
•   Recommend         Prove

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         Active learning
Active learning ….
• Appeal to a variety of learning styles
• Emphasis on development of skills over
  transmission of information
• Emphasis on ‘higher order’ thinking skills
• Learning experiences are ‘active’ (reading,
  discussing, writing)
• Explore students’ attitudes, values

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     Active learning
•   Participants like it
•   More fun and interesting for the instructor
•   Research literature supports it
•   Provides time to process information
•   Effective transfers to long-term memory
•   Greater retention of skills & information
•   Leads to higher cognitive learning
•   Leads to affective learning
•   Very effective for adult learning
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               Active learning
• Match important objectives to active learning exercises
• If using groups, provide clear instructions on:
   – forming groups
   – objectives
   – time limits
   – reporting back

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            Active learning
• Be prepared—everything will take longer than
• Hand out exercises as students enter
• Limit number of choices
• Plan efficient strategies for forming groups
• Circulate among groups during group work (to keep
  on task, assist)

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            Active learning
  You need to …..
  • Ask groups to take discussion notes
  • Provide time for reporting back
  • Ensure all can hear (repeat remarks if necessary)
  • Summarize after group reports

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   Working Assumptions

      • Active learning is necessary for the teaching of critical
      • Critical thinking should be integrated into every aspect of
        the educational process.
      • Students should be made aware of the thinking process.
      • Critical thinking must be taught explicitly.
      • Process is as important as content.

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          Working Definitions
• Active Learning - “students involved in doing
  things & thinking about the things they are doing”
• Critical Thinking - “reasonable reflective thinking
  that is focused on deciding what to do and what to
  believe” OR “interpreting, analyzing or evaluating
  information, arguments or experiences with a set of
  reflective attitudes, skills, and abilities to guide our
  thoughts, beliefs and actions” OR “examining the
  thinking of others to improve our own”
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               Thinking Tools
• A Thinking Tool is an instrument that can help us in
  using our minds systematically and effectively.
• With the use of thinking tools, the intended ideas will be
  arranged more systematically, clearly, and easy to be
There are 4 types of THINKING TOOLS:
• Questioning
• Concepts
• Mindmaps
• Cognitive Research Trust
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              1   Questioning
Questioning is one approach to motivate
  others to:
• Get information
• Test understanding
• Develop interest
• Evaluate the ability of individuals
  towards understanding certain things.
                                                     “A person who asks
                                                  is a person who thinks.”’
                                                       - William Wilen
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Questioning - Bloom’s Taxonomy



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                2         Concepts
    Concepts are general ideas that we use to identify and
    organize our experience. Words are the vocabulary of
    language; Concepts are the vocabulary of thought.
Structure of Concepts:                                  PROPERTIES

• Sign - word/symbol that names the
•    Referents - examples of the                         CONCEPT

    concept                                   SIGN              REFERENTS
•    Properties - qualities that all
    examples of the concept share in
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                3    Mindmaps
A mindmap can be defined as a visual presentation of the ways
in which concepts can be related to one another.

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    4          Cognitive Research Trust
                  Thinking Method
• The essence of the (Cognitive Research Trust) Thinking
  Method is to focus attention directly on different
  aspects of thinking and to crystallize these aspects into
  definite concepts and tools that can be used
• It is designed to encourage students to broaden their

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   Final Words
  CRITICAL THINKING is the active and systematic process of
  • Communication
  • Problem-solving
  • Evaluation
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Reflection
  both individually and in community to
  • develop understanding
  • Support positive decision-making and
  • Guide action

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Crawford, R. P. (1964). The techniques of creative thinking: How to use
your ideas to achieve success. Burlington, VT: Fraser Publishing Co.
Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. New York: D. C. Heath.
Ennis, R. (1993). Critical thinking assessment. Theory Into Practice, 32(3).
Retrieved October 25, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database.
Johnson, S. (1998). Skills, Socrates, and the Sophists: Learning from
history. British Journal of Educational Studies 46(2). Retrieved March 23,
2009, from JSTOR database.
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2006b). The miniature guide to critical thinking
concepts and tools (4th ed.). Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical
Pedersen, O. (1997). The first universities: Stadium Generale and the
origins of university education in Europe. New York: Cambridge University
Foundation for Critical Thinking. Critical Thinking: Basic Theory and
Instructional Structures. Sonoma, California: 1998.)

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       Internet Resources:

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