TWA+PLANS Strategies for Expository Reading and Writing: Effects for Nine Fourth Grade Students Council for Exceptional Children (2006) Shaun Etu National Assessment of Education 30% of all middle/ high school struggle with reading comprehension and writing Low performance scores on tests Students with Learning Disabilities have a greater problem Self-Regulated Strategy Development Provide teaching strategies for low-achieving students struggling with learning TWA Strategy Nine Step Procedure Enhance comprehension of reading passages T in TWA T “Think Before Reading” Think about: The Author's Purpose What You Know What You Want to Learn W in TWA W “While Reading” Think about: Reading Speed Linking Knowledge Rereading Parts A in TWA A “After Reading” Think about: The Main Idea Summarizing Information What You Learned TWA continued… A validated study was conducted 32 fifth-grade students with/without Learning Disabilities TWA vs. Simple Questioning TWA instruction out performed simple questioning PLANS 3 step procedure Enhance students ability to write proper essay PLANS Step 1 P-Pick Goals L-List Ways to Meet Goals A-And N-Make Notes S-And Sequence Notes PLANS steps 2 and 3 Step 2: Write and Say More Students revise essay and add in new information Step 3: Test Goals Do a self-evaluation on their own work PLANS continued… A validated study was conducted 4 fifth-grade students with learning disabilities Performance Improved: Number of words Time to complete Overall Quality TWA+PLANS A study on the use of both Mid-western urban elementary school participated 9 students selected 4 with learning disabilities Continued… Split into 3 groups Students received a baseline measurement of comprehension and writing Students were instructed in both strategies (until success) Continued… Students were asked to find 4 to 6 main ideas using both strategies Students were also asked their own personal feedback Results The students achieved greater success overall using TAW+PLANS Students enjoyed using the methods because it slowed them down Questions Would you as teacher use these strategies? Which Strategy do you find to be more appealing? END!!!
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