Precipitation Averages, Seasonality, Volatility and Trends in the U.S

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Precipitation Averages, Seasonality, Volatility and Trends in the U.S Powered By Docstoc
					May 17, 2007


Precipitation Averages, Seasonality,
Volatility and Trends in the United States
By WeatherBill, Inc.




PRECIPITATION IN THE U.S.
May 17, 2007
Precipitation Averages, Seasonality, Volatility and Trends in the U.S.
By WeatherBill, Inc.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

WeatherBill analyzed U.S. rainfall and rainy day data, from 200 National Weather Service Stations in 195 cities across 48
states, from the last thirty years to identify precipitation averages, seasonality, volatility and trends. Rainfall and rainy day
averages were used to identify the top ten rainiest and driest cities annually and seasonally by calendar quarter. Standard
deviation data was used to determine volatility, while statistically significant changes determined trends.

     •   U.S. average rainfall is highest from July-September, while rainy days are highest from April-June. Both U.S.
         average rainfall and rainy days are lowest from January-March.
     •   The Southeast Regions are by far the wettest. Florida, Louisiana and Alabama are the wettest states. Mobile,
         Alabama has the most total annual rainfall, while Olympia, Washington has the most annual rainy days.
     •   The Mountain and Pacific Regions are the driest. California, Montana, Nevada and Arizona are the driest states.
         Las Vegas has both the least total annual rainfall and the least number of rainy days.
     •   The Southern and Pacific Regions are the most volatile or unpredictable. Florida, Louisiana, California, Oregon
         and Texas are the most volatile states. New Orleans has the most annual rainfall volatility, while Eugene, Oregon
         has the most annual volatility around number of rainy days.
     •   The Mountain and Pacific Regions are the least volatile, particularly in California, Montana, Nevada and Arizona.
         Bakersfield, CA has the least annual rainfall volatility, while Las Vegas has the least annual volatility of rainy days.
     •   In general, rain is increasing in the East and Southeast (twelve cities) and decreasing in the West (twenty-nine
         cities). Sixty-four cities show significant changes in precipitation trends during at least one quarter of the year –
         twenty are rain increases and forty-four are rain decreases.
     •   Significant changes in volatility were observed in twenty-six cities. Fourteen cities show increasing volatility,
         while twelve show decreasing volatility.
     •   The forty-two rainiest cities and thirty driest cities reviewed in this study present challenging conditions for local
         businesses. Agriculture, Construction, Retail, Travel and Leisure are particularly vulnerable to rain, drought and
         volatility and will be the first to feel the impact of intensified weather conditions in thirty-four of these cities.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3    Regional Precipitation
4    Seasonal Precipitation
5    Top Ten Rainy Cities
7    Top Ten Dry Cities
10   Top Ten Most Volatile Cities
13   Top Ten Least Volatile Cities
16   Precipitation Trends
19   Volatility Trends
20   Conclusion: Weather Extremes Challenging to Business
23   Appendix 1: Statistical Methodologies and Details
24   Appendix 2: Top Ten Rainiest and Top Ten Driest Summary List
25   Appendix 3: Top Ten Most Volatile and Top Ten Least Volatile Summary List
26   Appendix 4: Rainfall and Rainy Day Averages in the United States by City

NOTES & RESOURCES

WeatherBill analyzed thirty years of precipitation data, from 200 National Weather Service stations in 195 cities across 48
states (excluding Alaska and Hawaii), to identify extremes, averages, standard deviations and statistically significant trends.
We studied total inches of rainfall and the number of rainy days, defined as any day with more than 0.25 inches of rainfall.
                                                                                                                          2
REGIONAL PRECIPITATION
Southeast Divisions the Rainiest, Mountain Division the Driest

We analyzed precipitation over the last 30 years as measured by historical weather data from 200 National Weather Service
measurement stations in 195 cities across 48 states (data does not include Alaska or Hawaii). We studied total inches of
rainfall and the number of rainy days, defined as days with over 0.25 inches of rain. We aggregated results for each of the
nine Divisions defined by the U.S. Census Bureau and the more commonly used four U.S. Census Regions – Northeast,
Midwest, South and West. (Figure 1)

Figure 1: United States Census Bureau Regions and Divisions




In comparing annual rainfall among the nine Divisions, those in the Southern and Eastern regions have more rain as well as
more rainy days than do the Midwest and Western Regions. The East South Central division leads the country in total
rainfall and rainy days, at 49% and 44% higher than the national average, respectively. Conversely, the Mountain division
has the least rainfall, only 34% of the national average, and 37% of national average rainy days. (Figure 2)

Figure 2: Average Annual Rainfall and Average Annual Rainy Days > 0.25” by U.S. Division

                                                                                                     Average Annual Rainfall (30 Year Average)

                             60

                             50
 Inches of Rain




                             40

                             30
                             20

                             10

                             0
                                      ES Central    S Atlantic     New England     Mid Atlantic        WS Central       EN Central       WN Central       Pacific        Mountain        U.S. Average



                                                                                    Average Annual Rainy Days >0.25" (30 Year Average)


                             60
                             50
            Number of Days




                             40

                             30
                             20
                             10
                                  0
                                       ES Central     S Atlantic     New England      Mid Atlantic        WS Central        EN Central       WN Central        Pacific        Mountain        U.S. Average




                                                                                                                                                                                                        3
SEASONAL PRECIPITATION
U.S. Average Rainfall Highest in Q3, Rainy Days Highest in Q2, Both Rainfall and Rainy Days Lowest in Q1

Rainfall and rainy day comparisons by calendar quarter (Q1-January-March, Q2-April-June, Q3-July-September, Q4-
October-December) show distinct seasonal variations (Figure 3). For example, the impact of hurricane season is evident in
the third quarter in the South Atlantic, as is the Pacific rainy season in the first and fourth quarters. It is also worth noting
that many precipitation events in the first and fourth quarters, especially in northern latitudes, will be snow events rather
than rain, although snow accumulations are measured as liquid equivalents.

U.S. average rainfall is highest during the third quarter, as a result of hurricane season in the South Atlantic. Even though
four of the nine U.S. divisions have the most rainfall during the second quarter vs. the three with more rainfall in the third
quarter, the South Atlantic significantly drives up the third quarter U.S. average. Only one division, the Pacific, has most of
its rainfall in the first quarter. Similarly, New England is the only division that has more rainfall in the fourth quarter. U.S.
average rainfall is lowest during the first quarter, and five of the nine U.S. Divisions have the least amount of rain in the first
quarter. The Pacific is driest during the third quarter, while the East South Central, South Atlantic and Mountain divisions
are driest during fourth quarter.

The rainfall range between the wettest and driest divisions is the most prominent during the third quarter. The wettest
division, the South Atlantic, receives an average of 15.6 inches, 163% of the U.S. average. The driest division, the Pacific,
receives an average of 1.3 inches, only 14% of the U.S. average. The Pacific shows the most extreme seasonal rainfall
variations from quarter to quarter, closely followed by the West North Central.

The number of U.S. average rainy days is highest during the second quarter, and six of the nine U.S. divisions have the most
rainy days in the second quarter. Only the South Atlantic has the most rainy days during the third quarter, consistent with
the division’s significant rainfall during the quarter. The number of rainy days is highest during the first quarter in the
Pacific, again consistent with the division’s rainfall peak, and in the East South Central. The number of U.S. average rainy
days is lowest during the first quarter, and six of the nine U.S. divisions have the fewest rainy days in the first quarter. The
East South Central and Pacific regions have the fewest rainy days during the third quarter, while the South Atlantic has the
fewest during the fourth quarter.

The range of rainy days, between the rainiest and driest divisions, is also the most prominent during the third quarter. The
rainiest division, the South Atlantic, receives at least 0.25 inches of rainfall on 15.4 days, 152% of the U.S. average, while
the driest division, the Pacific, receives at least 0.25 inches of rainfall on only 1.6 days, 16% of the U.S. average. As with
total rainfall, the Pacific shows the most extreme seasonal rainy day variations from quarter to quarter, closely followed by
the West North Central.

Figure 3: Average Quarterly Rainfall and Average Quarterly Rainy Days > 0.25” by U.S. Region

                                                                                  Average Quarterly Rainfall (30 Year Average)


                   18
                   16
                   14
  Inches of Rain




                                                                                                                                                                                  Q1
                   12
                   10                                                                                                                                                             Q2
                    8                                                                                                                                                             Q3
                    6
                                                                                                                                                                                  Q4
                    4
                    2
                    0
                             ES Central     S Atlantic     New England    Mid Atlantic     WS Central       EN Central      WN Central    Pacific   Mountain   U.S. Average



                                                                          Average Quarterly Rainy Days >0.25" (30 Year Average)

                        18
                        16
  Number of Days




                        14
                                                                                                                                                                                  Q1
                        12
                        10                                                                                                                                                        Q2
                         8                                                                                                                                                        Q3
                         6
                                                                                                                                                                                  Q4
                         4
                         2
                         0
                               ES Central     S Atlantic    New England     Mid Atlantic    WS Central       EN Central      WN Central   Pacific   Mountain   U.S. Average



                                                                                                                                                                              4
TOP TEN RAINY CITIES
Mobile, AL and Olympia, WA Rainiest Cities. Florida, Louisiana and Alabama Rainiest States.

Our study evaluates both average annual rainfall and the number of average annual rainy days with over 0.25 inches of rain
to determine the rainiest cities. Top ten lists for both annual rainfall and annual rainy days were developed and cities on
both lists highlighted (Table 1). Only four cities are top ten in both annual rainfall and in annual rainy days – Mobile,
Pensacola, West Palm Beach and Miami. The top ten cities in annual rainfall average 180% more rain per year than the
annual U.S. average. The top ten annual rainy day cities average 153% more rainy days per year than the annual U.S.
average. Fourteen of the annual top rainy cities are in the South. The remaining two are in the Pacific Northwest. Florida
and Louisiana have the most annual rainiest cities, with four cities each, followed by Alabama with three cities.

Table 1: Annual Top 10 Rainy Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                            Average Rainfall                                Rainy Days
                                              (in inches)                                    (0.25”+)
             1.   Mobile, AL                      66.9           Olympia, WA                   63.5
             2.   Pensacola, FL                   64.6           Mobile, AL                    59.3
             3.   New Orleans, LA                 63.9           Chattanooga, TN               58.3
             4.   West Palm Beach, FL             62.5           West Palm Beach, FL           58.1
             5.   Lafayette, LA                   61.8           Eugene, OR                    57.7
             6.   Baton Rouge, LA                 61.7           Huntsville, AL                57.4
             7.   Miami, FL                       61.5           Miami, FL                     57.0
             8.   Port Arthur, TX                 60.8           Knoxville, TN                 56.6
             9.   Tallahassee, FL                 60.5           Pensacola, FL                 56.4
            10.   Lake Charles, LA                58.2           Birmingham, AL                56.4
                  U.S. Average                    34.5           U.S. Average                  37.9


We also studied rainfall and rainy day data by calendar quarter to develop quarterly top ten rainy city lists, to illustrate
seasonal changes in top ten rainy cities from quarter to quarter and to compare quarterly top ten rainy cities to the annual top
ten rainy cities (Tables 2-5).


Top Ten Rainy Cities January-March

During the first quarter, four cities are top ten in both average rainfall and in rainy days – Olympia, Eugene, Meridian and
Jackson (Table 2). The first quarter top ten cities in total rainfall average 217% more rain than the first quarter U.S.
average. The first quarter top ten rainy day cities average 208% more rainy days than the first quarter U.S. average. Seven
of the sixteen first quarter top ten rainy cities are in the East South Central and five cities are in the Pacific. The remaining
four cities are in the South. Alabama has the highest number of rainiest cities in the first quarter, with four cities, followed
by Oregon with three.

Table 2: Q1 Top 10 Rainy Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                            Average Rainfall                                Rainy Days
                                              (in inches)                                    (0.25”+)
             1.   Olympia, WA                     18.2           Olympia, WA                   24.2
             2.   Eugene, OR                      17.6           Eugene, OR                    21.7
             3.   Mobile, AL                      17.1           Salem, OR                     18.6
             4.   Meridian, MS                    16.6           Portland, OR                  17.2
             5.   Pensacola, FL                   16.1           Seattle, WA                   16.9
             6.   Montgomery, AL                  16.0           Chattanooga, TN               16.4
             7.   New Orleans, LA                 15.7           Huntsville, AL                16.4
             8.   Tallahassee, FL                 15.5           Meridian, MS                  16.2
             9.   Baton Rouge, LA                 15.5           Birmingham, AL                15.8
            10.   Jackson, MS                     15.4           Jackson, MS                   15.7
                  U.S. Average                     7.6           U.S. Average                   8.6
                                                                                                                          5
Top Ten Rainy Cities April-June
During the second quarter, only two cities are top ten in both average rainfall and in rainy days – Miami and West Palm
Beach (Table 3). The second quarter top ten cities in total rainfall average 173% more rain than the second quarter U.S.
average. The second quarter top ten rainy day cities average 146% more rainy days than the second quarter U.S. average.
The majority of the eighteen second quarter top ten rainy cities, sixteen, are again in the South. The remaining two are in
the East North Central. Florida and Louisiana have the highest number of rainiest cities during the second quarter, with four
cities each, followed by Kentucky with three cities.

Table 3: Q2 Top 10 Rainy Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                           Average Rainfall                              Rainy Days
                                             (in inches)                                  (0.25”+)
             1.   Miami, FL                      18.3          Miami, FL                    16.0
             2.   New Orleans, LA                17.5          Dayton, OH                   15.9
             3.   Mobile, AL                     16.9          Cincinnati, OH               15.6
             4.   Lafayette, LA                  16.8          Charleston, WV               15.6
             5.   West Palm Beach, FL            16.5          Louisville, KY               15.5
             6.   Baton Rouge, LA                16.3          Lexington, KY                15.4
             7.   Lake Charles, LA               15.8          Covington, KY                15.3
             8.   Port Arthur, TX                15.7          Huntington, WV               15.3
             9.   Fort Meyers, FL                15.4          Birmingham, AL               15.2
            10.   Pensacola, FL                  15.1          West Palm Beach, FL          15.1
                  U.S. Average                    9.5          U.S. Average                 10.6


Top Ten Rainy Cities July-September
During the third quarter, nine cities are top ten in both average rainfall and in rainy days (Table 4). Third quarter top ten
cities in total rainfall average 228% more rain than the third quarter U.S. average. Third quarter top ten rainy day cities
average 208% more rainy days than the third quarter U.S. average. Nine of the eleven rainiest cities during the third quarter
are in Florida.

Table 4: Q3 Top 10 Rainy Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                           Average Rainfall                              Rainy Days
                                             (in inches)                                  (0.25”+)
             1.   Ft. Meyers, FL                 27.4          Fort Meyers, FL              26.9
             2.   Miami, FL                      24.5          Miami, FL                    24.3
             3.   West Palm Beach, FL            21.9          West Palm Beach, FL          21.5
             4.   Wilmington, NC                 21.8          Tampa, FL                    21.0
             5.   Tampa, FL                      21.3          Orlando, FL                  20.7
             6.   Jacksonville, FL               21.0          Daytona Beach, FL            19.4
             7.   Pensacola, FL                  20.8          Jacksonville, FL             19.3
             8.   Orlando, FL                    20.6          Tallahassee, FL              19.3
             9.   Tallahassee, FL                20.2          Pensacola, FL                18.8
            10.   Mobile, AL                     19.5          Mobile, AL                   18.5
                  U.S. Average                    9.6          U.S. Average                 10.1


Top Ten Rainy Cities October-December
During the fourth quarter, six cities are top ten in both average rainfall and in rainy days, and all but Memphis is in the
Pacific Northwest (Table 5). The fourth quarter top ten cities in total rainfall average 186% more rain than the fourth
quarter U.S. average. The fourth quarter top ten rainy day cities average 202% more rainy days than the fourth quarter U.S.
average. The fourteen fourth quarter rainiest cities are almost equally dispersed between the South, Pacific and the
Northeast. Fourth quarter is the only time Northeastern cities are among the rainiest. Oregon has the highest number of
fourth quarter rainiest cities, with three cities, followed by Washington, with two cities.
                                                                                                                      6
Table 5: Q4 Top 10 Rainy Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                           Average Rainfall                               Rainy Days
                                             (in inches)                                   (0.25”+)
             1. Olympia, WA                      20.6          Olympia, WA                   24.3
             2. Eugene, OR                       19.6          Eugene, OR                    22.2
             3. Salem, OR                        16.2          Salem, OR                     20.4
             4. Port Arthur, TX                  15.3          Seattle, WA                   19.3
             5. Memphis, TN                      15.3          Portland, OR                  18.1
             6. Seattle, WA                      15.1          Erie, PA                      15.9
             7. Hatteras, NC                     14.8          Buffalo, NY                   14.3
             8. Little Rock, AR                  14.7          Memphis, TN                   13.9
             9. Lafayette, LA                    14.6          Portland, ME                  13.7
            10. Portland, OR                     14.1          Worcester, MA                 13.7
                U.S. Average                      7.9          U.S. Average                   8.7


When looking across all four quarters, a total of forty-one unique cities comprise the top ten rainiest lists. Fourteen cities
make the top ten lists in two quarters. Only two cities are top ten in three quarters – Mobile and Pensacola. No cities make
the top ten lists in all four quarters. Florida has the largest number of rainy cities during the year at nine, followed by
Louisiana and Alabama with four each. Oregon and Kentucky each have three cities on the rainiest lists. Additionally, no
cities in the Mountain division are rainy enough to be in the top ten. One additional note of interest is that Knoxville rainy
days are number eight annually, even though the city is never rainy enough for a quarterly top ten ranking, increasing the top
ten rainiest cities list to forty-two (see Appendix 2).



TOP TEN DRY CITIES
Las Vegas, NV the Driest City. California, Montana, Nevada and Arizona the Driest States.

Our study of total average annual rainfall and the average annual number of rainy days with over 0.25 inches of rain also
reveals the driest cities. Top ten lists for the least amount of annual rainfall and least number of annual rainy days were
developed and cities on both lists highlighted (Table 6). Nine cities are top ten in both the least amount of annual rainfall
and least number of annual rainy days. The top ten cities with the least annual rainfall average 23% of U.S. average annual
rainfall. The top ten least annual rainy day cities average only 25% of the U.S. average annual rainy days. Eight of the
eleven annual driest cities are in the Mountain Region, two are in the Pacific and one is in Texas. Nevada has the most
annual driest cities, with four cities, followed by Arizona with two.

Table 6: Annual Top Ten Dry Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                           Average Rainfall                               Rainy Days
                                             (in inches)                                   (0.25”+)
             1. Las Vegas, NV                     4.5          Las Vegas, NV                  5.7
             2. Bakersfield, CA                   6.6          Bakersfield, CA                8.7
             3. Winslow, AZ                       7.4          Reno, NV                       8.7
             4. Reno, NV                          7.4          Winslow, AZ                    9.0
             5. Phoenix, AZ                       8.2          Winnemucca, NV                 9.4
             6. Winnemucca, NV                    8.3          Yakima, WA                     9.4
             7. Yakima, WA                        8.4          Phoenix, AZ                   10.7
             8. Grand Junction, CO                9.4          Grand Junction, CO            10.8
             9. Albuquerque, NM                   9.5          El Paso, TX                   11.2
             10. El Paso, TX                      9.6          Elko, NV                      11.2
                 U.S. Average                    34.5          U.S. Average                  37.9

We also studied rainfall and rainy day data by calendar quarter to develop quarterly top ten dry city lists, to illustrate
seasonal changes in top ten dry cities from quarter to quarter and to compare quarterly top ten dry cities to the annual top
ten dry cities (Tables 7-10).
                                                                                                                       7
Top Ten Dry Cities January-March

During the first quarter, seven cities are top ten in both the least amount of average rainfall and least number of rainy days
(Table 7). The first quarter top ten cities with the least total rainfall average 20% of first quarter U.S. average rainfall. The
first quarter top ten least rainy day cities average only 14% of the first quarter U.S. average rainy days. Ten of the thirteen
driest cities in the first quarter are in the Mountain Region, two are in the West North Central and one is in Texas. Montana
has the largest number of driest cities in the first quarter, with five cities, followed by Colorado with two.

Table 7: Q1 Top Ten Dry Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                            Average Rainfall                                Rainy Days
                                              (in inches)                                    (0.25”+)
             1.   Glasgow, MT                      1.1           Glasgow, MT                    0.3
             2.   El Paso, TX                      1.2           Havre, MT                      0.6
             3.   Havre, MT                        1.3           Helena, MT                     0.8
             4.   Helena, MT                       1.4           El Paso, TX                    1.2
             5.   Albuquerque, NM                  1.5           Bismarck, ND                   1.3
             6.   Rapid City, SD                   1.6           Albuquerque, NM                1.5
             7.   Pueblo, CO                       1.6           Winslow, AZ                    1.5
             8.   Winslow, AZ                      1.6           Great Falls, MT                1.6
             9.   Bismarck, ND                     1.7           Casper, WY                     1.6
            10.   Colorado Springs, CO             1.7           Missoula, MT                   1.7
                  U.S. Average                     7.6           U.S. Average                   8.6


Top Ten Dry Cities April-June

During the second quarter, nine cities are top ten in both the least amount of average rainfall and least number of rainy days
(Table 8). The second quarter top ten cities in least amount of rainfall average 10% of second quarter U.S. average rainfall.
The second quarter top ten least rainy day cities average only 11% of the second quarter U.S. average rainy days. Five of
the eleven driest cities in the second quarter are in the Mountain Region, five are in the Pacific and one is in Texas.
California has the largest number of second quarter driest cities, with four cities, followed by Arizona with three.

Table 8: Q2 Top Ten Dry Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                            Average Rainfall                                Rainy Days
                                              (in inches)                                    (0.25”+)
             1.   Las Vegas, NV                    0.4           Phoenix, AZ                    0.5
             2.   Phoenix, AZ                      0.4           Las Vegas, NV                  0.5
             3.   Tucson, AZ                       0.8           Tucson, AZ                     0.9
             4.   Bakersfield, CA                  0.8           Bakersfield, CA                0.9
             5.   Winslow, AZ                      0.8           Winslow, AZ                    1.0
             6.   Long Beach, CA                   1.0           Long Beach, CA                 1.2
             7.   San Diego, CA                    1.0           San Diego, CA                  1.4
             8.   Los Angeles, CA                  1.1           Los Angeles, CA                1.4
             9.   Reno, NV                         1.5           Reno, NV                       1.6
            10.   El Paso, TX                      1.5           Yakima, WA                     1.8
                  U.S. Average                     9.5           U.S. Average                  10.6


Top Ten Dry Cities July-September

During the third quarter, nine cities are top ten in both the least amount of average rainfall and least number of rainy days
(Table 9). The third quarter top ten cities in least amount of rainfall average only 4% of third quarter U.S. average rainfall.
The third quarter top ten least rainy day cities average 5% of the third quarter U.S. average rainy days. Nine of the eleven
driest cities in the third quarter are in the Pacific Region, while the remaining two are in the Mountain Region. California
has the largest number of third quarter driest cities, with eight cities, followed by Nevada with two.
                                                                                                                          8
Table 9: Q3 Top Ten Dry Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                            Average Rainfall                                Rainy Days
                                              (in inches)                                    (0.25”+)
             1.   Fresno, CA                       0.2           Bakersfield, CA                0.2
             2.   Bakersfield, CA                  0.2           San Diego, CA                  0.2
             3.   San Francisco, CA                0.3           Fresno, CA                     0.3
             4.   San Diego, CA                    0.3           Los Angeles, CA                0.3
             5.   Long Beach, CA                   0.3           San Francisco, CA              0.3
             6.   Stockton, CA                     0.3           Long Beach, CA                 0.3
             7.   Sacramento, CA                   0.4           Stockton, CA                   0.4
             8.   Los Angeles, CA                  0.4           Sacramento, CA                 0.5
             9.   Reno, NV                         0.8           Yakima, WA                     1.1
            10.   Winnemucca, NV                   1.0           Reno, NV                       1.1
                  U.S. Average                     9.6           U.S. Average                  10.1


Top Ten Dry Cities October-December

During the fourth quarter, eight cities are top ten in both the least amount of average rainfall and least number of rainy days
(Table 10). The fourth quarter top ten cities in least amount of rainfall average 18% of fourth quarter U.S. average rainfall.
The fourth quarter top ten least rainy day cities average 20% of the fourth quarter U.S. average rainy days. Ten of the
twelve driest cities in the fourth quarter are in the Mountain Region, while the remaining two are in the Pacific. Montana
has the largest number of driest cities in the fourth quarter, with four cities, followed by Colorado, California and Wyoming
with two each.

Table 10: Q4 Top Ten Dry Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                            Average Rainfall                               Rainy Days
                                              (in inches)                                   (0.25”+)
             1.   Las Vegas, NV                    1.1           Glasgow, MT                   1.2
             2.   Helena, MT                       1.5           Havre, MT                     1.2
             3.   Havre, MT                        1.5           Helena, MT                    1.3
             4.   Pueblo, CO                       1.5           Las Vegas, NV                 1.3
             5.   Glasgow, MT                      1.5           Cheyenne, WY                  1.6
             6.   Fresno, CA                       1.7           Pueblo, CO                    1.9
             7.   Winslow, AZ                      1.7           Colorado Springs, CO          2.0
             8.   Colorado Springs, CO             1.7           Bakersfield, CA               2.1
             9.   Cheyenne, WY                     1.9           Winslow, AZ                   2.2
            10.   Great Falls, MT                  2.0           Casper, WY                    2.3
                  U.S. Average                     7.9           U.S. Average                  8.7



When looking across all four quarters, a total of twenty-nine unique cities comprise the top ten driest cities lists. Seventeen
cities make the top ten driest lists in two quarters. Only one city is on the top ten driest lists in three quarters – Winslow,
Arizona. No cities make the top ten driest lists in all four quarters. Seventeen of the twenty nine driest cities are in the
Mountain Region, followed by nine in the Pacific, two in the Dakotas and one in Texas. California has the largest number
of top ten driest cities, at eight, followed by Montana with five cities and Nevada and Arizona with three cities each. One
additional note of interest is that Elko, Nevada is the tenth driest city annually even though the city is never dry enough for a
quarterly top ten ranking, resulting in a total of thirty driest cities (see Appendix 2).




                                                                                                                          9
TOP TEN MOST VOLATILE CITIES (Highest Standard Deviation)
New Orleans, Eugene Most Volatile Cities. Florida, Louisiana, California, Oregon, Texas Most Volatile States.

Our study evaluates standard deviations, or rainfall fluctuations from year to year, over the last thirty years, for total average
annual rainfall and the average annual number of rainy days with over 0.25 inches of rain, to determine the most volatile or
unpredictable cities when it comes to rain. We have also illustrated minimum and maximum rainfall and rainy day ranges to
provide insight into the highest and lowest rain extremes, in addition to average fluctuations (standard deviation). Annual
top ten lists for both rainfall and rainy days volatility were developed and cities on both lists highlighted (Figure 4).

Only four cities are top ten in both average annual rainfall and in average annual rainy day volatility – New Orleans,
Houston, West Palm Beach and Baton Rouge. Twelve of the sixteen annual top ten most volatile cities are in the South,
most in the West South Central. The remaining four annual top ten most volatile cities are in the Pacific Northwest.
Louisiana has the largest number of annual top ten most volatile cities, with five cities, followed by Florida and Oregon with
three cities each.

The top ten cities in annual rainfall volatility average 194% more volatility than the annual U.S. average, 50 inches of
annual fluctuation from the 60 inch top ten most volatile average vs. 26 inches from the 35 inch national average. If we
compare the more extreme maximum minus minimum range of annual rainfall in the top ten volatile cities, the annual
fluctuation is 101 inches of rain vs. 52 inches nationally. The top ten cities in annual rainy day volatility average 143%
more volatility than the annual U.S. average, 38 days of annual rain fluctuation from the 54 day top ten most volatile
average vs. 26 days from the 38 day national average. If we compare the more extreme maximum minus minimum range of
annual rainy days in the top ten most volatile cities, the fluctuation is 77 days of rain vs. 53 nationally.

Figure 4: Annual Top Ten Most Volatile Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days


                                                                        Annual Thirty Year Average Top Ten Most Volatile (Average Rainfall)                                                    Avg Rainfall
                                                                                                                                                                                               Max-Min Range
                  120
                                                                                                                                                                                               Std Dev Range
                  100
 Inches of Rain




                  80
                  60
                  40
                  20
                   0
                        New Orleans, LA   Pensacola, FL   Houston, TX     Mobile, AL     Port Arthur, TX   W. Palm Beach, Baton Rouge, LA Lake Charles, LA   Lafayette, LA   Daytona Beach,    U.S. Average
                                                                                                                 FL                                                                FL



                                                                                                                                                                                               .25"+ Days
                                                                        Annual Thirty Year Average Top Ten Most Volatile (0.25"+ Rainy Days)
                                                                                                                                                                                               Max-Min Range
                  90                                                                                                                                                                           Std Dev Range
                  80
 Number of Days




                  70
                  60
                  50
                  40
                  30
                  20
                  10
                   0
                          Eugene, OR      Olympia, WA     Salem, OR      Portland, OR   New Orleans, LA W. Palm Beach,     Shreveport, LA   Houston, TX      Hatteras, NC    Baton Rouge, LA   U.S. Average
                                                                                                              FL




Top Ten Most Volatile Cities January-March

During the first quarter, only four cities are top ten in both the most volatile average rainfall and number of rainy days
(Table 11). The first quarter top ten cities with the most volatile total rainfall average 225% more volatility than the first
quarter U.S. average, 12.4 inches of rainfall fluctuation from the 13.9 inch top ten most volatile average vs. 5.5 inches for
the 7.6 inch U.S. average. The first quarter top ten most volatile rainy day cities average 200% more volatility than the first
quarter U.S. average, 12.2 rainy days fluctuation from the 15.5 day top ten most volatile average vs. 6.1 days for the 8.6 day
U.S. average. Nine of the sixteen first quarter top ten most volatile cities are in the Pacific Region, six are in the South and
one is in the Mountain Region. California leads the first quarter most volatile cities list with four cities, followed by Oregon
with three.


                                                                                                                                                                                                        10
Table 11: Q1 Top Ten Most Volatile Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                         Average                                          Rainy
                                                     Std. Dev.                                    Std Dev.
                                          Rainfall                                         Days
                                                    (in inches)                                   (in days)
                                        (in inches)                                      (0.25”+)
             1.   Los Angeles, CA           10.7        7.69    Olympia, WA                24.2      6.97
             2.   New Orleans, LA           15.7        6.82    Eugene, OR                 21.7      6.56
             3.   Long Beach, CA             8.6        6.54    Salem, OR                  18.6      6.53
             4.   Eugene, OR                17.6        6.27    San Francisco, CA          14.2      6.38
             5.   Mobile, AL                17.1        6.15    Portland, OR               17.2      6.18
             6.   Meridian, MS              16.6        5.99    Sacramento, CA             13.6      5.95
             7.   San Francisco, CA         11.9        5.71    Los Angeles, CA            10.5      5.66
             8.   W. Palm Beach, FL         10.2        5.60    Flagstaff, AZ               9.1      5.61
             9.   Tallahassee, FL           15.5        5.55    Long Beach, CA              9.0      5.55
            10.   Baton Rouge, LA           15.5        5.53    Seattle, WA                16.9      5.50
                  U.S. Average               7.6        2.75    U.S. Average                8.6      3.05



Top Ten Most Volatile Cities April-June

During the second quarter, six cities are top ten in both the most volatile average rainfall and number of rainy days (Table
12). The second quarter top ten cities with the most volatile total rainfall average 217% more volatility than the second
quarter U.S. average, 15.2 inches of rainfall fluctuation from the 16.1 inch top ten most volatile average vs. 7 inches for the
9.5 inch U.S. average. The second quarter top ten most volatile rainy day cities average 146% more volatility than the
second quarter U.S. average, 10.5 rainy days fluctuation from the 12.6 day top ten most volatile average vs. 7.2 days for the
10.6 day U.S. average. Ten of the fourteen second quarter most volatile cities are in the South. Louisiana leads the second
quarter most volatile cities list with five cities, followed by Florida with four and Texas with two cities.

Table 12: Q2 Top Ten Most Volatile Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                         Average                                          Rainy
                                                     Std. Dev.                                    Std Dev.
                                          Rainfall                                         Days
                                                    (in inches)                                   (in days)
                                        (in inches)                                      (0.25”+)
             1.   New Orleans, LA           17.5        9.03    Houston, TX                11.5      5.53
             2.   Baton Rouge, LA           16.3        8.32    Mobile, AL                 14.4      5.46
             3.   Pensacola, FL             15.1        8.08    Baton Rouge, LA            13.8      5.37
             4.   Shreveport, LA            14.5        7.86    Tallahassee, FL            13.0      5.35
             5.   Mobile, AL                16.9        7.79    Shreveport, LA             12.0      5.32
             6.   Houston, TX               14.3        7.29    Daytona Beach, FL          11.1      5.23
             7.   Lafayette, LA             16.8        7.00    Lafayette, LA              14.3      5.15
             8.   Lake Charles, LA          15.8        6.92    Peoria, IL                 13.5      5.08
             9.   Port Arthur, TX           15.7        6.79    Pensacola, FL              12.5      5.06
            10.   Miami, FL                 18.3        6.52    Eugene, OR                 10.3      5.06
                  U.S. Average               9.5        3.50    U.S. Average               10.6      3.60


Top Ten Most Volatile Cities July-September

During the third quarter, three cities are top ten in both the most volatile average rainfall and number of rainy days (Table
13). The third quarter top ten cities with the most volatile total rainfall average 197% more volatility than the third quarter
U.S. average, 16.1 inches of rainfall fluctuation from the 18.9 inch top ten most volatile average vs. 7.5 inches for the 9.6
inch U.S. average. The third quarter top ten most volatile rainy day cities average 154% more volatility than the third
quarter U.S. average, 10.8 rainy days fluctuation from the 17.2 day top ten most volatile average vs. 6.5 days for the 10.1
day U.S. average. Fourteen of the seventeen third quarter most volatile cities are in the South. Florida leads the third
quarter most volatile cities list with seven cities, followed by North Carolina with three and Texas and Louisiana with two
cities each.

                                                                                                                        11
Table 13: Q3 Top Ten Most Volatile Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                          Average                                          Rainy
                                                      Std. Dev.                                    Std Dev.
                                           Rainfall                                         Days
                                                     (in inches)                                   (in days)
                                         (in inches)                                      (0.25”+)
             1.   Pensacola, FL              20.8        7.51    Kansas City, MO            12.6      5.29
             2.   Daytona Beach, FL          19.3        7.48    Lexington, KY              13.0      5.19
             3.   Houston, TX                14.2        7.37    Hatteras, NC               14.8      5.18
             4.   W. Palm Beach, FL          21.9        7.28    Fort Meyers, FL            26.9      5.09
             5.   Port Arthur, TX            17.1        7.26    Tampa, FL                  21.0      5.08
             6.   New Orleans, LA            17.9        6.74    New Orleans, LA            16.9      4.98
             7.   Jacksonville, FL           21.0        6.55    Asheville, NC              13.7      4.87
             8.   Mobile, AL                 19.5        6.53    Jacksonville, FL           19.3      4.86
             9.   Hatteras, NC               17.4        6.51    Wilmington, NC             17.9      4.77
            10.   Tallahassee                20.2        6.32    Baton Rouge, LA            15.8      4.74
                  U.S. Average                9.6        3.50    U.S. Average               10.1     30.25



Top Ten Most Volatile Cities October-December

During the fourth quarter, only two cities are top ten in both the most volatile average rainfall and number of rainy days –
Eugene and Olympia (Table 14). The fourth quarter top ten cities with the most volatile total rainfall average 190% more
volatility than the fourth quarter U.S. average, 12.2 inches of rainfall fluctuation from the 15.2 inch top ten most volatile
average vs. 6.4 inches for the 7.9 inch U.S. average. The fourth quarter top ten most volatile rainy day cities average 173%
more volatility than the fourth quarter U.S. average, 11 rainy days fluctuation from the 15.5 day top ten volatile average vs.
6.4 days for the 8.7 day U.S. average. Eight of the eighteen fourth quarter top ten most volatile cities are in the South, while
six are in the Pacific Northwest. Texas and Oregon lead the fourth quarter most volatile cities list with four cities each,
followed by Louisiana with three cities.

Table 14: Q4 Top Ten Most Volatile Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                          Average                                          Rainy
                                                      Std. Dev.                                    Std Dev.
                                           Rainfall                                         Days
                                                     (in inches)                                   (in days)
                                         (in inches)                                      (0.25”+)
             1.   Houston, TX                13.2        6.52    Salem, OR                  20.4      7.27
             2.   Eugene, OR                 19.6        6.42    Eugene, OR                 23.2     70.25
             3.   Lake Charles, LA           13.6        6.23    Olympia, WA                24.3      5.68
             4.   Pensacola, FL              12.6        6.16    Portland, OR               18.1      5.65
             5.   Olympia, WA                20.6        6.09    Seattle, WA                19.3      5.44
             6.   Memphis, TN                15.3        6.05    Medford, OR                10.2      4.93
             7.   Hatteras, NC               14.8        5.96    Shreveport, LA             12.9      4.92
             8.   Lafayette, LA              14.6        5.88    Dallas, TX                  9.4      4.74
             9.   Port Arthur, TX            15.3        5.83    Augusta, GA                 9.3      4.71
            10.   Miami, FL                  11.9        5.73    Waco, TX                    9.3      4.62
                  U.S. Average                7.9        3.20    U.S. Average                8.7      3.20


When looking across all four quarters, a total of thirty-eight unique cities comprise the top ten most volatile cities lists.
Eleven cities are on the top ten most volatile lists in two quarters. Seven are on the top ten most volatile lists in three
quarters: New Orleans, Mobile, Houston, Tallahassee, Pensacola, Baton Rouge and Port Arthur. No cities make the top ten
most volatile lists in all four quarters. Florida has the largest number of top ten most volatile cities at eight, followed by
Louisiana with five cities and California, Oregon and Texas with four each. Twenty-one of the thirty-eight top ten most
volatile cities are in the South, followed by ten in the Pacific, four in Texas, two in the Midwest and one in the Mountain
Region. Twenty-four of the top ten most volatile cities are also on the top ten rainiest cities list and four are on the top ten
driest cities list (see Appendix 3).

                                                                                                                         12
TOP TEN Least Volatile Cities (Lowest Standard Deviation)
Bakersfield, Las Vegas Least Volatile Cities. California, Montana, Nevada, Arizona Least Volatile States.

Our study of standard deviations for total average annual rainfall and the average annual number of rainy days also reveals
the least volatile or most predictable cities when it comes to rain. Again, we illustrated minimum and maximum ranges to
provide insight into rain extremes, in addition to average fluctuations. Top ten lists of the least volatile cities for both
average annual rainfall and average annual rainy days were developed and cities on both lists highlighted (Figure 5).

Eight cities are top ten in both the least volatile average annual rainfall and average annual rainy days. Nine of the twelve
annual top ten least volatile cities are in the Mountain Region and three are in the Pacific. Nevada leads the annual top ten
least volatile list with four cities.

The annual top ten least volatile cities in total rainfall average only 33% of the volatility of the annual U.S. average, 8.6
inches of annual fluctuation from the 8.8 inch top ten least volatile average vs. 26 inches from the 35 inch national average.
If we compare the more extreme maximum minus minimum range of annual rainfall in the top ten least volatile cities, the
fluctuation is 17 inches of rain vs. 52 inches nationally. The annual top ten least volatile cities in rainy day volatility
average 51% of the volatility of the U.S. average, 13.4 days of annual rain fluctuation from the 9.9 day top ten least volatile
average vs. 26.2 days from the 38 day national average. If we compare the maximum minus minimum range of annual rainy
days in the top ten least volatile cities, the fluctuation is 25 days of rain vs. 53 nationally.


Figure 5: Annual Top Ten Least Volatile Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                                                          Annual Thirty Year Average Top Ten Least Volatile (Average Rainfall)                                          Avg Rainfall
                                                                                                                                                                                        Max-Min Range
                  60
                                                                                                                                                                                        Std Dev Range
                  50
 Inches of Rain




                  40
                  30
                  20
                  10
                  0
                       Bakersfield, CA   Grand Junction,   Winslow , AZ   Las Vegas, NV   Winnemucca, NV    Yakima, WA      Pendleton, OR    Lew iston, ID      Ely, NV      Reno, NV   U.S. Average
                                              CO



                                                                                                                                                                                        .25"+ Days
                                                                          Annual Thirty Year Average Top Ten Least Volatile (0.25"+ Rainy Days)
                                                                                                                                                                                        Max-Min Range
                  60                                                                                                                                                                    Std Dev Range
                  50
 Number of Days




                  40
                  30
                  20
                  10
                   0
                       Las Vegas, NV     Bakersfield, CA Winnemucca, NV    Yakima, WA      Glasgow , MT    Albuquerque, NM Grand Junction,   Winslow , AZ    Pendleton, OR   Reno, NV   U.S. Average
                                                                                                                                CO




Top Ten Least Volatile Cities January-March

During the first quarter, eight cities are top ten in both least volatile average rainfall and number of rainy days (Table 15).
The first quarter top ten cities with least volatile rainfall average only 25% of the volatility of the U.S. average, 1.4 inches of
rainfall fluctuation from the 1.6 inch top ten least volatile average vs. 5.5 inches for the 7.6 inch U.S. average. The first
quarter top ten least volatile rainy day cities average 44% of the volatility of the U.S. average, 2.8 rainy days fluctuation
from the 1.9 day top ten least volatile average vs. 6.4 days for the 8.7 day U.S. average. Eight of the twelve first quarter top
ten least volatile cities are in the Mountain Region, two are in the Dakotas and one is in Texas and the final one is in
Nebraska. Montana leads the first quarter top ten least volatile cities list with four cities.




                                                                                                                                                                                                 13
Table 15: Q1 Top Ten Least Volatile Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                          Average                                           Rainy
                                                      Std. Dev.                                     Std Dev.
                                           Rainfall                                          Days
                                                     (in inches)                                    (in days)
                                         (in inches)                                       (0.25”+)
              1. Glasgow, MT                  1.1         .39    Glasgow, MT                   .3       .52
             2. Rapid City, SD                1.6         .56    Havre, MT                     .6       .81
             3. El Paso, TX                   1.2         .61    El Paso, TX                  1.2       .83
             4. Havre, MT                     1.3         .63    Helena, MT                    .8      1.05
             5. Pueblo, CO                    1.6         .69    Bismarck, ND                 1.3      1.15
             6. Valentine, NE                 1.8         .74    Missoula, MT                 1.7      1.27
             7. Casper, WY                    1.9         .75    Winslow, AZ                  1.5      1.28
             8. Helena, MT                    1.4         .76    Pueblo, CO                   1.8      1.29
             9. Bismarck, ND                  1.7         .78    Albuquerque, NM              1.5      1.38
             10. Winslow, AZ                  1.6         .81    Rapid City, SD               1.7      1.42
                 U.S. Average                 7.6        2.75    U.S. Average                 8.6      3.05



Top Ten Least Volatile Cities April-June

During the second quarter, nine cities are top ten in both least volatile average rainfall and number of rainy days (Table 16).
The second quarter top ten cities with the least volatile total rainfall average only 21% of the volatility of the U.S. average,
1.4 inches of rainfall fluctuation from the 1.1 inch top ten least volatile average vs. 7 inches for the 9.5 inch U.S. average.
The second quarter top ten least volatile rainy day cities average 30% of the volatility of the U.S. average, 2.2 rainy days
fluctuation from the 1.2 day top ten least volatile average vs. 7.2 days for the 10.6 day U.S. average. Seven of the eleven
second quarter top ten least volatile cities are in the Mountain Region, while four are in the Pacific. California and Arizona
lead the second quarter least volatile cities list with three cities each, followed by Nevada with two cities.

Table 16: Q2 Top Ten Least Volatile Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                          Average                                           Rainy
                                                      Std. Dev.                                     Std Dev.
                                           Rainfall                                          Days
                                                     (in inches)                                    (in days)
                                         (in inches)                                       (0.25”+)
             1.   Las Vegas, NV                .4         .35    Las Vegas, NV                 .5      .57
             2.   Phoenix, AZ                  .4         .44    Phoenix, AZ                   .5       .73
             3.   Tucson, AZ                   .8         .51    Tucson, AZ                    .9       .80
             4.   Bakersfield, CA              .8         .64    Bakersfield, CA               .9      .96
             5.   Winslow, AZ                  .8         .70    Yakima, WA                   1.8      1.16
             6.   Yakima, WA                  1.8         .75    Winslow, AZ                  1.0     10.25
             7.   San Diego, CA               1.0         .83    Reno, NV                     1.6      1.28
             8.   Reno, NV                    1.5         .91    Long Beach, CA               1.2      1.29
             9.   Long Beach, CA              1.0         .92    San Diego, CA                1.4      1.30
            10.   Grand Junction, CO          2.2        1.03    Los Angeles, CA              1.4      1.56
                  U.S. Average                9.5        3.50    U.S. Average                10.6      3.60


Top Ten Least Volatile Cities July-September

During the third quarter, all cities are top ten in both the least volatile average rainfall and number of rainy days (Table 17).
The third quarter top ten cities with the least volatile total rainfall average only 15% of the volatility of the U.S. average, 1
inch of rainfall fluctuation from the .4 inch top ten least volatile average vs. 7 inches for the 9.6 inch U.S. average. The
third quarter top ten least volatile rainy day cities average 18% of the volatility of the U.S. average, 1.2 rainy days
fluctuation from the .5 day top ten least volatile average vs. 6.5 days for the 10.1 day U.S. average. Nine of the ten third
quarter top ten least volatile cities are in the Pacific; one is in the Mountain Region. California leads the third quarter top
ten least volatile cities list with eight cities.

                                                                                                                          14
Table 17: Q3 Top Ten Least Volatile Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                           Average                                            Rainy
                                                       Std. Dev.                                      Std Dev.
                                            Rainfall                                           Days
                                                      (in inches)                                     (in days)
                                          (in inches)                                        (0.25”+)
              1.   San Francisco, CA           .3          .31    Bakersfield, CA                .2      .38
              2.   Bakersfield, CA             .2          .34    San Diego, CA                  .2      .48
              3.   Fresno, CA                  .2          .37    Fresno, CA                     .3      .58
              4.   San Diego, CA               .3          .45    Los Angeles, CA                .3      .60
              5.   Long Beach, CA              .3          .57    Long Beach, CA                 .3      .66
              6.   Yakima, WA                  .9          .61    San Francisco, CA              .3      .70
              7.   Sacramento, CA              .4          .62    Stockton, CA                   .4       .72
              8.   Stockton, CA                .3          .64    Yakima, WA                    1.1      .87
              9.   Reno, NV                    .8          .64    Sacramento, CA                 .5      .94
             10.   Los Angeles, CA             .4          .72    Reno, NV                      1.1      1.34
                   U.S. Average                9.6        3.50    U.S. Average                 10.1     30.25


Top Ten Least Volatile Cities October-December

During the fourth quarter, six cities are top ten in both the least volatile average rainfall and number of rainy days (Table
18). The fourth quarter top ten cities with the least volatile total rainfall average only 27% of the volatility of the U.S.
average, 1.7 inches of rainfall fluctuation from the 1.8 inch top ten least volatile average vs. 6.4 inches for the 7.9 inch U.S.
average. The fourth quarter top ten least volatile rainy day cities average 44% of the volatility of the U.S. average, 2.8
rainy days fluctuation from the 1.9 day top ten least volatile average vs. 6.4 days for the 8.7 day U.S. average. Twelve of the
fourteen fourth quarter top ten least volatile cities are in the Mountain Region. Montana leads the fourth quarter top ten
least volatile cities list with five cities, followed by Nevada with three cities and Colorado with two.

Table 18: Q4 Top Ten Least Volatile Cities – Thirty-year Average Rainfall and 0.25”+ Rainy Days

                                           Average                                            Rainy
                                                       Std. Dev.                                      Std Dev.
                                            Rainfall                                           Days
                                                      (in inches)                                     (in days)
                                          (in inches)                                        (0.25”+)
              1.   Helena, MT                  1.5         .60    Glasgow, MT                   1.2      1.03
              2.   Great Falls, MT             2.0         .73    Helena, MT                    1.3      1.06
              3.   Havre, MT                   1.5         .79    Havre, MT                     1.2      1.19
              4.   Glasgow, MT                 1.5         .80    Cheyenne, WY                  1.6      1.33
              5.   Pueblo, CO                  1.5         .89    Great Falls, MT               2.3      1.48
              6.   Bakersfield, CA             1.7         .89    Las Vegas, NV                 1.3      1.53
              7.   Cheyenne, WY                1.9         .89    Pueblo, CO                    1.9      1.54
              8.   Ely, NV                     2.2         .94    Albuquerque, NM               2.6      1.61
              9.   Grand Junction, CO          2.3         .98    Huron, SD                     3.0      1.62
             10.   Billings, MT                2.3        1.01    Winnemucca, NV                2.5      1.68
                   U.S. Average                7.9        3.20    U.S. Average                  8.7      3.20



When looking across all four quarters, a total of thirty-three unique cities comprise the top ten least volatile cities lists.
Eleven cities are on the top ten least volatile lists in two quarters. Only two cities are on the top ten least volatile lists in
three quarters – Albuquerque and Bakersfield. No cities make the top ten least volatile lists in all four quarters. California
has the largest number of least volatile cities at eight, followed by Montana with six cities, Nevada with four cities and
Arizona with three cities. Eighteen of the thirty-three top ten least volatile cities are in the Mountain Region, followed by
ten in the Pacific, three in Dakotas, one in Texas and one in Nebraska. One additional note of interest is that Lewiston, ID
is the eighth least volatile city annually even though the city never has low enough volatility for a quarterly top ten ranking,
resulting in a total of thirty-four least volatile cities. Twenty-seven of the top ten least volatile cities are also on the top ten
driest cities list and four are on the top ten rainiest cities list (see Appendix 3).

                                                                                                                             15
PRECIPITATION TRENDS
More Rain in Twelve Eastern and Southeastern Cities, Less in Twenty-Nine Western Cities

This part of the study reveals increases in precipitation in some parts of the country and decreases in other parts. Moderate
changes in annual precipitation occurred in 67% of the 195 markets analyzed. Changes during each of the quarters are also
widespread with somewhere between 33% and 40% of the 195 cities experiencing a moderate change in the expected
precipitation during any given quarter. In the first, third and fourth quarters most of the cities with moderate changes in
precipitation frequency experience decreasing precipitation trends, while in the second quarter the majority of the changing
markets show increasing precipitation trends. We have highlighted the statistically significant trends and the percent change
(increase or decrease) over the last thirty years for each calendar quarter below (Tables 19-22).

Precipitation trends January-March
In the first quarter of the year, twenty of the 195 U.S. cities show significant changes in total rainfall and ten cities show
significant rainy day change (Table 19). Seven cities show changes in both rainfall and rainy days during the first quarter.
Significant rainfall declines dominate in the first quarter and are most prevalent in the South and West. Significant
increases in rainfall are isolated and seen only in Erie and Midland. Significant rainy day changes are less frequent than
total rainfall change during the first quarter. Rainy day declines are most prevalent in the Mountain Region, while rainy day
increases occur in New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Kentucky. It is worth noting that precipitation events in many
of these cities during the January-March time period are frequently snow events rather than rain events.

Table 19: Q1 Precipitation Trends – Thirty-year Significant Changes

                                  Rainfall                        Rainy Days 0.25”+
                                         % Change                                % Change
                     Erie, PA              126.8       Concord, NH                  27.1
                     North Platte, NE      -49.5       Erie, PA                     73.6
                     Norfolk, VA           -58.4       North Plate, NE              -64.3
                     Charlotte, NC         -69.0       Cleveland, OH                45.4
                     Hatteras, NC          -59.4       Lexington, KY                38.2
                     Raleigh, NC           -74.6       Midland, TX                  141.3
                     Wilmington, NC        -69.2       Great Falls, MT              -53.5
                     Columbus, GA          -72.8       Havre, MT                    -98.1
                     Pensacola, FL         -63.6       Flagstaff, AZ                -57.0
                     Tallahassee, FL       -60.6       Tucson, AZ                   -52.9
                     Mobile, AL            -61.3
                     Midland, TX           226.7
                     Billings, MT          -56.7
                     Great Falls, MT       -47.4
                     Havre, MT             -35.6
                     Helena, MT            -37.3
                     Kalispell, MT         -66.0
                     Casper, WY            -50.3.
                     Flagstaff, AZ         -32.8
                     Tucson, AZ            -35.6




Precipitation trends April-June

During the second quarter, four cities show significant changes in total rainfall and eight cities show significant rainy day
change (Table 20). Only two cities show changes in both rainfall and rainy days during the second quarter, Glasgow, MT
and Las Vegas. Two cities show significant rainfall change during second quarter, while two decline. Significant rainy day
changes are more frequently increases during the second quarter, only Goodland, KS and Las Vegas decrease.




                                                                                                                       16
Table 20: Q2 Precipitation Trends – Thirty-year Significant Changes

                                    Rainfall                      Rainy Days < 0.25”+
                                               % Change                          % Change
                      Grand Forks, ND            161.0     Green Bay, WI            60.8
                      Oklahoma City, OK          -59.5     Madison, WI              54.2
                      Glasgow, MT                160.2     Goodland, KS             -31.2
                      Las Vegas, NV              -28.8     Miami, FL                47.8
                                                           Orlando, FL              48.2
                                                           Glasgow, MT              77.9
                                                           Las Vegas, NV            -74.4
                                                           Pendleton, OR            85.2

Precipitation trends July-September

In the third quarter of the year, thirty-seven of the 195 U.S. cities show significant changes in precipitation. Thirty are in
total rainfall and twenty cities show significant rainy day change (Table 21). Thirteen cities show changes in both rainfall
and rainy days during the third quarter. Significant rainfall declines dominate during third quarter and are most prevalent in
the West. Significant increases in rainfall are more isolated and seen in North Carolina, Florida, Virginia, New York and
Pennsylvania. Rainy day declines in the third quarter are also prevalent in the West, while rainy day increases occur in
North Carolina, Florida and North Dakota.

Table 21: Q3 Precipitation Trends – Thirty-year Significant Changes

                                    Rainfall                       Rainy Days < 0.25”+
                                               % Change                           % Change
                      New York City, NY          142.2     Rockford, IL              -37.6
                      Williamsport, PA           160.0     Madison, WI               -28.7
                      Des Moines, IA             -64.2     Fargo, ND                 57.8
                      North Platte, NE           -64.1     Asheville, NC             64.2
                      Norfolk, VA                173.2     Hatteras, NC              68.0
                      Hatteras, NC               149.3     Raleigh, NC               52.6
                      Raleigh, NC                198.5     Key West, FL              58.2
                      Wilmington, NC             136.2     West Palm Beach, FL       35.3
                      Savannah, GA               -76.7     Baton Rouge, LA           -39.6
                      Key West, FL               152.7     Boise, ID                 -86.1
                      Miami, FL                  148.2     Winnemucca, NV            -83.8
                      Little Rock, AR            -57.6     Olympia, WA               -75.2
                      Baton Rouge, LA            -62.4     Spokane, WA               -67.7
                      Boise, ID                  -18.1     Eugene, OR                -68.5
                      Lewiston, ID               -52.8     Pendleton, OR             -87.1
                      Cedar City, UT             -49.8     Portland, OR              -67.3
                      Winnemucca, NV             -26.7     Bakersfield, CA          -120.9
                      Olympia, WA                -35.0     Los Angeles, CA          -117.7
                      Seattle, WA                -44.6     San Francisco, CA        -124.4
                      Spokane, WA                -47.4     Stockton, CA             -112.8
                      Eugene, OR                 -23.2
                      Medford, OR                -22.2
                      Pendleton, OR              -24.6
                      Portland, OR               -37.4
                      Salem, OR                  -36.5
                      Los Angeles, CA            -19.4
                      Long Beach, CA             -15.0
                      Sacramento, CA              -9.7
                      San Diego, CA               -6.5
                      San Francisco, CA           -4.8

                                                                                                                       17
Precipitation trends October-December

In the fourth quarter, only four cities showed significant changes in precipitation and all were declines (Table 21). The
significant fourth quarter rainfall declines were in South Dakota and Arizona, while the rainy day declines were in Des
Moines and San Diego. As with the first quarter, it is worth noting that precipitation events at northern stations may be
snow events rather than rain events.

Table 22: Q4 Precipitation Trends – Thirty-year Significant Changes

                                            Rainfall                   Rainy Days < 0.25”+
                                                       % Change                       % Change
                        Rapid City, SD                   -57.9  Des Moines, IA           -53.6
                        Winslow, AZ                      -40.4  San Diego, CA            -50.1


In summary, sixty-four cities show significant changes in precipitation throughout the year, twenty were rain increases and
forty-four were rain decreases. Rain increases are most prevalent in the East and Southeast (twelve cities) and the Midwest
(four cities), while rain decreases were observed mainly throughout the West (twenty-nine cities) and the Midwest (seven
cities). Twenty-four cities showed significant precipitation trends in two quarters. Only four cities showed changes in three
quarters, North Platte, NE, Hatteras, NC, Raleigh and Pendleton, OR. Nineteen of the top ten rainiest cities have
significant precipitation trends, eight with increasing precipitation and eleven with decreasing precipitation. Seventeen of
the top ten driest cities also have significant precipitation trends, only one is increasing while the remaining sixteen show
decreasing precipitation.


Trends in multi-day precipitation events

We also observed some key changes when we compared the annual frequency of events when more than 00.25 inches of
liquid precipitation occurred on at least three consecutive days during 2002-2006 to the annual frequency of such events
during the period from 1977-2001. All northern regions of the United States showed an increase in these three-day
precipitation events, while all Southern regions showed a slight decrease. Additionally, cumulative precipitation during the
third quarter in the Pacific Region dropped 40% from the 1977-2001 time period to the 2002-2006 time period

Figure 6: Three Day Rain Events


                   Change in Last 5 Year Rainy Periods vs. Previous 25 Years
  5 Yr/25 Yr
     Ratio
   1.6
                              More 3 Day
                              Rain Events
  1.4

  1.2
                                                                                  Fewer 3 Day
                                                                                  Rain Events
    1

  0.8

  0.6

  0.4

  0.2

    0
          New        Mid       EN Central Mountain        WN       S Atlantic   Pacific    WS       ES Central
         England   Atlantic                              Central                          Central




                                                                                                                      18
More frequent and severe weather extremes

Longer duration rain events were observed throughout Florida during the last five years, particularly in Fort Meyers,
Orlando, Tampa and West Palm Beach – each of these markets experienced rain events exceeding eleven consecutive days
during the summers of 2002, 2003 and 2004. In another example of long duration rain events, the San Francisco market
experienced rain on twenty-five of the thirty-one days in March 2006.




VOLATILITY TRENDS (Standard Deviation Changes)
Volatility Increasing in Fifteen Cities, Decreasing in Eleven

Thirteen cities show significant rainfall volatility trend changes and fourteen show significant rainy day volatility changes
(Table 23). Fifteen cities show significant standard deviation increases or increasing volatility, while ten cities show
significant standard deviation decreases or decreasing volatility. Atlantic City and Seattle are the only cities with both
rainfall and rainy day volatility changes. West Palm Beach is the only city with change beyond one quarter.

Several top ten rainy cities that are also top ten in volatility are experiencing increasing precipitation and increasing
volatility, making rainy markets even more difficult to forecast. West Palm Beach and Miami are rainy and volatile and
both show significant trends toward more rain and more volatility. Shreveport, Memphis and Dallas are in the top ten most
volatile lists and all three are becoming more volatile. Raleigh and Portland show both increasing rain trends and more
volatility trends. Bakersfield is the only top ten dry city with standard deviation changes. Although the volatility percentage
change is approaching 300%, it is also on the top ten least volatile list, so it will remain relatively low in volatility.

Cities with decreasing volatility are typically less rainy cities, with the exception of Jackson, MS, Portland and Tallahassee.
Portland is also becoming less rainy in addition to the lower volatility, improving forecasting and predictability.

Table 23: Standard Deviation Trends – Thirty-year Significant Changes

                                       Rainfall                       Rainy Days < 0.25”
                                           % Change                                 % Change
             Jan-Mar Jackson, MS             -48.5            Charleston, WV           -39.2
             Apr-June Syracuse, NY           277.8            Atlantic City, NJ        -55.4
                       Atlantic City, NJ    - 41.0            Miami, FL               105.2
                       Alpena, MI            -62.7            Stockton, CA            230.0
                       West Palm Beach, FL   173.3
                       Bakersfield, CA       273.4
             July-Sept Philadelphia, PA      257.0            Raleigh, NC                81.6
                       Evansville, IN        176.6            Portland, OR               -63.0
                       West Palm Beach, FL   366.0
                       Memphis, TN           299.0
                       Nashville, TN         -33.0
                       San Angelo, TX        -29.3
             Oct-Dec Key West, FL            -15.7            Binghampton, NY            -57.7
                       Seattle, WA           244.9            Williamsport, PA           -78.2
                                                              Tallahassee, FL            -50.2
                                                              Dallas, TX                 44.4
                                                              San Antonio, TX            208.2
                                                              Shreveport, LA             89.1
                                                              Oklahoma City, OK          122.7
                                                              Seattle, WA                 92.6




                                                                                                                        19
CONCLUSION
Forty-two Rainy City, Thirty Dry City Extremes Challenging to Business

Although the primary purpose of this study is to highlight U.S. cities with extreme rain conditions and examine significant
rainfall changes over the last thirty years, the intended use of the report is to help businesses better understand local rainfall
patterns for planning and risk mitigation. Weather is disruptive to business and often impacts more than just physical
property. Revenue and costs are also sensitive to weather. In the U.S., seventy percent of businesses are financially
impacted by bad weather each year costing trillions of dollars. Weather sensitive businesses like Agriculture, Construction,
Retail, Transportation, Travel and Leisure, often feel the financial impact of severe or changing weather first.

The forty-two rainy cities highlighted in this study represent the extremes of U.S. precipitation levels and rainy day
frequency. Although cities in Florida, Louisiana, Alabama, Oregon, Kentucky and others throughout the Southeast and
Pacific Northwest are accustomed to the average high levels and high frequency of rain, the accompanying high volatility,
extremes of maximum rainfall years, increasing rain trends and in some cities increasing volatility trends, will add further
challenge to local businesses.

Similarly, the thirty dry cities highlighted often represent drought extremes. Again, these dry cities in California, Montana,
Nevada and Arizona are accustomed to the average low levels and low frequency of rain. Although most dry cities are also
less volatile, a number exhibit higher volatility and extreme minimum rainfall years. Additionally, much of the West is
trending drier, leading to increased volatility in a number of cities. Local businesses in these dry cities, particularly in
Agriculture and Leisure, will face additional challenge.

Although our study focuses primarily on rainfall extremes and significant trends, that is not intended to imply that rainfall
conditions in the remaining one hundred and twenty-three markets are not important, or do not create challenge for
business. Our top ten designation was selected for brevity and ease of use, not for statistical reasons. Many of the cities
not on the top ten lists exhibit challenging rain conditions and volatility that should be considered by businesses. As a
result, we also prepared a summary of quarterly average rainfall and rainy day ranges as well as significant thirty year
trends for each of the 195 cities studied (See Appendix 4).

Finally, we have briefly highlighted some of the rainfall impacts on various industries to provide a flavor of the widespread
impact of rain on U.S. business. These highlights are intended to encourage more rigorous risk analysis by individual
businesses. Additionally, future WeatherBill studies will provide detailed industry specific analysis to correlate industry
performance with precipitation and temperature conditions.


Highlights of Rainfall Impacts on Weather Sensitive Businesses
Agriculture, Construction, Leisure and Retail Vulnerable to Intensified Rain, Drought and Uncertainty

As previously mentioned, the impact of rain on business results is far reaching. With the exception of Agriculture, weather
impacts on business are also less studied than one might imagine. Although there are fragmented reports on how
unseasonable rain slows housing starts and leads to drops in employee absenteeism and productivity, comprehensive
industry studies, outside of Agriculture, are limited. Many weather sensitive businesses do not regularly quantify weather
impact on performance and as such, few have developed detailed strategies for managing weather risk.

Many risk managers agree that the current business and financial planning paradigm around predictable and cyclical weather
patterns is insufficient and may be further challenged in many regions by increasingly volatile climate. As stated earlier,
businesses are typically prepared for rainfall norms and averages, but those averages are often the result of periodic
extremes that can negatively impact business performance. Although precipitation forecasting can be extremely helpful to
business in mitigating volatility and risk, it is worth noting that rainfall is among the most difficult weather elements to
predict correctly. In fact, the Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WGNE), part of the World Meteorological
Organizations’ World Climate Research Program, stated, “Even as operational numerical weather prediction models
become more accurate, improvements in rain forecasts are hard to come by.”




                                                                                                                           20
Agriculture

Agriculture success is obviously directly dependent on weather and climate. Moisture stress, either a lack or an abundance
of soil moisture during critical phases of the crop growth and development cycle, affects average crop yield as well as
production costs. Critical planting, reproductive, growing and harvest seasons are all vulnerable to rainfall fluctuations. A
typical season for corn and soybeans, for example, would start with planting from April to May, pollination from July to
August and harvest from October to November. Unseasonable rain, especially during the pollination period, can
dramatically reduce profitability.

In the U.S., 80% of the counties rely on rainfed agriculture as opposed to irrigated agriculture. Irrigated counties, as one
would expect, are also more prevalent in drier regions in the West. While rainfed growers have higher yield risks due to
unseasonable rainfall than irrigated growers, rising irrigation costs due to drought can also be a significant risk, since
irrigation often accounts for 30% of total operating costs.

Unseasonable rain also increases the use and cost of crop insurance coverage. In many regions across the U.S. it is typical
for only 20-40% of growers to purchase crop insurance. Less than one half purchase at CAT levels (Catastrophic Risk
Protection) which covers 28% of revenue (50% of expected yield at 55% of expected price), while the remainder purchase
Buy Up policies to cover 75%, and in a few areas 85% of yield at expected price (65% is the most popular level of
coverage).

 Finally, unseasonable rain often impacts cash flows, which may impede debt repayments. Many growers are faced with
substantial overhead and fixed costs that require predictable revenue streams, which of course are difficult given rain
volatility. Additionally, energy costs significantly influence profitability in agriculture, which can skyrocket due not only to
supply and demand factors, but weather impact.

Construction

Materials, equipment, personnel, and the quality and quantity of construction work can be adversely affected by rain,
delaying project completion and increasing costs. Quantifying rain impact is clearly valuable to contractors for preparing
realistic schedules, cost estimates and reliable bids. Productivity loss due to rain can be partial or complete. However, even
when construction can proceed during rain, productivity often drops, substantially impacting both the annual and quarterly
growth rate of construction output.

As an example, rainfall is regarded as a major uncertainty factor adversely impacting productivity and duration of highway
projects. As a result, planners add in rain delays or an increase in time to tasks to account for rain impact. However,
typically those adding contingencies to plans do not have access to the rain data needed for accurate projections. Often the
result is schedule delays and added costs, which can be quite problematic, especially with fixed price or completion
contracts.

Leisure

Recreation is a voluntary activity, which makes it particularly sensitive to weather. Leisure time is scarce; making patrons
resent interference or curtailment of their enjoyment due to adverse weather. Rain is a major factor causing Leisure industry
performance to be above or below expected levels. Good weather is vital for demand and customer satisfaction, grounds or
facilities maintenance and a successful season. Additionally, much recreation is concentrated in high energy environments
such as coasts and mountains where extreme events are more common and where changes can have the greatest implications
on the enjoyment of customers.

Unfortunately, much of the increasing rain and volatility trends are in historically wetter regions in the Northeast, northern
Midwest and Southeast, which may negatively impact Leisure customer demand and satisfaction as well as maintenance
costs. Longer duration events may also lead to flooding and property damage. Golf courses, for example, may have more
challenge and expense in maintaining healthy turf. Drier conditions in the southern Midwest and parts of the South may
lead to increasing irrigation costs and in the West further tax restricted water supplies, leading to more rationing and higher
costs. Golf courses may also experience less desirable turf conditions.




                                                                                                                         21
Retail

Retailers often experience sudden shifts in consumer demand as a result of weather. Unseasonable rain can lead to delayed
and shortened buying seasons, reduce the effectiveness of major promotional or holiday campaigns and in general wreak
havoc on revenue predictability. Imagine the impact on early July barbeque sales from a week of rain or the impact on a
one day sale event during a major downpour. Rain significantly impacts consumer shopping patterns. Even dry weather can
negatively impact retailers, like movie theaters and coffee shops, as consumers turn their attentions outdoors.

Unseasonable rain can also disrupt the supply chain by impacting day-to-day patterns and entire seasons. For example,
keeping rain gear in stock during long duration rain events can be challenging and might lead to out-of-stock conditions or
more costly expedited shipments. Conversely, drought during normal rainy seasons can result in excess inventory and
additional markdowns.


Again, these highlights are intended to illustrate some of the widespread rainfall impacts on weather sensitive businesses.
More detailed industry specific analysis to correlate industry performance with precipitation and temperature conditions and
more rigorous risk analysis by individual businesses is encouraged.




                                                                                                                      22
APPENDIX 1: DATA INFORMATION AND STATISTICAL METHODS

Data information

Data analyzed                                      Thirty years (1977-2006) of historical daily temperature and
                                                   precipitation data. In the event that precipitation was collected
                                                   in solid form, the value in the database is the 'liquid equivalent'
                                                   of the collected precipitation, or the amount of precipitation
                                                   after melting.

Data source                                        United States National Weather Service data cleaned of
                                                   missing and erroneous values by Earth Satellite Corporation

Definitions                                        “Average Rainfall” is a thirty-year average of inches of rain.
                                                   “Rainy Days” are those days with more than 0.25 inches of
                                                   rain.


Statistical methods

Calculation of quarterly trends in Precipitation   A Mann-Kendall test was used to test for precipitation trends
                                                   in each location. Values for each of the last thirty years were
                                                   used as input to the Mann-Kendall test and trends were
                                                   determined to be significant if they passed the Mann-Kendall
                                                   test with 95% confidence.

Calculation of quarterly trends in Volatility      A Mann-Kendall test was used to test for trends in the
                                                   volatility associated rainfall and rainy days for each location.
                                                   Standard deviations were calculated for each location for each
                                                   of six five-year periods (1977-1981, 1982-1986, 1987-1991,
                                                   1992-1996, 1997-2001, and 2002-2006). These six standard
                                                   deviation values were used as input to the Mann-Kendall test
                                                   and trends were determined to be significant if they passed the
                                                   Mann-Kendall test with 95% confidence.




                                                                                                                23
                                                                                                                                                              Appendix 2
                               Combined List of Top Ten Annual and Top Ten by Quarter Rainiest Cities (Ranked by Average Annual Rainfall)
                                            Average Rainfall (in Inches)             Precipitation Trend              Rainy Days (>.25")               Precipitation Trend
                                      Annual     Q1      Q2         Q3      Q4    Increasing Decreasing Annual        Q1      Q2      Q3       Q4    Increasing Decreasing
 1   Mobile, AL                        66.9     17.1    16.9       19.5    13.4                     Q1   59.3        14.8    14.4    18.5     11.6
 2   Pensacola, FL                     64.6     16.1    15.1       20.8    12.6                     Q1   56.4        14.6    12.5    18.8     10.5
 3   New Orleans, LA                   63.9     15.7    17.5       17.9    13.0                          55.5        13.8    13.6    16.9     11.2
 4   West Palm Beach, FL               62.5     10.2    16.5       21.9    13.9                          58.1         9.5    15.1    21.5     11.9      Q3
 5   Lafayette, LA                     61.8     14.3    16.8       16.2    14.6                          54.8        12.9    14.3    15.5     12.1
 6   Baton Rouge, LA                   61.7     15.5    16.3       15.9    14.0                     Q3   55.8        14.1    13.8    15.8     12.1                 Q3
 7   Miami, FL                         61.5      6.7    18.3       24.5    11.9       Q3                 57.0         6.7    16.0    24.3     10.1      Q2
 8   Port Arthur, TX                   60.8     12.8    15.7       17.1    15.3                          50.5        12.2    11.7    15.0     11.5
 9   Tallahassee, FL                   60.5     15.5    14.4       20.2    10.5                     Q1   55.8        13.7    13.0    19.3      9.7
10   Lake Charles, LA                  58.2     12.8    15.8       16.1    13.6                          49.5        11.6    11.9    14.4     11.6
11   Hatteras, NC                      58.0     14.4    11.5       17.4    14.8       Q3            Q1   55.0        14.8    12.2    14.8     13.2                 Q3
12   Meridian, MS                      57.6     16.6    14.4       12.7    13.9                          55.6        16.2    14.0    12.0     13.4
13   Fort Meyers, FL                   56.7      7.3    15.4       27.4     6.6                          55.4         7.4    14.1    26.9      7.0
14   Wilmington, NC                    56.6     11.9    12.4       21.8    10.6       Q3            Q1   53.8        13.5    12.4    17.9     10.0
15   Jackson, MS                       55.8     15.4    14.6       12.0    13.9                          52.7        15.7    12.6    11.1     13.3
16   Huntsville, AL                    55.3     15.3    14.1       11.9    14.0                          57.4        16.4    14.4    12.3     13.2
17   Memphis, TN                       54.4     13.7    14.8       10.7    15.3                          53.2        14.2    14.7    10.5     13.9
18   Birmingham, AL                    54.3     14.7    14.3       12.8    12.5                          56.4        15.8    15.2    12.2     13.2
19   Chattanooga, TN                   53.3     15.0    12.8       12.7    12.8                          58.3        16.4    15.0    13.2     13.7
20   Montgomery, AL                    53.0     16.0    12.5       12.7    11.8                          51.4        15.5    12.2    12.3     11.4
21   Jacksonville, FL                  52.0     10.6    11.6       21.0     8.8                          50.6        10.7    12.3    19.3      8.3
22   Daytona Beach, FL                 50.5      9.8    10.9       19.3    10.5                          49.6         9.8    11.1    19.4      9.3
23   Orlando, FL                       50.3      8.4    13.4       20.6     8.1                          51.2         9.1    13.4    20.7      8.0      Q2
24   Olympia, WA                       50.1     18.2     7.6        3.6    20.6                     Q3   63.5        24.2    10.1     4.9     24.3                 Q3
25   Little Rock, AR                   49.6     11.9    13.7        9.2    14.7                     Q3   51.2        13.0    15.1    10.0     13.0
26   Eugene, OR                        47.7     17.6     7.8        2.8    19.6                     Q3   57.7        21.7    10.3     8.0     22.2                 Q3
27   Knoxville, TN                     47.7     13.0    12.7       11.3    10.7                          56.6        15.5    15.0    12.9     13.3
28   Worcester, MA                     47.1     10.8    12.0       11.8    12.6                          52.7        12.7    13.6    12.6     13.7
29   Tampa, FL                         46.4      8.1    10.7       21.3     6.3                          46.3         8.8     9.9    21.0      6.7
30   Portland, ME                      45.7     10.6    12.0        9.7    13.4                          52.0        13.4    13.7    11.3     13.7
31   Lexington, KY                     45.3     10.4    12.8       11.6    10.6                          53.0        12.1    15.4    13.0     12.4      Q1
32   Louisville, KY                    45.1     10.5    12.7       11.1    10.7                          53.4        12.7    15.5    12.7     12.5
33   Charleston, WV                    44.5     10.2    12.0       12.7     9.7                          55.4        13.4    15.6    14.4     12.0
34   Erie, PA                          43.3      8.0    10.7       12.6    12.0       Q1                 53.4        10.0    13.6    14.0     15.9      Q1
35   Covington, KY                     43.1      9.5    13.0       10.6    10.1                          50.8        11.4    15.3    12.1     12.0
36   Huntington, WV                    43.0     10.0    11.7       11.8     9.6                          52.5        12.4    15.3    13.3     11.6
37   Cincinnati, OH                    42.7      8.9    13.0       11.3     9.5                          51.0        11.3    15.6    12.4     11.7
38   Dayton, OH                        41.1      8.3    13.0       10.5     9.4                          49.0        10.4    15.9    11.4     11.3
39   Buffalo, NY                       40.7      8.5    10.0       10.9    11.3                          50.8        10.5    13.0    13.1     14.3
40   Salem, OR                         39.6     14.4     6.6        2.4    16.2                     Q3   50.8        18.6     8.7     3.1     20.4
41   Seattle, WA                       36.9     12.6     6.1        3.1    15.1                     Q3   47.7        16.9     7.5     4.0     19.3
42   Portland, OR                      36.4     12.4     6.9        3.0    14.1                     Q3   48.1        17.2     8.9     3.8     18.1                 Q3
     Rainiest Cities Average           51.6     12.4    12.9       13.9    12.4                          53.6        13.5    13.3    14.1     12.8
     U.S. Average                      34.5      7.6     9.5        9.6     7.9                          37.9         8.6    10.6    10.1      8.7

                                Combined List of Top Ten Annual and Top Ten by Quarter Driest Cities (Ranked by Average Annual Rainfall)
                                            Average Rainfall (in Inches)           Precipitation Trend                  Rainy Days (>.25")             Precipitation Trend
                                      Annual     Q1      Q2        Q3     Q4 Increasing Decreasing Annual               Q1      Q2      Q3    Q4     Increasing Decreasing
1    Las Vegas, NV                      4.5      2.0     0.4       1.1    1.1                     Q2          5.7       2.5     0.5     1.3   1.3                     Q2
2    Bakersfield, CA                    6.6      3.9     0.8       0.2    1.7                                 8.7       5.5     0.9     0.2   2.1                     Q3
3    Winslow, AZ                        7.4      1.6     0.8       3.3    1.7                     Q4          9.0       1.5     1.0     4.3   2.2
4    Reno, NV                           7.4      2.9     1.5       0.8    2.3                                 8.7       3.4     1.6     1.1   2.7
5    Phoenix, AZ                        8.2       3      0.4       2.6    2.1                                10.7       4.3     0.5     3.1   2.9
6    Winnemucca, NV                     8.3      2.4     2.6       1.0    2.3                     Q3          9.4       2.4     3.2     1.3   2.5                  Q3
7    Yakima, WA                         8.4      2.6     1.8       0.9    3.1                                 9.4       2.8     1.8     1.1   3.7
8    Grand Junction, CO                 9.4      2.2     2.2       2.7    2.3                                10.8       2.0     2.6     3.4   2.8
9    Albuquerque, NM                    9.5      1.5     1.8       4.1    2.1                                11.5       1.5     2.2     5.2   2.6
10   El Paso, TX                        9.6      1.2     1.5       5.0    2.0                                11.2       1.2     1.9     5.7   2.4
11   Elko, NV                          10.0      3.1     2.6       1.4    2.8                                11.2       3.3     2.9     1.6   3.4
12   San Diego, CA                     10.9      6.8     1.0       0.3    2.7                     Q3         13.6       8.4     1.4     0.2   3.6                  Q4
13   Glasgow, MT                       11.1      1.1     4.7       3.9    1.5        Q2                      11.3       0.3     5.8     4.0   1.2       Q2
14   Havre, MT                         11.1      1.3     4.7       3.7    1.5                     Q1         11.6       0.6     5.3     4.4   1.2                  Q1
15   Helena, MT                        11.4      1.4     4.9       3.6    1.5                     Q1         12.5       0.8     5.7     4.6   1.3
16   Fresno, CA                        11.7      6.7     1.6       0.2    1.7                                15.5       9.3     1.9     0.3   4.0
17   Tucson, AZ                        12.0      2.7     0.8       5.9    2.6                     Q1         15.3       3.9     0.5     7.6   2.9                  Q1
18   Pueblo, CO                        12.4      1.6     4.3       5.0    1.5                                14.7       1.8     5.3     5.7   1.9
19   Casper, WY                        12.5      1.9     4.9       3.3    2.4                     Q1         13.3       1.6     5.5     3.9   2.3
20   Long Beach, CA                    13.0      8.6     1.0       0.3    3.1                     Q3         13.8        9      1.2     0.3   3.4
21   Los Angeles, CA                   13.7      9.0     1.1       0.4    3.3                     Q3         15.4       9.8     1.4     0.3   3.9                  Q3
22   Stockton, CA                      14.1      7.7     1.6       0.3    4.5                                18.8      10.2     2.0     0.4   6.1                  Q3
23   Missoula, MT                      14.2      2.6     5.3       3.3    2.9                                15.3       1.7     6.7     4.2   2.7
24   Great Falls, MT                   14.6      2.0     6.3       4.4    2.0                     Q1         17.3       1.6     8.0     5.5   2.3
25   Cheyenne, WY                      15.5      1.9     6.3       5.4    1.9                                17.4       1.8     8.1     5.9   1.6
26   Rapid City, SD                    15.9      1.6     7.3       4.9    2.2                     Q4         18.3       1.7     8.2     6.1   2.3
27   Bismarck, ND                      17.2      1.7     6.3       6.9    2.3                                18.8       1.3     7.4     7.7   2.4
28   Colorado Springs, CO              17.2      1.7     6.4       7.4    1.7                                20.1       1.9     7.6     8.6   2.0
29   Sacramento, CA                    18.9     10.4     2.0       0.4    6.1                     Q3         24.7      13.6     2.6     0.5   8.1
30   San Francisco, CA                 21.2     11.9     1.9       0.3    7.1                     Q3         25.1      14.2     2.6     0.3   8.1                  Q3
     Driest Cities Average             11.9      3.6     3.0       2.8    2.5                                14.0      4.1     3.5      3.3   3.0
     U.S. Average                      34.5      7.6     9.5       9.6    7.9                                37.9      8.6     10.6    10.1   8.7
                                                       Note: Bold figures represent top 10 annual and quarterly rankings
                                                                                                                                                                          Appendix 3
                                     Combined List of Top Ten Annual and Top Ten by Quarter Most Volatile Cities (Ranked by Average Annual Rainfall)
                                       Average Rainfall Standard Deviation    Standard Dev       Rainy Days Standard Deviation       Standard Dev    Top Ten    Top Ten     Top Ten
                                                   (in Inches)                   Trend                     (in Inches)                  Trend        Rainiest    Driest   Least Volatile
                                      Ann Sum    Q1        Q2    Q3     Q4    Incr    Decr    Ann Sum Q1          Q2    Q3    Q4     Incr   Decr       City       City        City
 1   New Orleans, LA                   28.12    6.82      9.03  6.74 5.53                      17.90    4.57 4.78 4.98       3.57                       X
 2   Pensacola, FL                     27.08    5.33      8.08  7.51 6.16                      16.82    3.42 5.06 4.69       3.65                       X
 3   Houston, TX                       25.96    4.78      7.29  7.37 6.52                      17.77    3.74 5.53 4.03       4.47
 4   Mobile, AL                        25.74    6.15      7.79  6.53 5.27                      17.30    3.58 5.46 4.51       3.75                       X
 5   Port Arthur, TX                   25.10    5.22      6.79  7.26 5.83                      12.28    3.64 4.79 4.53. 3.85                            X
 6   West Palm Beach, FL               24.36    5.60      5.96  7.28    5.5   Q2, Q3           17.82    3.79 5.04 4.55       4.44                       X
 7   Baton Rouge, LA                   24.08    5.53      8.32  5.64 4.59                      17.47    4.24 5.37 4.74       3.12                       X
 8   Lake Charles, LA                  23.41    4.85      6.92  5.41 6.23                      14.69    3.21 4.28       3.8  3.36                       X
 9   Lafayette, LA                     23.12    5.38      7.00  4.86 5.88                      16.12    3.41 5.15 4.08       3.48                       X
10   Daytona Beach, FL                 22.68    4.15      6.08  7.48 4.97                      16.86    3.77 5.23 4.48       3.38                       X
11   Tallahassee, FL                   22.42    5.55      6.32  6.32 4.23                      16.54    3.61 5.35 4.63       2.95             Q4        X
12   Hatteras, NC                      22.20    5.27      4.46  6.51 5.96                      17.68    4.79 3.82 5.18       3.89                       X
13   Miami, FL                         22.10    4.01      6.52  5.84 5.73                      16.08    3.52 4.40 4.47       3.69     Q2                X
14   Shreveport, LA                    21.14    4.39      7.86   3.6   5.30                    17.77    4.27 5.32 3.26       4.92     Q4
15   Jacksonville, FL                  20.82    4.24      5.80  6.55 4.23                      16.41    3.56     4.5   4.86  3.45                       X
16   Meridian, MS                      20.69    5.99      5.50  4.87 4.33                      16.14    3.88     5.0   3.57  3.73                       X
17   Tampa, FL                         19.71    4.11      4.35  6.29 4.96                      15.51    3.35 3.71 5.08       3.37                       X
18   Memphis, TN                       19.38    4.00      4.71  4.62 6.05      Q3              15.08    3.62 4.10 3.46       3.90                       X
19   Fort Meyers, FL                   18.78    4.43      4.92  5.91 3.52                      16.42    3.86 3.96 5.09       3.51                       X
20   Wilmington, NC                    18.15    4.02      3.90  5.58 4.65                      14.35     3.5     3.06 4.77   3.07                       X
21   Eugene, OR                        17.52    6.27      3.15  1.68 6.42                      21.09    6.56 5.06 2.22       7.25                       X
22   Dallas, TX                        16.91    3.31      5.15  2.81 5.64                      15.38    3.27 4.63 2.74       4.74     Q4
23   Olympia, WA                       16.68    5.51      2.51  2.57 6.09                      20.69    6.97 3.93 4.11       5.68                       X
24   Augusta, GA                       16.07    3.80      4.27  3.39 4.61                      16.38    3.57 4.16 3.94       4.71
25   Waco, TX                          15.77    3.19      4.13  3.41 5.04                      14.23    3.14 3.12 3.35       4.62
26   Lexington, KY                     15.74    3.62       4.6  4.17 3.38                      16.19    3.30 3.88 5.19       3.82                       X
27   Asheville, NC                     15.27    3.74       3.9  4.55 3.11                      15.78    3.48 4.41 4.87        3.0
28   Los Angeles, CA                   15.04    7.69      3.90  0.72 2.73                      10.96    5.66 1.87 0.67       2.76                                 X             X
29   Kansas City, MO                   14.62    1.73      4.24  5.83 2.82                      14.60    2.28 4.34 5.29       2.69
30   Salem, OR                         14.19    5.16      2.32  1.56 5.15                      19.87    6.53 3.85 2.22       7.27                       X
31   Peoria, IL                        13.74    2.34      4.16  4.27 2.97                      14.97    2.86 5.08 3.43       3.60
32   Flagstaff, AZ                     13.02    4.98      1.39  3.43 3.22                      14.27    5.61 2.07 3.35       3.24
33   Portland, OR                      12.61    4.02      2.25  1.67 4.67                      17.84    6.18 3.70 2.31       5.65             Q3        X
34   Seattle, WA                       11.44    3.21      1.90  1.90 4.43      Q4              16.98    5.50 3.22 2.82       5.44     Q4                X
35   San Francisco, CA                 11.21    5.71      1.49  0.31 3.70                      13.43    6.38 2.46 0.70       3.89                                 X             X
36   Long Beach, CA                    10.37    6.54      0.92  0.57 2.34                      10.03    5.55 1.29 0.66       2.53                                 X             X
37   Sacramento, CA                     9.56    4.70      1.28  0.62 2.96                      12.93    5.95 2.06 0.94       3.98                                 X             X
38   Medford, OR                        8.76    2.31      1.5   1.21 3.73                      12.43    3.79 2.32 1.39       4.93
     Most Volatile Cities Average      18.51    4.68     4.75   4.39 4.70                       15.9     4.3     4.1   3.5    4.0
     U.S. Average                      12.95    2.75      3.50  3.50 3.20                       13.1    3.05 3.60 3.25       3.20
                                     Combined List of Top Ten Annual and Top Ten By Quarter Least Volatile Cities (Ranked by Average Annual Rainfall)
                                       Average Rainfall Standard Deviation Standard Deviation        Rainy Days Standard Deviation Standard Deviation Top Ten   Top Ten     Top Ten
                                                   (in Inches)                      Trend                       (in Inches)               Trend      Rainiest    Driest   Most Volatile
                                      Ann Sum    Q1        Q2    Q3     Q4      Incr     Decr Ann Sum Q1               Q2     Q3   Q4  Incr   Decr      City      City        City
 1   Bakersfield, CA                    3.93    2.06      0.64  0.34 0.89        Q2                 6.26     3.12 0.96 0.38       1.80                             X
 2   Grand Junction, CO                 4.02    0.93      1.03  1.08 0.98                           6.88     1.54 1.81 1.79       1.74                             X
 3   Winslow, AZ                        4.12    0.81      0.70  1.55 1.06                           7.01     1.28 1.25 2.46       2.02                             X
 4   Las Vegas, NV                      4.15    1.71      0.35  1.01 1.08                           6.04     2.60 0.57 1.34       1.53                             X
 5   Winnemucca, NV                     4.16    0.85      1.30  0.84 1.17                           6.63     1.43 1.89 1.63       1.68                             X
 6   Yakima, WA                         4.21    1.23      0.75  0.61    1.6                         6.62     2.10 1.16 0.87       2.49                             X
 7   Pendleton, OR                      4.57    1.34      1.17  1.02 1.04                           7.22     2.36 1.76 1.36       1.74
 8   Lewiston, ID                       4.58    1.14      1.24  1.10 1.10                           7.51     1.69 2.10 1.75       1.97
 9   Ely, NV                            4.61    0.99      1.13  1.55 0.94                           8.12     1.65 1.70 2.33       2.44
10   Reno, NV                           4.64    1.76     0.91   0.64 1.33                           7.48     2.75 1.28 1.34       2.11                            X
11   Albuquerque, NM                    4.75    0.93     1.10   1.59 1.13                           6.87     1.38 1.69 2.19       1.61
12   Glasgow, MT                        4.77    0.39      1.50  2.08 0.80                           6.79     0.52 2.36 2.88       1.03                            X
13   Helena, MT                         4.86    0.76      1.72  1.78 0.60                           7.72     1.05 2.73 2.88       1.06                            X
14   Havre, MT                          5.31    0.63      1.75  2.14 0.79                           7.60     0.81 2.89 2.71       1.19                            X
15   Missoula, MT                       5.55    0.90      1.88  1.47 1.30                           8.73     1.27 2.89 2.47       2.10                            X
16   Pueblo, CO                         5.66    0.69      1.93  2.15 0.89                           8.54     1.29 2.60 3.11       1.54                            X
17   Great Falls, MT                    5.67    0.83      1.88  2.23 0.73                           8.44     1.43 2.46 3.07       1.48                            X
18   Phoenix, AZ                        5.73    1.89      0.44  1.88 1.52                           8.98     3.30 0.73 2.48       2.47                            X
19   Billings, MT                       5.82    0.83      2.46  1.52 1.01                           9.65     1.70 3.78 2.23       1.94
20   Casper, WY                         5.85    0.75      2.40  1.31 1.39                           8.69     1.67 3.43 1.85       1.74                            X
21   El Paso, TX                        5.90    0.61      1.26  2.88 1.15                           7.81     0.83 1.80 3.49       1.69                            X
22   Cheyenne, WY                       6.16    0.98      2.31  1.98 0.89                           8.51     1.73 3.10 2.35       1.33                            X
23   Tucson, AZ                         6.40    1.63      0.51  2.33 1.93                           9.30     2.38 0.80 3.82       2.30                            X
24   Rapid City, SD                     6.50    0.56      2.83  1.74 1.37                           8.89     1.42 3.21 2.42       1.84                            X
25   Fresno, CA                         6.75    3.34      1.24  0.37 1.80                           9.45     4.68      1.8   0.58 2.43                            X
26   Valentine, NE                      6.77    0.74      2.82  2.06 1.15                          11.46     3.00 4.45 2.16       1.85
27   Bismarck, ND                       7.73    0.78      2.58  3.03 1.34                           9.90     1.15 3.92 2.65       2.18                            X
28   San Diego, CA                      7.84    4.46      0.83  0.45 2.10                           9.69     5.41 1.30 0.48       2.50                            X
29   Stockton, CA                       7.90    3.73      1.20  0.64 2.33                          10.73     5.14 1.90 0.72       2.97  Q2                        X
30   Huron, SD                          9.02    1.21      3.55  2.81 1.45                          10.94     1.83 4.37 3.12       1.62
31   Sacramento, CA                     9.56    4.70      1.28  0.62 2.96                          12.93     5.95 2.06 0.94       3.98                            X             X
32   Long Beach, CA                    10.37    6.54      0.92  0.57 2.34                          10.03      5.6     1.29 0.66    2.5                            X             X
33   Los Angeles, CA                   10.86    6.38      1.03  0.72 2.73                           9.96     5.39 1.56 0.60       2.41                            X             X
34   San Francisco, CA                 11.21    5.71      1.49  0.31 3.70                          13.43     6.38 2.46 0.70       3.89                            X             X
     Least Volatile Cities Average      6.17    1.85      1.47  1.42 1.43                           8.67     2.52 2.18 1.94       2.04
     U.S. Average                      12.95    2.75      3.50  3.50 3.20                          13.10     3.05 3.60 3.25       3.20
                                                                Note: Bold figures represent top 10 annual and quarterly rankings
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Appendix 4



                                          Average Rainfall and Rainy Day Ranges and Trends in the United States by City
                          Average Rainfall over the last Thirty Years ( in inches)                                                   Number of Rainy Days (> .25 Inches) -- Thirty Year Average
                       Q1            Q2               Q3               Q4             Annual             Trend           Q1           Q2              Q3              Q4              Annual          Trend

                                                                                                   NORTHEAST
                                                                                                   New England
Caribou, ME          5.7 - 9.1      7.1 - 11.3      9.2 - 13.4      6.1 - 13.3       28.1 - 47.1                      6.4 - 12.6    9.3 - 15.7     10.8 - 15.7     7.5 - 15.3      12.7 - 59.3
Portland, ME        7.0 - 14.2      7.8 - 16.2      6.3 - 13.1      7.9 - 18.9       29.0 - 62.4                      9.6 - 17.1    9.6 - 17.8     8.4 - 14.2      10.2 - 17.1     14.2 - 66.2
Burlington, VT       4.2 - 7.6      6.3 - 12.7      8.4 - 15.2      5.6 - 11.8       24.5 - 47.3                      4.9 - 10.5    8.0 - 17.7     10.5 - 17.1     6.7 - 15.8      15.5 - 61.1
Concord, NH         5.9 - 10.6      6.6 - 14.2      6.8 - 12.8      6.4 - 14.6       25.7 - 52.1                      7.9 - 13.9    8.5 - 17.6     7.6 - 14.6      8.1 - 15.7      14.8 - 61.7
Boston, MA          7.0 - 14.2      6.0 - 15.7      6.5 - 12.7      8.1 - 14.9       27.5 - 57.5                      8.9 - 15.6    7.9 - 15.4     8.2 - 14.2      9.8 - 16.0      13.1 - 61.2
Worcester, MA       7.9 - 13.7      8.0 - 16.0      8.5 - 15.1      8.7 - 16.5       33.0 - 61.4                      9.2 - 16.2    9.2 - 18.0     9.4 - 15.8      10.1 - 17.4     14.8 - 67.5
Providence, RI      8.5 - 15.3      7.6 - 15.6      7.5 - 13.5      8.1 - 16.7       31.6 - 61.2                      9.5 - 16.5    8.9 - 16.8     8.7 - 14.1      9.7 - 16.2      13.4 - 63.6
Bridgeport, CT      7.0 - 13.0      7.0 - 16.0      8.0 - 14.3      6.7 - 13.7       28.7 - 56.9                      8.6 - 15.3    8.5 - 17.5     8.8 - 14.3      8.9 - 15.2      13.7 - 62.2
Hartford, CT        7.1 - 12.9      7.7 - 16.7      7.8 - 15.4      7.4 - 15.6       30.0 - 60.6                      8.3 - 16.3    8.6 - 16.1     8.8 - 16.2      9.2 - 16.4      15.0 - 64.9
                                                                                                    Mid Atlantic
Albany, NY           5.9 - 9.9      6.9 - 13.9      7.6 - 13.6      6.4 - 12.4       26.8 - 49.8                      6.8 - 13.2    8.2 - 17.5     9.3 - 16.3      8.5 - 15.2      14.7 - 62.2
Binghamton, NY       6.2 - 9.4      7.9 - 14.7      7.4 - 13.8      6.7 - 12.3       28.3 - 50.1                      6.8 - 13.2    10.2 - 18.5    9.1 - 17.1      7.9 - 15.2      15.0 - 64.0
Buffalo, NY         6.8 - 10.2      7.1 - 12.9      7.3 - 14.5      8.5 - 14.1       29.6 - 51.8                      7.8 - 13.2    9.0 - 17.1     9.6 - 16.6      11.1 - 17.4     13.5 - 64.3
Rochester, NY        5.3 - 8.3      6.0 - 11.6      7.5 - 13.5      6.1 - 10.3       24.9 - 43.7                       5.1 - 9.8    7.9 - 15.4     9.0 - 15.5      6.8 - 13.8      12.9 - 54.5
Syracuse, NY         6.6 - 8.6      7.5 - 11.5      8.5 - 13.7      7.6 - 12.2       30.2 - 46.0                      5.1 - 11.8    8.6 - 17.2     9.6 - 16.7      8.3 - 15.0      14.6 - 60.6
New York City, NY   7.2 - 12.8      7.3 - 15.5      8.7 - 15.5      6.4 - 15.0       29.6 - 58.8    Increasing Rain   9.6 - 16.0    8.7 - 16.0     9.1 - 16.7      8.4 - 16.1      14.5 - 64.8    Increasing Rain
Newark, NJ          7.4 - 14.4      8.2 - 15.8      8.5 - 15.9      6.7 - 15.5       30.8 - 61.6                      10.2 - 15.6   8.0 - 15.0     7.5 - 14.9      7.6 - 15.7      14.0 - 61.2
Atlantic City, NJ   7.2 - 13.6      6.9 - 12.7      6.7 - 15.8      6.0 - 13.2       26.7 - 55.3                      9.8 - 16.3    9.9 - 16.6     8.9 - 16.9      8.1 - 15.9      14.5 - 65.7
Allentown, PA       6.6 - 11.8      8.7 - 14.9      8.4 - 17.6      6.5 - 14.7       30.2 - 59.0                      8.7 - 15.2    9.9 - 16.9     8.9 - 17.0      8.6 - 15.4      14.2 - 64.6
Avoca, PA            5.1 - 8.9      7.8 - 14.0      7.5 - 14.9      6.0 - 11.8       26.4 - 49.6                      5.9 - 12.6    8.5 - 18.0     9.6 - 16.4      6.9 - 14.3      15.2 - 61.3
Erie, PA             6.5 - 9.5      7.9 - 13.5      8.2 - 17.0      9.5 - 14.5       32.1 - 54.5    Increasing Rain   6.8 - 13.2    10.4 - 16.8    9.6 - 18.4      13.0 - 18.8     13.8 - 67.2    Increasing Rain
Philadelphia, PA    6.9 - 12.7      7.4 - 13.8      7.7 - 15.9      5.9 - 13.2       27.9 - 55.5                      9.4 - 15.1    8.2 - 16.5     8.5 - 15.3      7.5 - 14.9      14.1 - 61.8
Pittsburgh, PA       6.1 - 9.9      8.2 - 14.2      7.1 - 14.3      5.9 - 10.7       27.4 - 49.1                      7.5 - 13.3    10.5 - 17.9    10.0 - 15.9     7.2 - 13.9      12.9 - 61.0
Williamsport, PA    5.9 - 10.5      7.8 - 14.4      7.9 - 16.5      6.6 - 13.3       28.1 - 54.7    Increasing Rain   7.1 - 13.9    9.0 - 17.4     9.9 - 18.1      7.2 - 14.9      15.5 - 64.3    Increasing Rain
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Appendix 4



                                                Average Rainfall and Rainy Day Ranges and Trends in the United States by City
                                Average Rainfall over the last Thirty Years ( in inches)                                                     Number of Rainy Days (> .25 Inches) -- Thirty Year Average
                             Q1            Q2               Q3               Q4             Annual               Trend            Q1          Q2              Q3              Q4              Annual          Trend

                                                                                                            MIDWEST
                                                                                                         East North Central
Alpena, MI                 2.5 - 6.9      5.6 - 9.2       6.6 - 11.6      4.7 - 7.9        19.5 - 35.5                          2.3 - 9.4   8.2 - 12.3     8.2 - 14.7        4.6 - 9.2     11.1 - 45.6
Detroit, MI                4.1 - 8.1      7.4 - 12.4      7.2 - 12.2      5.5 - 9.9        24.2 - 42.6                         4.2 - 10.4   9.9 - 15.2     7.9 - 14.8       7.0 - 12.5     12.0 - 52.9
Flint, MI                  3.4 - 6.4      6.1 - 11.1      6.6 - 13.8      5.0 - 9.2        21.0 - 40.6                          3.0 - 7.9   7.5 - 14.2     8.8 - 15.6       5.9 - 12.4     13.0 - 51.1
Grand Rapids, MI           3.9 - 8.1      7.4 - 14.1      7.6 - 16.0      6.2 - 12.0       25.0 - 50.2                          3.4 - 9.8   8.9 - 15.6     9.3 - 17.1       7.0 - 14.2     14.0 - 56.6
Lansing, MI                3.2 - 6.8      6.5 - 12.3      6.8 - 11.8      4.9 - 9.3        21.4 - 40.2                          2.5 - 8.5   8.8 - 14.2     8.1 - 14.2       5.9 - 11.6     11.6 - 48.5
Muskegon, MI               3.8 - 7.8      5.5 - 11.7      6.4 - 12.8      6.0 - 12.0       21.8 - 44.3                          3.7 - 9.2   6.4 - 14.4     8.4 - 14.5       6.3 - 15.4     14.3 - 53.5
Sault Ste Marie, MI        3.9 - 7.3      5.7 - 9.9       7.3 - 13.1      7.3 - 12.7       24.3 - 42.9                          3.6 - 9.6   6.5 - 13.4     9.5 - 16.7       8.4 - 16.9     14.3 - 56.6
Chicago, IL                3.8 - 8.4      7.1 - 14.9      8.1 - 14.7      5.5 - 11.9       24.4 - 50.0                         4.0 - 10.1   8.5 - 16.7     10.1 - 16.1      6.3 - 12.9     13.4 - 55.8
Moline, IL                 3.7 - 7.9      7.7 - 15.9      7.7 - 15.3      4.2 - 11.2       23.3 - 50.3                          4.4 - 9.5   9.1 - 17.6     9.2 - 16.6       5.2 - 13.7     14.7 - 57.3
Peoria, IL                 3.7 - 8.3      6.8 - 15.2      5.7 - 14.3      5.1 -11.1        21.4 - 48.8                         4.3 - 10.1   8.4 - 18.6     7.5 - 14.3       6.3 - 13.5     15.0 - 56.5
Rockford, IL               3.4 - 6.5      7.7 - 15.9      8.3 - 15.2      4.1 - 10.2       23.3 - 47.7                          3.3 - 8.5   9.1 - 16.6     8.7 - 14.9       5.2 - 12.2     12.9 - 52.1
Springfield, IL            4.2 - 8.0      7.2 - 15.6      6.3 - 13.1      5.3 - 11.6       23.0 - 48.2                         5.4 - 10.3   8.4 - 17.4     7.8 - 13.6       6.7 - 13.6     13.3 - 54.9
Green Bay, WI              2.7 - 5.3      6.3 - 12.1      6.9 -13.3       3.9 - 8.1        19.9 - 38.7                          2.6 - 7.0   7.9 - 14.9     8.6 - 15.6        4.3 - 9.9     12.0 - 47.4
Madison, WI                2.9 - 6.1      6.8 - 15.0      8.1 - 15.1      3.8 - 9.0        21.7 - 45.1                          2.9 - 7.5   9.1 - 16.5     9.6 - 16.1       3.9 - 10.4     12.5 - 50.5
Milwaukee, WI              3.9 - 7.3      7.2 - 13.6      7.1 - 15.1      4.3 - 10.5       22.6 - 46.4                          4.6 - 9.7   8.9 - 16.2     8.1 - 16.0       5.7 - 12.7     13.7 - 54.6
Akron, OH                  6.3 - 8.9      8.2 - 15.2      6.5 - 16.3      6.5 - 11.2       27.5 - 51.5                         7.3 - 12.0   10.8 - 19.2    9.0 - 15.8       7.6 - 13.5     12.9 - 60.5
Cincinnati, OH            6.4 - 11.5      8.7 - 17.3      7.6 - 15.0      6.6 - 12.4       29.3 - 56.1                         7.8 - 14.7   11.6 - 19.7    8.8 - 16.0       8.6 - 14.8     14.1 - 65.2
Cleveland, OH              6.1 - 9.3      8.3 - 13.1      8.0 - 13.6      7.1 - 12.1       29.5 - 48.2                         6.6 - 12.2   10.9 - 16.7    9.8 - 15.6       8.8 - 14.8     11.6 - 59.4
Columbus, OH              5.6 - 10.2      8.3 - 14.7      7.4 - 15.6      6.3 - 11.1       27.7 - 51.5                         6.7 - 12.3   9.3 - 18.4     9.3 - 16.2       7.7 - 13.7     13.8 - 60.6
Dayton, OH                5.9 - 10.7      8.9 - 17.1      7.1 - 13.9      6.6 -12.2        28.6 - 53.8                         7.4 - 13.4   11.0 - 20.7    7.6 - 15.3       8.4 - 14.2     14.6 - 63.6
Toledo, OH                 4.0 - 8.4      7.6 - 13.0      6.1 - 12.4      5.9 - 10.3       23.6 - 44.0                         4.8 - 11.1   9.7 - 15.8     7.6 - 15.0       7.4 - 12.8     12.5 - 54.5
Youngstown, OH             5.7 - 8.9      8.3 - 13.9      8.4 - 15.6      6.8 - 10.6       29.2 - 49.0                         5.8 - 12.2   11.1 - 18.0    9.7 - 16.6       8.2 - 14.6     13.3 - 61.4
Evansville, IN            7.0 - 13.5      8.2 - 18.8      6.5 - 15.1      7.7 - 14.7       29.4 - 62.0                         9.1 - 15.5   10.2 - 19.6    7.4 - 14.6       8.8 - 16.1     15.1 - 65.8
Fort Wayne, IN             4.4 - 9.0      8.6 - 14.6      7.0 - 14.6      5.6 - 11.4       25.6 - 49.6                         5.1 - 11.6   10.2 - 17.8    8.1 - 15.9       7.7 - 14.3     14.3 - 59.6
Indianapolis, IN          5.7 - 11.1      8.9 - 15.9      6.8 - 16.4      7.0 - 12.8       28.4 - 56.2                         7.8 - 13.4   10.5 - 18.3    7.5 - 15.7       8.1 - 14.9     14.2 - 62.2
South Bend, IN             4.6 - 8.4      7.4 - 14.6      8.2 - 14.8      6.4 - 12.8       26.7 - 50.5                         5.0 - 12.3   9.3 - 17.3     9.6 - 16.7       7.9 - 15.4     15.0 - 61.7

                                                                                                         West North Central
Duluth, MN                 2.1 - 4.5      7.0 - 12.4      8.4 - 15.8      3.3 - 7.9        20.7 - 40.7                          1.9 - 6.0   8.9 - 16.0     9.0 - 16.5        3.5 - 8.6     11.9 - 47.1
International Falls, MN    1.0 - 3.2      5.6 - 10.9      6.7 - 12.1      2.4 - 5.8        15.7 - 31.9                          .5 - 3.4    6.8 - 13.2     7.6 - 14.4        1.9 - 6.9     10.6 - 37.9
Minneapolis, MN            2.3 - 4.9      7.1 - 14.3      7.3 - 15.8      2.5 - 7.5        19.1 - 42.5                          1.8 - 6.2   9.2 - 18.0     9.0 - 15.4        2.6 - 8.8     12.9 - 48.4
Rochester, MN              2.5 - 4.7      7.2 - 15.6      8.7 - 16.3      3.2 - 7.0        21.6 - 43.6                          1.9 - 6.0   9.3 - 16.5     10.2 - 15.8       3.3 - 9.1     11.4 - 47.5
Saint Cloud, MN            1.7 - 3.7      6.6 - 13.6      7.1 - 14.1      2.4 - 6.6        17.8 - 38.0                          1.2 - 4.5   8.4 - 16.5     8.4 - 15.5        2.3 - 7.4     11.9 - 44.0
Bismarck, ND               .9 - 2.5       3.7 - 8.9        3.9 - 9.9      1.0 - 3.6         9.5 - 24.9                          .2 - 2.5    3.5 - 11.3     5.1 - 10.4        .3 - 5.3       9.9 - 28.7
Fargo, ND                  1.6 - 3.4      4.6 - 11.0      5.1 - 10.3      1.5 - 5.7        12.7 - 30.5                          1.0 - 4.7   6.0 - 11.8     5.6 - 11.6        1.2 - 6.6     10.4 - 34.7
Grand Forks, ND            1.2 - 2.8      4.6 - 9.0       5.6 - 10.8      1.4 - 5.2        12.8 - 27.8       Increasing Rain    .6 - 3.6    5.0 - 10.8     6.6 - 12.6        .9 - 6.5      10.2 - 33.5    Increasing Rain
Aberdeen, SD               1.3 - 3.1      5.0 - 11.8       5.0 - 9.8       .9 - 5.1        12.3 - 29.7                          .4 - 3.7    6.0 - 13.0     5.6 - 10.7        .5 - 5.3      10.1 - 32.6
Huron, SD                  1.3 - 3.7      5.3 - 12.4      4.6 - 10.2      1.5 - 4.4        12.6 - 30.6                          .7 - 4.4    6.2 - 15.0     5.7 - 12.0        1.4 - 4.6     10.9 - 35.9
Rapid City, SD             1.0 - 2.2      4.5 - 10.1       3.2 - 6.6       .8 - 3.6         9.5 - 22.5      Decreasing Rain     .3 - 3.1    5.0 - 11.4      3.7 - 8.5        .5 - 4.2       8.9 - 27.2    Decreasing Rain
Sioux Falls, SD            1.5 - 4.3      6.7 - 13.7      5.6 - 12.2      1.7 - 5.9        15.5 - 36.1                          1.2 - 4.8   7.7 - 15.4     6.1 - 12.7        2.1 - 6.7     11.3 - 39.6
Des Moines, IA             2.6 - 6.2      8.1 - 16.5      7.0 - 16.0      3.3 - 8.5        21.0 - 47.3      Decreasing Rain     2.6 - 7.3   9.2 - 18.7     7.8 - 17.1       3.8 - 10.3     15.0 - 53.4    Decreasing Rain
Dubuque, IA                3.1 - 6.5      8.0 - 15.2      7.3 - 16.3      4.2 - 9.2        22.5 - 47.3                          3.5 - 8.3   9.0 - 18.0     8.9 - 16.6       5.0 - 11.4     14.0 - 54.3
Sioux City, IA             1.7 - 4.9      7.0 - 13.8      6.0 - 12.2      2.0 - 6.0        16.7 - 37.0                          1.4 - 5.1   8.3 - 17.6     6.7 - 12.9        2.1 - 7.0     12.1 - 42.6
Waterloo, IA               2.4 - 5.0      8.7 - 16.5      7.5 - 15.7      3.5 - 7.7        22.2 - 44.8                          2.8 - 6.7   10.8 - 17.7    8.5 - 16.2       4.1 - 9.4      12.0 - 50.0
Grand Island, NE           1.7 - 4.7      6.8 - 14.0      5.4 - 12.2      1.8 - 4.8        15.7 - 35.7                          1.9 - 5.9   7.1 - 14.9     6.6 - 12.6        2.0 - 6.6     11.2 - 40.0
Omaha, NE                  1.9 - 5.3      8.5 - 14.5      6.3 - 14.9      2.5 - 6.7        19.2 - 41.4                          2.1 - 6.9   9.5 - 17.7     7.9 - 15.2        3.2 - 7.4     12.2 - 47.2
North Platte, NE           .9 - 3.1       6.5 - 10.7       4.0 - 9.4      1.2 - 3.6        12.6 - 26.8      Decreasing Rain     .3 - 3.7    7.2 - 13.1     4.8 - 10.8        1.0 - 5.1      9.7 - 32.6    Decreasing Rain
Valentine, NE              1.1 - 2.5      6.0 - 11.6       5.0 - 9.2      1.1 - 3.4        13.1 - 26.7                          .5 - 3.5    6.5 - 15.4     6.0 - 10.4        .7 - 4.4      10.0 - 33.7
Columbia, MO               4.6 - 9.2      8.6 - 18.4      6.7 - 16.3      5.7 - 11.9       25.6 - 55.9                         5.5 - 10.8   9.9 - 18.6     7.8 - 15.6       6.9 - 13.4     14.1 - 58.4
Kansas City, MO            3.2 - 6.6      9.5 - 17.9      7.0 - 18.6      4.1 - 9.7        23.7 - 52.9                          4.0 - 8.5   10.6 - 19.2    7.3 - 17.9       5.2 - 10.6     14.6 - 56.2
Springfield, MO           5.1 - 11.4      9.8 - 17.8      7.3 - 15.4      6.6 - 15.2       28.8 - 59.7                         6.9 - 13.1   10.9 - 19.3    8.3 - 14.5       7.5 - 14.7     13.9 - 61.5
St. Louis, MO             5.6 - 10.0      7.6 - 16.6      6.6 - 13.2      5.9 - 13.5       25.7 - 53.3                         6.3 - 12.5   9.6 - 17.4     6.5 - 13.0       7.1 - 14.6     14.0 - 57.4
Dodge City, KS             1.5 - 4.7      5.7 - 10.3      4.1 - 10.7      1.1 - 5.1        12.4 - 30.8                          1.6 - 5.6   7.0 - 12.5     4.7 - 11.6        1.4 - 6.0     10.5 - 35.7
Goodland, KS               .9 - 3.3       5.4 - 10.9      4.1 - 10.7      1.0 - 3.8        11.3 - 28.7                          .4 - 4.1    6.7 - 12.7     4.9 - 10.7        .8 - 4.8       9.8 - 32.4
Topeka, KS                 2.7 - 6.7      9.5 - 17.1      6.9 - 16.9      3.9 - 8.8        23.0 - 49.4                          2.9 - 8.4   10.1 - 18.1    7.2 - 15.6        4.1 - 9.5     13.6 - 51.6
Wichita, KS                2.5 - 7.3      7.3 - 15.5      5.3 - 13.7      2.4 - 8.2        17.6 - 44.7                          2.3 - 8.4   8.2 - 17.1     5.7 - 13.8        2.7 - 9.5     15.0 - 48.9
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Appendix 4



                                            Average Rainfall and Rainy Day Ranges and Trends in the United States by City
                            Average Rainfall over the last Thirty Years ( in inches)                                                      Number of Rainy Days (> .25 Inches) -- Thirty Year Average
                         Q1            Q2               Q3               Q4             Annual               Trend            Q1           Q2              Q3              Q4              Annual          Trend

                                                                                                         SOUTH
                                                                                                       South Atlantic
Wilmington, DE        6.8 - 13.2      8.0 - 14.6      7.9 - 16.1      6.1 - 13.4       28.7 - 57.3                         8.9 - 14.8    8.8 - 16.9     9.0 - 14.7       7.5 - 15.3     13.8 - 61.7
Baltimore, MD         6.9 - 13.7      6.9 - 13.7      7.2 - 15.4      6.0 - 13.6       27.0 - 56.4                         8.3 - 15.7    9.0 - 16.5     7.7 - 15.7       7.5 - 14.6     15.0 - 62.5
Charleston, WV        7.5 - 12.9      8.3 - 15.7      8.9 - 16.5      6.8 - 12.7       31.5 - 57.7                         9.4 - 17.4    11.0 - 20.2    10.9 - 17.9      8.0 - 16.0     16.1 - 71.5
Huntington, WV        6.9 - 13.1      8.2 - 15.2      8.0 - 15.6      6.9 - 12.3       30.0 - 56.2                         8.1 - 16.7    10.4 - 20.2    8.5 - 18.0       8.4 - 14.8     17.2 - 69.7
Dulles, VA            6.2 - 12.2      8.3 - 14.7      7.7 - 14.9      6.2 - 13.4       28.4 - 55.2                         8.0 - 14.5    9.8 - 17,8     8.8 - 14.7       7.2 - 14.9     14.1 - 62.0
Lynchburg, VA         6.5 - 13.5      7.0 - 14.4      6.9 - 16.3      5.9 - 13.3       26.4 - 57.5                         8.8 - 15.9    8.2 - 17.3     8.7 - 16.0       7.5 - 14.8     15.4 - 64.0
Norfolk, VA           6.7 - 14.7      8.0 - 15.0      9.1 - 19.9      6.5 - 12.9       30.3 - 62.5       Increasing Rain   10.2 - 16.6   9.3 - 17.2     9.5 - 18.2       7.3 - 14.9     15.3 - 66.8    Increasing Rain
Richmond, VA          6.8 - 13.8      7.7 - 13.9      7.8 - 19.2      6.2 - 13.0       28.5 - 60.0                         8.7 - 15.5    9.1 - 15.9     9.2 - 17.5       7.4 - 14.6     14.6 - 63.5
Roanoke, VA           5.9 - 13.6      7.6 - 15.0      7.0 - 15.8      5.3 - 12.7       25.7 - 57.1                         7.8 - 15.0    9.5 - 16.9     8.8 - 15.2       7.2 - 14.2     14.0 - 61.2
Washington, VA        6.3 - 12.3      6.2 - 14.2      7.1 - 13.9      5.9 - 13.1       27.1 - 55.1                         8.2 - 14.8    8.6 - 17.1      8.4 -15.4       7.5 - 15.0     14.9 - 62.3
Asheville, NC         7.9 - 15.3      8.2 - 16.0      8.1 - 17.2      6.7 - 12.9       30.8 - 61.4                         9.3 - 16.2    10.2 - 19.0    8.9 - 18.6       7.4 - 13.4     15.8 - 67.2
Charlotte, NC         7.9 - 14.3      6.2 - 14.2      7.5 - 15.3      5.8 - 13.6       27.5 - 57.3      Decreasing Rain    9.9 - 16.6    7.5 - 15.2     8.2 - 15.7       7.2 - 13.6     14.2 - 61.2    Decreasing Rain
Greensboro, NC        7.0 - 13.0      7.0 - 14.4      7.9 - 18.3      5.5 - 12.5       27.4 - 58.2                         8.9 - 15.9    8.8 - 15.4     8.3 - 16.7       6.7 - 13.9     14.6 - 61.9
Hatteras, NC          9.1 - 19.7      7.0 - 16.0      10.9 - 23.9     8.8 - 20.8       35.9 - 80.3                         10.0 - 19.6   8.4 - 16.0     9.6 - 20.0       9.3 - 17.1     17.7 - 72.7    Increasing Rain
Raleigh, NC           7.8 - 14.4      6.5 - 13.2      7.3 - 18.5      5.9 - 12.7       27.5 - 58.7      Decreasing Rain    10.6 - 16.2   7.5 - 16.3     9.1 - 17.4       7.5 - 14.1     14.7 - 64.1    Increasing Rain
Wilmington, NC        7.9 - 15.9      8.5 - 16.3      16.2 - 27.4     6.0 - 15.3       38.6 - 74.9      Increasing Rain    10.1 - 17.0   9.3 -1 5.5     13.1 - 22.7      6.9 - 13.1     14.4 - 68.2    Increasing Rain
Charleston, SC        6.0 - 15.2      7.6 - 15.6      14.6 - 23.9     4.5 - 13.3       32.6 - 68.0                         7.8 - 15.9    8.8 - 15.8     13.8 - 21.1      5.1 - 13.2     15.3 - 66.0
Columbia, SC          7.8 - 15.4      6.5 - 14.7      9.7 - 19.1      4.7 - 12.5       28.7 - 61.7                         10.0 - 17.0   6.7 - 14.9     9.8 - 17.9       5.3 - 13.5     15.7 - 63.3
Greer, SC             8.9 - 16.5      7.4 - 15.8      8.7 - 17.7      7.6 - 14.6       32.7 - 64.6                         10.9 - 17.9   8.7 - 17.7     9.4 - 16.9       8.5 - 15.0     15.0 - 67.5
Athens, GA            9.9 - 16.7      6.0 - 15.2      8.6 - 15.6      6.5 - 14.5       30.9 - 62.1                         11.0 - 18.3   7.8 - 16.8     8.7 - 14.9       7.4 - 14.5     14.9 - 64.5
Atlanta, GA           9.8 - 17.8      7.0 - 15.8      8.4 - 18.7      6.4 - 15.4       31.5 - 67.7                         12.3 - 18.3   9.0 - 17.8     9.6 - 17.3       7.8 - 14.2     14.5 - 67.6
Augusta, GA           8.6 - 16.2      6.1 - 14.7      8.7 - 15.5      4.1 - 13.3       27.5 - 59.7                         10.1 - 17.2   7.4 - 15.7     8.1 - 16.0       4.6 - 14.0     16.4 - 62.9
Columbus, GA          10.6 - 17.0     6.2 - 15.4      7.8 - 15.5      6.1 - 14.1       30.6 - 62.0      Decreasing Rain    11.7 - 18.3   7.0 - 16.0     8.8 - 15.5       7.1 - 13.3     14.3 - 63.2    Decreasing Rain
Macon, GA             9.9 - 17.3      6.0 - 13.2      7.5 - 16.7      5.1 - 13.4       28.5 - 60.7                         10.7 - 17.3   7.3 - 14.5     8.9 - 15.9       5.3 - 13.2     14.3 - 60.9
Savannah, GA          5.9 - 14.7      7.2 - 16.6      12.0 - 21.8     3.1 - 13.5       28.2 - 66.6      Decreasing Rain    7.7 - 15.4    8.1 - 16.1     13.6 - 20.2      4.2 - 12.2     15.2 - 63.9    Decreasing Rain
Daytona Beach, FL     5.7 - 14.0      4.8 - 17.0      11.8 - 26.8     5.5 - 15.5       27.8 - 73.2                         6.1 - 13.6    5.8 - 16.3     14.9 - 23.9      6.0 - 12.7     16.9 - 66.5
Fort Myers, FL        2.9 - 11.7     10.5 - 20.3      21.5 - 33.3     3.1 - 10.1       37.9 - 75.5                         3.5 - 11.2    10.1 - 18.0    21.8 - 32.0      3.5 - 10.5     16.4 - 71.8
Jacksonville, FL      6.4 - 14.8      5.8 - 17.4      14.5 - 27.6     4.6 - 13.0       31.2 - 72.8                         7.1 - 14.3    7.8 - 16.9     14.4 - 24.2      4.9 - 11.8     16.4 - 67.0
Key West, FL           .8 - 10.5      5.9 - 14.4      10.2 - 19.8     4.1 - 15.1       21.0 - 59.6       Increasing Rain    2.3 - 9.2    5.7 - 12.6     11.6 - 19.4      5.0 - 11.6     14.1 - 52.7    Increasing Rain
Miami, FL             2.7 - 10.7     11.8 - 24.8      18.7 - 30.3     6.2 - 17.6       39.3 - 83.5       Increasing Rain   3.2 - 10.2    11.6 - 20.4    19.8 - 28.7      6.4 - 13.8     16.1 - 73.1    Increasing Rain
Orlando, FL           4.4 - 12.4      8.7 - 18.1      15.5 - 25.7     3.5 - 12.8       32.0 - 69.0                         4.9 - 13.2    9.4 - 17.4     17.0 - 24.4      4.6 - 11.3     15.2 - 66.4
Pensacola, FL         10.8 - 21.4     7.0 - 23.2      13.3 - 28.3     6.4 - 18.8       37.5 - 91.7      Decreasing Rain    11.2 - 18.0   7.5 - 17.6     14.1 - 23.5      6.9 - 14.2     16.8 - 73.2    Decreasing Rain
Tallahassee, FL       10.0 - 21.1     8.1 - 20.7      13.9 - 26.5     6.3 - 14.7       38.2 - 83.0      Decreasing Rain    10.1 - 17.3   7.6 - 18.3     14.7 - 24.0      6.8 - 12.7     16.5 - 72.3    Decreasing Rain
Tampa, FL             4.0 - 12.2      6.5 - 15.1      15.0 - 27.6     1.8 - 10.8       27.2 - 65.6                         5.5 - 12.2    6.2 - 13.6     15.9 - 26.1      3.3 - 10.0     15.5 - 61.9
West Palm Beach, FL   4.6 - 15.8     10.5 - 22.5      14.6 - 29.2     8.4 - 19.4       38.1 - 86.9                         5.7 - 13.3    10.1 - 20.2    17.0 - 26.1      7.5 - 16.4     17.8 - 75.9

                                                                                                     East South Central
Covington, KY         6.9 - 12.1      8.8 - 17.2      7.4 - 13.8      7.2 - 13.0       30.4 - 56.0                         8.5 - 14.3    11.5 - 19.2    8.6 - 15.5      9.2 - 14.8      13.0 - 63.8
Lexington, KY         6.8 - 14.0      8.2 - 17.4      7.4 - 15.8      7.2 -14.0        29.7 - 61.1                         8.8 - 15.4    11.6 - 19.3    7.8 - 18.2      8.6 - 16.3      16.2 - 69.2
Louisville, KY        7.2 - 13.9      8.7 - 16.7      7.1 - 15.1      7.5 - 13.9       30.4 - 59.6                         9.6 - 15.9    10.8 - 20.1    8.7 - 16.7      8.8 - 16.2      15.4 - 68.8
Bristol, TN           7.4 - 13.3      8.1 - 14.7      7.2 - 15.0      6.1 - 10.9       28.8 - 53.8                         9.9 - 17.5    10.9 - 19.0    9.2 - 16.3      8.1 - 14.2      14.4 - 66.8
Chattanooga, TN       10.1 - 19.9     9.0 - 16.6      7.5 - 17.9      9.1 - 16.5       35.6 - 71.0                         12.2 - 20.5   11.0 - 19.0    9.2 - 17.3      10.9 - 16.5     15.0 - 73.3
Knoxville, TN         8.5 - 17.5      8.7 - 16.7      8.3 - 14.3      7.7 - 13.7       33.2 - 62.2                         11.6 - 19.5   11.0 - 19.0    9.4 - 16.4      10.0 - 16.5     14.7 - 71.4
Memphis, TN           9.7 - 17.7     10.1 - 19.5      6.1 - 15.3      9.3 - 21.4       35.1 - 73.9                         10.6 - 17.8   10.6 - 18.8    7.0 - 13.9      10.0 - 17.8     15.1 - 68.3
Nashville, TN         8.7 - 15.3      8.4 - 18.4      6.9 - 13.8      8.1 - 15.5       32.1 - 62.9                         10.5 - 17.6   9.9 - 18.1     8.3 - 14.3      9.5 - 15.4      13.6 - 65.4
Birmingham, AL        10.1 - 19.3     9.2 - 19.4      7.8 - 17.8      7.8 - 17.2       34.9 - 73.7                         12.7 - 18.9   10.8 - 19.7    7.9 - 16.5      10.2 - 16.2     14.8 - 71.2
Huntsville, AL        10.2 - 20.4     9.3 - 18.9      7.8 - 16.0      9.9 - 18.1       37.2 - 73.4                         12.6 - 20.2   10.2 - 18.6    9.2 - 15.5      11.5 - 17.0     14.0 - 71.4
Mobile, AL            11.0 - 23.3     9.1 - 24.7      13.0 - 26.0     8.1 - 18.7       41.2 - 92.6      Decreasing Rain    11.3 - 18.4   8.9 - 19.9     14.0 - 23.0     7.8 - 15.3      17.3 - 76.6    Decreasing Rain
Montgomery, AL        11.2 - 20.8     7.1 - 17.9      8.7 - 16.7      7.3 - 16.3       34.4 - 71.7                         12.5 - 18.5   7.4 - 17.0     8.6 - 16.0      8.1 - 14.8      14.9 - 66.3
Jackson, MS           10.2 - 20.6     8.6 - 20.6      7.1 - 16.9      9.3 - 18.5       35.1 - 76.7                         11.9 - 19.6   8.3 - 16.9     7.9 - 14.3      9.3 - 17.3      15.4 - 68.1
Meridian, MS          10.6 -22.6      8.9 - 19.9      7.8 - 17.6      9.6 - 18.2       36.9 - 78.3                         12.4 - 20.1   9.0 - 19.0     8.4 - 15.5      9.6 - 17.1      16.1 - 71.7

                                                                                                     West South Central
Fort Smith, AR        6.0 - 12.6      9.5 - 17.7      5.5 - 12.3      6.7 - 16.7       27.7 - 59.3                         7.4 - 13.8    10.1 - 18.6    6.6 - 13.0       7.5 - 16.2     15.0 - 61.6
Little Rock, AR       8.7 - 15.2      9.4 - 18.0      5.5 - 13.0      9.2 - 20.2       32.7 - 66.3      Decreasing Rain    10.0 - 16.0   11.5 - 18.8    6.6 - 13.4       9.1 - 16.9     14.0 - 65.2    Decreasing Rain
Baton Rouge, LA       10.0 - 21.0     8.0 - 24.6      10.3 - 21.5     9.4 - 18.6       37.6 - 85.8      Decreasing Rain    9.8 - 18.3    8.5 - 19.2     11.1 - 20.5      9.0 - 15.2     17.5 - 73.2    Decreasing Rain
Lafayette, LA         8.9 - 19.7      9.8 - 23.8      11.3 - 21.1     8.7 - 20.5       38.8 - 85.0                         9.5 - 16.3    9.2 - 19.5     11.4 - 19.6      8.7 - 15.6     16.1 - 70.9
Lake Charles, LA      8.0 - 17.7      8.9 - 22.7      10.7 - 21.5     7.4 - 19.8       34.9 - 81.7                         8.4 - 14.8    7.6 - 16.2     10.5 - 18.2      8.2 - 15.0     14.7 - 64.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Appendix 4



                                            Average Rainfall and Rainy Day Ranges and Trends in the United States by City
                              Average Rainfall over the last Thirty Years ( in inches)                                                 Number of Rainy Days (> .25 Inches) -- Thirty Year Average
                         Q1              Q2                Q3              Q4              Annual          Trend             Q1           Q2             Q3               Q4             Annual          Trend
New Orleans, LA      8.9 - 22.5       8.5 - 26.5      11.2 - 24.6      7.5 - 18.5        36.0 - 92.2                     9.2 - 18.4   8.8 - 18.4    11.9 - 21.9       7.6 - 14.8       17.9 - 73.4
Shreveport, LA       9.0 - 17.8       6.6 - 22.4       5.7 - 12.9      8.4 - 19.0        29.8 - 72.0                     9.5 - 18.0   6.7 - 17.3     5.1 - 11.6       8.0 - 17.9       17.8 - 64.8
Oklahoma City, OK     3.4 - 8.6       8.5 - 16.9       5.4 - 13.6      3.5 - 11.5        20.8 - 50.6   Decreasing Rain    3.8 - 9.2   8.2 -1 5.6     5.6 - 12.9       4.3 - 10.7       13.2 - 48.4   Decreasing Rain
Tulsa, OK             3.9 - 9.5       9.6 - 18.8       5.7 - 13.5      5.4 - 12.8        24.6 - 54.6                     5.0 - 11.3   10.3 - 18.5    6.3 - 12.1       5.9 - 12.5       13.4 - 54.3
Abilene, TX           2.5 - 5.5       4.6 - 11.0        3.3 - 9.5       3.6 - 7.6        14.0 - 33.6                      2.8 - 7.4   5.7 - 11.4      3.5 - 9.7        2.6 - 9.7       11.8 - 38.1
Amarillo, TX          .9 - 4.5        4.3 - 10.0       4.0 - 10.2        0 - 6.3          8.7 - 30.9                      .9 - 5.0    4.7 - 11.0     4.1 - 11.2        1.0 - 6.0       11.3 -33.3
Austin, TX           3.4 - 10.6       5.7 - 16.1       3.5 - 10.1      3.9 - 14.9        16.6 - 51.6                     3.8 - 10.9   6.0 - 13.8      4.2 - 9.4       4.4 - 12.8       14.2 - 46.9
Brownsville, TX       1.5 - 5.7       2.6 - 10.6       4.7 - 14.5      3.4 - 10.4        12.1 - 41.3                      1.0 - 5.0    2.4 - 8.8     5.0 - 12.2        3.2 - 9.6       12.0 - 35.6
Corpus Christi, TX    2.4 - 8.1       3.7 - 14.3       4.6 - 15.8      3.3 - 11.7        14.1 - 49.9                      2.2 - 8.2   4.5 - 11.1     4.4 - 12.4        3.6 - 9.2       13.2 - 41.0
Dallas, TX           4.9 - 11.5       6.6 - 16.9        3.5 - 9.1      4.4 - 15.6        19.3 - 53.1                     5.3 - 11.8   7.0 - 16.2      3.4 - 8.9       4.7 - 14.2       15.4 - 51.2
El Paso, TX           .6 - 1.8         .2 - 2.8         2.1 - 7.9        .9 - 3.2         3.8 - 15.6                      .3 - 2.0     .1 - 3.7       2.2 - 9.2        .7 - 4.1         7.8 - 19.0
Houston, TX          5.9 - 15.5       7.3 - 21.9       6.8 - 21.6      6.7 - 19.7        26.7 - 78.7                     6.6 - 14.1   6.0 - 17.0     8.2 - 16.3       6.2 - 15.1       17.8 - 62.5
Lubbock, TX           .8 - 4.0        3.9 - 9.3         2.8 - 9.0        .9 - 6.1         8.3 - 28.5                      .6 - 4.8    4.8 - 10.0      3.3 - 9.8        1.0 - 6.9       10.9 - 31.5
Midland, TX           .8 - 2.8        1.6 - 6.2         2.0 - 9.0        .7 - 6.0         5.0 - 24.0   Increasing Rain    .7 - 4.1     1.7 - 6.6      2.9 - 8.8        1.3 - 6.0        9.4 - 25.4   Increasing Rain
Port Arthur, TX      7.6 - 18.0       8.9 - 22.5       9.8 - 24.4      9.5 - 21.1        35.8 - 86.0                     8.6 - 15.9   6.9 - 16.5    10.5 - 19.6       7.7 - 15.4       16.8 - 67.3
San Angelo, TX        1.8 - 5.4       3.9 - 9.6         2.2 - 8.8       2.2 - 7.4        10.1 - 31.1                      1.9 - 6.0   3.8 - 11.4      3.0 - 8.1        2.3 - 8.4       11.4 - 33.9
San Antonio, TX       2.3 - 9.3       5.3 - 16.1       2.0 - 12.8      3.2 - 13.8        12.8 - 52.0                     2.8 - 10.4   5.5 - 13.7     3.4 - 10.2       3.7 - 11.0       14.9 - 45.3
Waco, TX             4.5 - 10.9       6.1 - 14.1        2.7 - 9.5      4.5 - 14.5        17.7 - 49.1                     5.1 - 11.4   6.9 - 13.1      2.4 - 9.1       4.7 - 13.9       14.2 - 47.5
Wichita Falls, TX     2.8 - 7.6       5.4 - 14.8       2.8 - 10.2       3.1 - 9.7        14.1 - 42.3                      3.4 - 9.6   5.6 - 14.2      3.0 - 9.2       3.4 - 10.1       13.8 - 43.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Appendix 4



                                              Average Rainfall and Rainy Day Ranges and Trends in the United States by City
                             Average Rainfall over the last Thirty Years ( in inches)                                                  Number of Rainy Days (> .25 Inches) -- Thirty Year Average
                          Q1            Q2               Q3               Q4             Annual           Trend            Q1           Q2              Q3              Q4              Annual          Trend


                                                                                                       WEST
                                                                                                       Mountain
Billings, MT            1.4 - 3.0       3.5 - 8.5       1.8 - 4.8       1.3 - 3.3        8.0 - 19.6   Decreasing Rain    .5 - 3.9     3.5 - 11.1      1.6 - 6.1       .6 - 4.4        9.7 - 25.4    Decreasing Rain
Glasgow, MT             .7 - 1.5        3.2 - 6.2       1.8 - 6.0        .7 - 2.3        6.4 - 16.0   Increasing Rain     .0 - .8      3.5 - 8.2      1.1 - 6.9       .2 - 2.2        6.8 - 18.1    Increasing Rain
Great Falls, MT         1.2 - 2.8       4.4 - 8.2       2.2 - 6.6       1.3 - 2.7        9.0 - 20.4   Decreasing Rain    .2 - 3.1     5.5 - 10.4      2.4 - 8.5       .8 - 3.8        8.4 - 25.8    Decreasing Rain
Havre, MT               .7 - 1.9        3.0 - 6.5       1.6 - 5.8        .7 - 2.3        5.9 - 16.5   Decreasing Rain    .0 - 1.4      2.4 - 8.2      1.7 - 7.1       .0 - 2.4        7.6 - 19.2    Decreasing Rain
Helena, MT              .6 - 2.2        3.2 - 6.6       1.8 - 5.4        .9 - 2.1        6.5 - 16.3   Decreasing Rain    .0 - 1.9      3.0 - 8.5      1.7 - 7.5       .3 - 2.4        7.7 - 20.2    Decreasing Rain
Kalispell, MT           2.5 - 4.5       4.1 - 7.5       2.2 - 5.6       2.4 - 5.6       11.1 - 23.3   Decreasing Rain    1.1 - 4.6     4.4 - 9.1      2.2 - 8.1       .6 - 7.2       10.4 - 29.0    Decreasing Rain
Missoula, MT            1.7 - 3.5       3.4 - 7.2       1.8 - 4.8       1.6 - 4.2        8.6 - 19.7                      .4 - 2.9      3.8 - 9.6      1.8 - 6.7       .6 - 4.8        8.7 - 24.1
Boise, ID               2.4 - 5.2       1.9 -4.9        .4 - 2.2        2.1 - 4.9        6.8 - 17.2   Decreasing Rain    1.5 - 6.8     1.6 - 6.8      .0 - 3.3        1.8 - 6.4       9.3 - 23.3    Decreasing Rain
Lewiston, ID            1.9 - 4.2       3.0 - 5.5       1.1 - 3.3       2.0 - 4.2        8.0 - 17.2                      1.4 - 4.8     3.4 - 7.6      .6 - 4.1        1.0 - 5.0       7.5 - 21.5
Pocatello, ID           2.2 - 4.6       2.0 - 5.0       .8 - 3.5        1.6 - 4.4        6.6 - 17.4   Decreasing Rain    1.4 - 5.3     2.1 - 6.9      .4 - 4.7        1.2 - 5.6       8.7 - 22.4    Decreasing Rain
Casper, WY              1.2 - 2.7       2.5 - 7.3       2.0 - 4.6       1.0 - 3.8        6.7 - 18.4   Decreasing Rain    .0 - 3.3      2.0 - 8.9      2.0 - 5.7       .6 - 4.0        8.7 - 22.0    Decreasing Rain
Cheyenne, WY            .9 - 2.9        4.0 - 8.6       3.4 - 7.4       1.0 - 2.8        9.3 - 21.7                      .1 - 3.5     5.0 - 11.2      3.6 - 8.3       .3 - 2.9        8.5 - 25.9
Colorado Springs, CO    .7 - 2.8        3.3 - 9.5       4.9 - 9.9        .5 - 2.9        9.5 - 24.9                      .2 - 3.6     3.6 - 11.5     5.7 - 11.5       .1 - 3.9       10.4 - 30.5
Grand Junction, CO      1.3 - 3.1       1.2 - 3.2       1.6 - 3.8       1.3 - 3.3        5.4 - 13.4                      .5 - 3.6      .8 - 4.4       1.6 - 5.2       1.1 - 4.6       6.9 - 17.7
Pueblo, CO              .9 - 2.3        2.4 - 6.2       2.9 - 7.2        .6 - 2.4        6.7 - 18.1                      .5 - 3.1      2.7 - 7.9      2.6 - 8.8       .4 - 3.4        8.5 - 23.2
Cedar City, UT          2.0 - 4.8       1.3 - 3.5       1.3 - 4.1       1.6 - 4.4        6.1 - 16.9   Decreasing Rain    2.1 - 6.6     .9 - 4.8       1.0 - 4.9       1.5 - 5.7       8.3 - 22.0    Decreasing Rain
Salt Lake City, UT      2.7 - 3.5       3.3 - 6.6       .7 - 4.6        2.5 - 5.7        9.1 - 23.1                      2.6 - 9.7    4.1 - 10.0      .7 - 5.0        2.4 - 8.2      11.6 - 32.9
Elko, NV                1.8 - 4.4       1.5 - 3.7       .3 - 2.5        1.2 - 4.4        4.8 - 15.0                      1.1 - 5.6     1.0 - 4.8      .0 - 3.2        .9 - 5.8        8.3 - 19.5
Ely, NV                 1.5 - 3.5       1.8 - 4.0       1.0 - 4.1       1.3 - 3.1        5.5 - 14.7                      .7 - 4.0      1.7 - 5.1      .0 - 5.4        .8 - 4.2        7.4 - 18.7
Las Vegas, NV           .3 - 3.7          .1 - .8       .1 - 2.1         0 - 2.2          .5 - 8.8    Decreasing Rain    .0 - 5.1      .0 - 1.1       .0 - 2.6        .0 - 2.8        6.0 - 11.7    Decreasing Rain
Reno, NV                1.1 - 4.7        .6 - 2.4       .2 - 1.4        1.0 - 3.6        2.9 - 12.1                      .7 - 6.2      .3 - 2.9       .0 - 2.4        .6 - 4.8        7.5 - 16.2
Winnemucca, NV          1.6 - 3.3       1.3 - 3.9       .2 - 1.8        1.1 - 3.5        4.1 - 12.5   Decreasing Rain    .9 - 3.8      1.3 - 5.1      .0 - 3.0        .8 - 4.2        6.6 - 16.1    Decreasing Rain
Albuquerque, NM         .6 - 2.4         .7 - 2.9       2.5 - 5.7       1.0 - 3.2        4.8 - 14.3                      .1 - 2.9      .5 - 3.9       3.0 - 7.4       1.0 - 4.2       6.9 - 18.4
Flagstaff, AZ          2.2 - 12.2        .9 - 3.7      4.4 - 11.2       2.0 - 8.4        9.5 - 35.5   Decreasing Rain   3.5 - 14.7     1.0 - 5.2     5.6 - 12.3       3.0 - 9.4      14.3 - 41.5    Decreasing Rain
Phoenix, AZ             1.1 - 4.9         .0 - .8       .7 - 4.5         .6 - 3.6        2.4 - 13.8                      1.0 - 7.6     .0 - 1.2       .6 - 5.6        .4 - 5.4        9.0 - 19.7
Tucson, AZ              1.1 - 4.3        .3 - 1.0       3.6 - 8.2        .7 - 4.5        5.6 - 18.4   Decreasing Rain    1.5 - 6.3     .1 - 1.7      3.8 - 11.4       .6 - 5.2        9.3 - 24.6    Decreasing Rain
Winslow, AZ             .8 - 24.        .1 - 1.5        1.8 - 4.9        .6 - 2.8        3.3 - 11.5   Decreasing Rain    .3 - 2.8      .0 - 2.3       1.8 - 6.7       .2 - 4.2        7.0 - 16.0    Decreasing Rain
                                                                                                        Pacific
Olympia, WA            12.7 - 23.7     5.1 - 10.1       1.0 - 6.2     14.5 - 26.7       33.3 - 66.7   Decreasing Rain   17.3 - 31.2   6.2 - 14.1      .8 - 9.0       18.6 - 30.0     20.7 - 84.2    Decreasing Rain
Seattle, WA            9.4 - 15.8      4.2 - 8.0        1.2 - 5.0     10.7 - 19.5       25.5 - 48.3   Decreasing Rain   11.4 - 22.4   4.3 - 10.7      1.2 - 6.9      13.8 - 24.7     17.0 - 64.7    Decreasing Rain
Spokane, WA             3.4 - 6.1      3.0 - 5.4        1.0 - 3.2      3.8 - 7.4        11.1 - 22.1   Decreasing Rain    2.3 - 8.1     3.0 - 7.7      .9 - 4.2       5.0 - 10.3       9.5 - 30.3    Decreasing Rain
Yakima, WA              1.4 - 3.8      1.1 - 2.6        .3 - 1.5       1.5 - 4.7         4.2 - 12.6                      .7 - 4.9      .6 - 3.0       .2 - 1.9        12. - 6.2       6.6 - 16.0
Eugene, OR             11.3 - 23.9     4.7 - 11.0       1.1 - 4.5     13.2 - 26.0       30.3 - 65.3   Decreasing Rain   15.1 - 28.2   5.2 - 15.3      1.3 - 5.7      15.0 - 29.5     21.1 - 78.8    Decreasing Rain
Medford, OR             3.8 - 8.4      1.9 - 4.9        .3 - 2.7       4.1 - 11.5       10.0 - 27.6   Decreasing Rain   3.6 - 11.2     1.6 - 6.3      .3 - 3.1       5.2 - 15.1      12.4 - 35.7    Decreasing Rain
Pendleton, OR           2.7 - 5.3      2.2 - 4.6        .5 - 2.5       2.9 - 4.9         8.2 - 17.4   Decreasing Rain    1.9 - 6.6     2.1 - 5.6      .2 - 2.9        2.7 - 6.2       7.2 - 21.4    Decreasing Rain
Portland, OR           8.4 - 16.4      4.7 - 9.2        1.3 - 4.7      9.4 - 18.8       23.8 - 49.0   Decreasing Rain   11.0 - 23.4   5.2 - 12.6      1.5 - 6.1      12.5 - 23.8     17.8 - 65.9    Decreasing Rain
Salem, OR              9.2 - 19.6      4.3 - 8.9        .9 - 3.9      11.1 - 21.4       25.5 - 53.7   Decreasing Rain   12.1 - 25.1   4.8 - 12.5      .9 - 5.3       13.2 - 27.7     19.9 - 70.7    Decreasing Rain
Bakersfield, CA         1.8 - 6.0       .2 - 1.4         0 - .5          .8 - 2.6        2.7 - 10.5                      2.4 - 8.7     .0 - 1.9        .0 - .0         .3 - 3.9       6.3 - 15.0
Fresno, CA             3.4 - 10.0       .4 - 2.8         0 - .6        1.4 - 5.0         5.0 - 18.5                     4.6 - 14.0     .1 - 3.6        .0 - .9        1.6 - 6.5       9.5 - 24.9
Los Angeles, CA        3.0 - 18.4       .0 - 2.8         0 - 1.1        .9 - 6.3         3.6 - 28.7   Decreasing Rain   4.9 - 16.2     .0 - 3.5       .0 - 1.0        1.6 - 7.1      11.0 -27.8     Decreasing Rain
Long Beach, CA         2.1 - 15.1       .1 - 1.9         0 - .9          .8 - 5.4        2.6 - 23.4   Decreasing Rain   3.4 - 14.5     .0 - 2.5       .0 - 1.0         .8 - 5.9      10.0 - 23.9    Decreasing Rain
Sacramento, CA         5.7 - 15.1       .7 - 3.3         0 - 1.0       3.1 - 9.1         9.3 - 28.5   Decreasing Rain   7.6 - 19.5     .5 - 4.6       .0 - 1.4       4.1 - 12.1      12.9 - 37.7    Decreasing Rain
San Diego, CA          2.3 - 11.3       .2 - 1.8         0 - .8          .6 - 4.8        3.0 - 18.6   Decreasing Rain   3.0 - 13.8     .1 - 2.7        .0 - .7        1.1 - 6.1       9.7 - 23.3    Decreasing Rain
San Francisco, CA      6.2 - 17.6       .4 - 3.4         0 - .6        3.4 - 10.8       10.0 -32.4    Decreasing Rain   7.8 - 20.6     .1 - 5.0       .0 - 1.0       4.2 - 12.0      13.4 - 38.6    Decreasing Rain
Stockton, CA           4.0 - 11.4       .4 - 2.8         0 - .9        2.2 - 6.8         6.2 - 22.0                     5.1 - 15.4     .1 - 3.9       .0 - 1.1        3.2 - 9.1      10.7 - 29.5