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USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009




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                             USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


Table of Contents: Volume I: Country Strategic Plan

I.     Acronyms ........................................................................................................................... iii
II.    Executive Summary............................................................................................................vii
III.   Overall Assistance Environment ..........................................................................................1
       A. Introduction .......................................................................................................................1
       B. Wealth and Poverty............................................................................................................1
       C. The Development Environment ..........................................................................................3
       D. Economic trends ................................................................................................................3
       E. Political trends ...................................................................................................................5
       F. Social Sector Trends ..........................................................................................................6
       G. Other Donors and Partners ................................................................................................9
IV.    Strategic Rationale ............................................................................................................. 11
       A. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 11
       B. Past USAID Performance................................................................................................. 11
       C. The Planning Process...................................................................................................... 13
       D. Program Parameters ....................................................................................................... 13
       E. Program Goal .................................................................................................................. 14
       F. Strategic Objectives ......................................................................................................... 14
       G. Geographic Focus ........................................................................................................... 18
       H. Crosscutting and Converging Themes .............................................................................. 18
       I. Program Integration .......................................................................................................... 20
       J. Global Development Alliances and Other Partnerships ........................................................ 23
       K. Scenario Planning ............................................................................................................ 24
V.     SO11: Strengthened Foundations for Democratic Governance ......................................... 26
       A. Statement of the Strategic Objective ................................................................................. 26
       B. Statement of the Development Problem ............................................................................ 27
       C. USAID Achievements and Comparative Advantage ........................................................... 30
       D. Consultative Process ....................................................................................................... 31
       E. Development Hypothesis and Strategic Objective .............................................................. 31
       F. Critical Assumptions......................................................................................................... 33
       G. Intermediate Results........................................................................................................ 33
       H. Geographical Focus ......................................................................................................... 35
       I. Cross Cutting and Converging Themes .............................................................................. 35
       J. Linkages .......................................................................................................................... 36
       K. Results Framework .......................................................................................................... 39
VI     SO12: Improved Livelihoods in Selected Areas................................................................. 40
       A. Statement of the Strategic Objective ................................................................................. 40
       B. Statement of the Development Problem ............................................................................ 40
       C. USAID Achievements and Comparative Advantage ........................................................... 42
       D. Consultative Process ....................................................................................................... 43
       E. Development Hypothesis and Strategic Objective .............................................................. 44
       F. Critical Assumptions......................................................................................................... 45
       G. Intermediate Results........................................................................................................ 45
       H. Geographical Focus ......................................................................................................... 47
       I. Cross Cutting and Converging Themes .............................................................................. 47
       J. Linkages .......................................................................................................................... 48
       K. Results Framework .......................................................................................................... 51
VII.   SO13: Increased Use of Social Sector Services................................................................. 52
       A. Statement of the Strategic Objective ................................................................................. 52
       B. Statement of the Development Problem ............................................................................ 53
       C. USAID Achievements and Comparative Advantage ............................................................ 55
       D. Consultative Process ....................................................................................................... 56
       E. Development Hypothesis and Strategic Objective .............................................................. 57
       F. Critical Assumptions......................................................................................................... 58
       G. Intermediate Results........................................................................................................ 59


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                                   USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


             H. Geographic Focus ........................................................................................................... 61
             I. Cross Cutting and Converging Themes .............................................................................. 61
             J. Linkages .......................................................................................................................... 62
             K. Results Framework .......................................................................................................... 65
             L. Venn Diagram.................................................................................................................. 66
VIII.        SO14: Reduced Impact of HIV/AIDS in Selected States ..................................................... 67
             A. Statement of the Strategic Objective ................................................................................. 67
             B. Statement of the Development Problem ............................................................................ 67
             C. USAID Achievements and Comparative Advantage ........................................................... 69
             D. Consultative Process ....................................................................................................... 70
             E. Development Hypothesis and Strategic Objective .............................................................. 71
             F. Critical Assumptions......................................................................................................... 72
             G. Intermediate Results........................................................................................................ 72
             H. Geographic Focus ........................................................................................................... 74
             I. Cross Cutting and Converging Themes .............................................................................. 75
             J. Linkages .......................................................................................................................... 77
             K. Results Framework .......................................................................................................... 79
IX.          Performance Management.................................................................................................. 80
X.           Endnotes ............................................................................................................................ 93


List of Boxes

Box     1:   Criteria for Selection of Target States................................................................................... x
Box     2:   Criteria for Selection of Target States.................................................................................. 18
Box     3:   Illustrative Scenario Indicators............................................................................................ 24
Box     4:   Criteria for Geographical Targeting..................................................................................... 35
Box     5:   Target State Selection Criteria............................................................................................. 47
Box     6:   Target State Selection Criteria............................................................................................. 61
Box     7:   Target State Selection Criteria............................................................................................. 74

List of Tables

Table 1: Target States...................................................................................................................... x
Table 2: Sectoral Composition of GDP, 1965 and 2001.....................................................................3
Table 3: Target States..................................................................................................................... 18
Table 4: Percentage of Nigerians Living in Poverty ....................................................................... 40
Table 5: Social Indicators, 2002 ...................................................................................................... 52

List of Figures

Figure 1: Map of Nigeria...................................................................................................................vi
Figure 2: Nigeria’s Confidence in key Public Institutions 2001 & 2002 ........................................... 27




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                      USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009



I.    Acronyms

AED        Academy for Educational Development
AFR/SD     Africa Bureau/Office of Sustainable Development
ALO        Association Liaison Office for University Cooperation in Development
APIN       AIDS Prevention Initiative Nigeria
BB4P       Basketball for Peace
BCC        Behavior Change Communication
BMPI       Budget Monitoring and Price Intelligence Unit
BPE        Bureau of Public Enterprise
CAA        Children Affected by AIDS
CBO        Community-Based Organization
CDC        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CET        Common External Tariff
CIDA       Canadian International Development Agency
COCIN      Church of Christ in Nigeria
CRESNET    Conflict Resolution Network
CRSP       Collaborative Research Support Program
CS         Civil Society
CSO        Civil Society Organization
CSP        County Strategic Plan
DA         Development Assistance
DANIDA     Danish International Development Agency
DCHA       Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance
DfID       Department for International Development
DG         Democracy and Governance
DMO        Debt Management Office
DOTS       Directly Observable Treatments
ECOMIG     ECOWAS Monitoring Group
ECOWAS     Economic Community of West African States
EGAT       Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade Pillar Bureau
EMCAP      Economic Management Capacity Building Program
EPCC       Economic Policy Coordinating Committee
ESF        Economic Support Fund
EU         European Union
FAO        Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FBOs       Faith-Based Organizations
FCT        Federal Capital Territory
FGC        Female Genital Cutting
FMOE       Federal Ministry of Education
FMOH       Federal Ministry of Health
FY         Fiscal Year
GDA        Global Development Alliance
GDP        Gross Domestic Product
GON        Government of Nigeria
GTN        Global Technology Network
HIV/AIDS   Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
IAAs       Interagency Agreements
ICPC       Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission
IEHA       Presidential Initiative to End Hunger in Africa
IFESH      International Foundation for Education and Self Help
IITA       International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
ILRI       International Livestock Research Institute
INEC       Independent National Electoral Commission
IPCR       Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution


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                     USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


IPRSP    Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
IR       Intermediate Result
ITN      Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Net
JICA     Japan International Cooperation Agency
MARPs    Most at Risk Populations
MICS     Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey
MLA      Measurement of Learning Achievement
MPP      Mission Performance Plan
MSF      Medecins sans Frontieres (Doctors without Borders)
MTCT     Mother to Child Transmission
NA       National Assembly
NACA     National Action Committee on AIDS
NAP      National Action Plan
NAPEP    National Poverty Eradication Program
NCC      Nigerian Communications Commission
NCWS     National Council of Women’s Societies
NDHS     Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey
NEEDS    National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy
NEP      New Entry Professional
NEPA     National Electric Power Authority
NEPAD    New Partnership for Africa’s Development
NGO      Non Governmental Organization
NIDs     National Immunization Days
NLC      Nigerian Labor Congress
NORAD    Norwegian Aid
NPC      National Planning Commission
NPI      National Program on Immunization
OE       Operating Expense
OFDA     Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance
OI       Opportunistic Infection
OVC      Orphans and Vulnerable Children
OYB      Operating Year Budget
PABA     People Affected By AIDS
PEI      Polio Eradication Initiative
PLWHA    People Living With HIV and AIDS
PMTCT    Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission
PPDs     Pre-Packaged Drugs
PRSP     Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
PTAs     Parent-Teacher Associations
PVOs     Private Voluntary Organizations
RFA      Request for Application
SIEC     State Independent Electoral Commission
SO       Strategic Objective
SOEs     State Owned Enterprises
SPDC     Shell Petroleum Development Corporation
SpO      Special Objective
STCP     Sustainable Tree Crops Program
STI      Sexually Transmitted Infections
UBE      Universal Basic Education
UNCFSP   United Negro College Fund Special Programs
UNDP     United Nations Development program
UNESCO   United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA    United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF   United Nations Children’s Fund
USDH     U.S. Direct Hire
VCT      Voluntary Counseling and Testing


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                  USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


VPDs   Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
WARP   West Africa Regional Program
WB     World Bank
WHO    World Health Organization




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                                                                  USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


Figure 1: Map of Nigeria




                                        Sokoto



                                                                                 Katsina
                                                                                                              Jigawa                     Yobe
                                                            Zamfara
                                                                                                                                                                 Borno
                                                                                               Kano
                          Kebbi




                                                                                      Kaduna                        Bauchi
                                                                                                                                      Gombe

                                                    Niger


                                                                                                                                                Adamawa
                                                                                                              Plateau

                                    Kwara                              FCT
                                                                                              Nasarawa
              Oyo
                                                                                                                             Taraba
                                                                Kogi
                                            Ekiti
                             Osun
                                                                                                      Benue
                                        Ondo                                                                                                                        Key
           Ogun
                  Lagos                                                              gu                                                             Regions               SOs
                                                                                  Enu
                                                                       Anambra




                                                    Edo
                                                                                           Ebonyi
                                                                                                                                                    North Central         SO11

                                                                                               Cross                                                North East            SO12
                                                                                    Abia       River
                                                    Delta              Imo                                                                          North West            SO13
                                                                                                                                                    South East            SO14
                                                                                      Akwa
                                                                  Rivers              Ibom                                                          South South
                                                    Bayelsa
                                                                                                                                                    South West




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                            USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


II.      Executive Summary                                        15 years. The economy is stagnant, growing in
                                                                  2002 at a rate of just 3.3 percent, less than half
Introduction                                                      what is required to reduce poverty and only
                                                                  slightly higher than the annual population growth
This document lays out USAID/Nigeria’s vision                     rate of 2.8 percent. Per capita income is just
for its support to Nigeria’s political, social and                $300 per year, and 70 percent of Nigerians live
economic development for the years 2004 to                        in poverty on less than $1 per day. At least 15
2009. The Country Strategic Plan (CSP) took a                     percent of Nigerian children die before reaching
year to develop and engaged the participation of                  their fifth birthday, victims of largely preventable
USAID/Nigeria staff, partners and stakeholders                    illness such as malaria or diarrhea. Only slightly
in Nigeria, in the West African region, and in                    over half of school-age children attend school
USAID/Washington.        Nigeria’s development                    regularly and many drop out before completing
needs are enormous and the CSP is grounded                        primary school, contributing to low adult literacy
in USAID’s comparative advantage and areas of                     rates of 58 percent for men and 41 percent for
engagement that provide the best opportunities                    women. Nigerian women marry young and have
for maximum results.                                              an average of six children, contributing both to a
                                                                  population growth rate that will double the
Overall Assistance Environment                                    population to 270 million in less than 25 years,
                                                                  and also to high maternal morbidity and mortality
Nigeria successfully concluded a second round                     that makes Nigerian women up to 100 times
of democratic elections in 2003, ushering in the                  more like to die of pregnancy-related causes
first civilian to civilian electoral transition in its 43         than women in Western countries. Institutions of
years of independence. The country is now in a                    governance such as the National Assembly
position to address the damage and neglect                        remain weak and uncertain of their roles. The
inflicted by three decades of military rule that at               recent national elections were flawed by poor
best was indifferent to the needs of the people                   administration and questionable practices.
and at worst flagrantly violated their human                      Patronage remains the customary way of
rights. Nigeria’s size, with approximately 135                    conducting political business and civil society
million people; complexity, with over 300                         remains       largely    excluded     from       broad
indigenous ethnic groups; and large revenue                       participation in policy dialogue and setting the
generations from petroleum exports make it                        national agenda. Women and minorities are
significantly different from other developing                     particularly vulnerable to exclusion and women
nations on the continent, more like a region than                 constitute only six percent of elected
a single country. Nigeria is dominant in West                     representatives at the national level.          Social
African affairs and a leader on the continent not                 conflict triggered by resource competition,
only because of its size, but also because of its                 religious and ethnic differences, and/or the
role in emerging organizations such as                            economic situation, has claimed thousands of
ECOWAS and NEPAD that frame a new vision                          lives over the past four years.       These are all
for Africa. In keeping with key tenets of NEPAD,                  serious challenges to sustainable development
the new administration has renewed its                            and to the well-being of Nigeria’s people. The
commitments to fighting corruption, supporting                    new government appears prepared to take these
service delivery, and revitalizing the economy.                   challenges seriously and to institute reforms that
Civil society is beginning to emerge from the                     will make a difference in the lives of its citizens.
shadow of military suppression and engage with
government to frame the policy agenda. At no                      Program Rationale
time in independent Nigeria’s history has the
environment for leveraging significant change                     The democratic government came into office in
been more positive.                                               1999      on    a    platform   that    promised
                                                                  macroeconomic        policy   reform,     poverty
Development Trends                                                alleviation, improved service delivery, universal
                                                                  basic education, accountable government and
The years of military rule have had a largely                     reduced corruption. But the legacy of military
negative impact on development indicators in                      rule was not so readily overcome, and most of
Nigeria. Nigeria ranks 152 out of 175 countries                   these promises have not yet been realized.
on the 2002 UNDP Human Development Index                          Nonetheless, important first steps have been
and has not improved its standing over the past                   taken on a number of fronts. Institutions to


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                          USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


attack corruption been established and have                    SO11:     Strengthened        Foundations     for
survived the efforts of the legislature to                     Democratic Governance
disempower them; the government is gradually
developing a coherent poverty reduction                        Despite progress over the past four years, many
strategy, with civil society engagement; sound                 roadblocks to strengthened democracy in
policies on reproductive health and nutrition                  Nigeria still remain.       Political elites are
have been put into place; the President has                    entrenched, excluding most citizens, particularly
recognized the massive threat of HIV/AIDS and                  women and the poor, from meaningful political
thrown his political weight behind the national                participation.    The scale and prevalence of
program; high-profile public sector institutions               conflict, triggered by communal, ethnic, religious
are soundly managed and have zero tolerance                    or resource issues, poses a major threat to
for corruption; civil society is dynamic, enjoys an            stability in Nigeria. Endemic corruption is a key
increasingly     open       political   and    social          governance issue that has directly touched the
environment, and supports democracy. U. S.                     daily lives of the majority of Nigerians. The
engagement with Nigeria is also crucial because                structure of government and the concentration of
of the pre-eminence of the country in the region,              power at the center and in the executive have
as well as its economic importance to the United               reduced incentives for reform. Civil society has
States as a supplier of 8-10 percent of American               been freed of many of the constraints it faced
crude petroleum imports, a proportion that is                  under military rule, but still lacks both the
growing. The reelection of P       resident Obasanjo           capacity and the resources it needs to truly
gives him the opportunity to build on both his                 engage with government and advocate for
past accomplishments and the positive spirit in                change. Government institutions, for their part,
the country, and moves his reform agenda more                  have by and large not established partnerships
aggressively.     It also gives the international              with citizens or private sector actors, and
community a renewed opportunity to support the                 themselves lack capacity to carry out their own
government and the people of Nigeria, to                       mandates.
increase the intensity and focus of dialogue with
Nigeria, and to develop strategic interventions                To address these roadblocks, SO11 will build
that will move Nigeria to realize its potential and            the capacity of civil society and legislative
allow its people to prosper.                                   bodies, support efforts to respond to and
                                                               manage conflict, and address the need for
Stakeholders                                                   professionalism and transparency in the next
                                                               elections. Civil society is central to making
USAID/Nigeria’s planning process for the 2004-                 government more responsive and accountable
2009 Country Strategic Plan is distinguished by                through advocacy and oversight. The National
the comprehensive stakeholder consultation                     Assembly serves to balance power within
process that informed strategy development.                    government       and      its     directly-elected
Stakeholder dialogue was initiated at the                      representatives of the people are a lodestar for
concept paper stage. The consultations took                    civil society engagement.      Frequent conflict
place at several levels, and at different points               perpetuates poverty, discourages investment,
along the continuum of strategy development,                   and compromises overall social and economic
and invited the input of a rich diversity of                   development.      Properly managed elections
implementing partners, donors, GON, civil                      whose results are accepted and agreed to by
society, private sector interests, and USG                     the people are the cornerstone of democracy.
colleagues. As the strategy evolved, it was                    Progress in the achievement of the SO will be
repeatedly discussed with and vetted by these                  measured by increased levels of public
groups.    Well over one thousand individuals,                 confidence in democracy, and civil society policy
representing more than 400 organizations,                      input.
participated, and endorsed USAID/Nigeria’s
program goal:       USAID supports Nigeria in                  SO12:    Improved Livelihoods in Selected
achieving      a     more     transparent    and               Areas
participatory democracy with a healthier and
better-educated population in a growing and                    Despite rapid urbanization, more than half of
diversified economy. The final CSP reflects                    Nigerians still live in rural areas and farm for a
this extensive dialogue and ground-truthing.                   living.     Agriculture provides a precarious
                                                               livelihood, marked by declining productivity,


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                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


environmental degradation, limited use of yield-            60 percent of children are in school. Fertility is
enhancing inputs, and poor market linkages.                 high, birth intervals are short, and contraceptive
Farmers and rural entrepreneurs are not served              prevalence is low.         Health and education
by financial institutions and have little access to         indicators are much worse in northern Nigeria
financial services such as savings and credit               than in the rest of the country, demonstrating
that would help their enterprises to grow and               regional imbalance and inequity.        The poor
diversify.    Nigerian agricultural commodities             quality of education, coupled with lack of access,
such as cocoa and rubber are no longer                      is encapsulating successive generations of the
competitive in regional or international markets.           poor deeper and deeper into poverty.
Post-harvest losses are high, appropriate
processing and value adding technologies are                Key constraints to the use of social sector
not readily available, a commercial orientation is          services in Nigeria include their poor quality and
lacking and market information is unreliable.               lack of accessibility. In some areas of the
Production gains have been made by expanding                country, there is constricted demand, and there
the cultivated area, rather than through                    is also a strong need for an improved policy
increased efficiency, putting the remnants of the           environment, given the extremely low resource
natural resource base at risk. Private sector               levels allocated to health and education in the
growth is constrained by a poor enabling                    Federal budget. The powerful linkages between
environment,      the     erosion   of     Nigeria’s        health and education indicators argue for the
competitiveness, poverty, and marginal growth               strategic integration of programs in reproductive
in Nigerian markets.                                        health and family planning, child survival and
                                                            basic education where feasible and practical.
SO12 will increase the productivity of selected             This SO will use performance measures such as
commodities, and the number of value-added                  school persistence, immunization rates, and
commodities and products, build a more                      contraceptive     prevalence.       Targets     are
commercial and competitive orientation among                provisional, pending receipt of data from the
farmers and small entrepreneurs, and improve                2003 NDHS.
the policy environment.      Low productivity, a
weak business culture, and lack of market                   SO14:    Reduced Impact of HIV/AIDS in
opportunities are binding constraints that the SO           Selected States
will address. SO12 will also support the goals
and objectives of the presidential Initiative to            HIV/AIDS is a growing menace in Nigeria. The
End Hunger in Africa (IEHA), and the Agency’s               country now accounts for nearly 10 percent of
agriculture and trade development strategies.               the HIV/AIDS burden in the world, with 4 million
Success in achieving the SO will be measured                of its citizens seropositive.    Without urgent
by increases in volume and value of selected                action this number may more than double by
commodities and products and the revenues                   2010. One million orphans have already been
and income that they generate.                              created by the disease and this may reach 3
                                                            million by the end of the decade. A significant
SO13:    Increased Use of Social Sector                     national response was slow to develop, and
Services                                                    fear, stigma, and discrimination against PLWHA
                                                            are high. Efforts to develop and disseminate
Nigeria has been ineffective in providing quality           behavior change messages are increasing and
social sector services to the people. The results           condoms are widely available but other basic
are high child and maternal morbidity and                   prevention, treatment, care and support capacity
mortality, low levels of adult literacy and poor            and infrastructure is weak, with service delivery
academic performance, and high fertility that               being largely in the hands of the private and
translates    into   rapid    and     unsustainable         NGO sectors.
population growth.       Availability and use of
affordable child survival and maternal health               Nigeria is a large country with a serious
measures is appallingly low. At least 15 percent            HIV/AIDS      problem and available USAID
of Nigerian children will die before their fifth            resources are insufficient to support a
birthday, while a Nigerian woman dies every                 nationwide program. SO14 will therefore focus
three minutes from causes related to pregnancy              its program in six key states plus the Federal
and childbirth. Adult literacy actually declined            Capital Territory (FCT) of Abuja. These states
during the decade of the 1990s, and fewer than              have 25 percent of Nigeria’s population and an


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                             USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


equivalent proportion of the HIV/AIDS burden.                       Cross Cutting and Converging Themes:
The SO will also focus on “most at risk
populations” (MARPs), such as prostitutes, truck                    Food Security: Due to poverty, a poor policy
drivers, uniformed personnel, and people living                     environment, low productivity, conflict, and a
with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). PLWHA and o         rphans                   host of other factors, Nigeria has been
and vulnerable children (OVC) will be targeted                      transformed into a low-income, food deficit
for treatment, care and support interventions.                      country. Much of the population is chronically
The SO will seek to increase demand for and                         malnourished and mired in poverty. SO11 will
access to quality prevention, treatment, care and                   address food insecurity through its conflict
support services. Collaboration with partners in                    management, government accountability, and
the Nigerian public and private sectors and in                      civil society empowerment activities. SO12 will
the donor community will be crucial to improving                    work at two levels, on the farm to increase
the enabling environment. The SO will report on                     productivity of key commodities, and at the
seroprevalence among 15 – 24 year olds,                             center to create a more favorable policy
prevention of mother to child transmission, and                     environment. SO13 is continuing its nutrition
care and support to PLWHA and OVC, as well                          and food consumption work and will also
as core behavior change indicators.                                 promote behaviors to mitigate the impact of food
                                                                    insecurity on the most vulnerable. Nutrition will
Geographic Focus                                                    also play a role in SO14, particularly in its
                                                                    programs for PLWHA and OVC, as will income
USAID/Nigeria is committed to working in all six                    generating opportunities to boost household
geopolitical zones of Nigeria, with the proviso                     income and food supply.
that not all programs can be implemented in all
zones. The sheer immensity of the country and                       Conflict: Conflict in Nigeria is localized and has
the reduced resource levels for the CSP have                        multiple causes. Its disruptive effects threaten
necessitated geographic targeting if results and                    food security and income generation, lead to the
impact are to be achieved.         The Mission                      destruction of property and loss of life, impinge
accordingly developed a set of criteria for the                     upon service delivery, foster the transmission of
prioritization of target states.                                    HIV/AIDS, and have disproportionate negative
                                                                    impact on women and their children. Conflict
Box 1: Criteria for Selection of Target States                      mitigation is a key intermediate result for SO11.
         Criteria for Selection of Target States                    The SO will work with civil society groups, in
                                                                    particular youth, private sector, and multi-ethnic
     •   Critical need
     •   Build on transition program                                and/or multi-regional associations, in conflict
     •   Size of population                                         management initiatives. Resource competition is
     •   Potential to achieve results and impact                    a root cause of conflict in Nigeria, and SO12 will
     •   USAID comparative advantage                                seek to diversify economic opportunities and
     •   Opportunity for scaling up and sustainability              avail financial services in areas where resource
     •   Public-private partnerships
     •   Other donor presence
                                                                    competition drives violence. SOs 13 and 14
     •   Synergy with other USAID/USG programs                      may engage at-risk youth through health and
                                                                    education activities, and build wider “tolerance”
Application of these          criteria   identified       the       messages into BCC programs addressing
following target states:                                            stigma. For all SOs, associations and activities
                                                                    that “bridge” divided groups will be an important
Table 1: Target States                                              vehicle for conflict management.
    State     Zone     SO11      SO12     SO13     SO14
    Abia       SE                 x                                 HIV/AIDS: HIV/AIDS is a multisectoral problem
 Anambra       SE                                     x             impacting     on      agriculture,    employment,
   Bauchi      NE                           x         x             education, and health care delivery.         It is
  Cr. River    SS                  x
    Delta      SS        x
                                                                    exacerbated by conflict and infringes on human
 FCT Abuja     NC                  x        x         x             rights and dignity, with disproportionate negative
    Kano       NW        x         x        x         x             effects on women. In order to avert a massive
   Lagos       SW        x                  x         x             increase in numbers infected, prevention,
 Nasarawa      NC                           x         x             treatment, care and support interventions must
   Plateau     NC        x
                                                                    be scaled up and delivered through diverse
   Rivers      SS        x                            x
                                                                    channels such as workplaces, schools,


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                        USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


communities, the government, the private                  individual livelihoods specifically and contributed
sector, and faith based organizations. SO11 will          to the conflict environment. To address these
work with civil society on advocacy, human                problems, SO11 will build NGO capacity to
rights, and empowerment issues, and also                  dialogue with government on environmental
integrate HIV/AIDS messages into its conflict             issues;     SO12      will promote      sustainable
activities. PLWHA and OVC will benefit from the           agriculture and the use of energy-conserving
increased agricultural productivity, employment           technologies, and generate alternative economic
generation and microenterprise development                opportunities in areas adjacent to natural
supported by SO12. SO13 will build on its on-             reserves; SO13 will develop primary school
going condom social marketing, STI prevention,            curriculum on environmental issues and promote
and antenatal care programs, and there is                 rational use of water resources and improved
potential to mobilize PTAs and communities to             sanitation; while appropriate disposal of used
address the needs of OVC. SO14 will provide               condoms and biomedical waste is an
technical leadership and, potentially, resources          environmental issue that SO14 will address.
to these efforts.
                                                          Transparency: Corruption is a key governance
Gender:         Nigerian women are multiply               issue in Nigeria that has direct impact on the
disadvantaged in comparison with men,                     daily lives of virtually all citizens. Corruption
constrained in their political and economic roles,        also directly affects activities implemented under
their access to productive resources, education,          each of the SOs because it increases the costs
and health care, and their ability to protect             of doing business, prevents direct support to the
themselves against HIV/AIDS.          To address          GON, and slows the pace of implementation.
these inequities, the Mission’s D/G SO has                SO11 and SO12 are collaborating in the
maintained a strong focus on women’s political            execution of an anti-corruption program that
empowerment even prior to the democratic                  builds the capacity of civil society organizations
transition and will increasingly engage with              to dialogue with and lobby the National
NGOs working on gender and conflict issues in             Assembly to pass freedom of information and
the civil society program.       The key role of          other landmark legislation. SOs 13 and 14 will
women in agriculture in Nigeria, especially in the        also support these initiatives and will additionally
south, mandates SO12 to assist women to                   work at community level to generate increased
benefit from productivity gains and improved              demand for accountable government functions.
technologies, and also to ease their access to
credit.    SO13 will work to improve girls’               Public/Private Partnerships: Partnerships are an
persistence and performance in primary school,            important way of doing business in Nigeria for
and to reduce maternal and child morbidity and            several reasons. Nigeria does have significant
mortality by addressing the needs and concerns            resources of its own, which can do much to
of both men and women with gender-appropriate             improve the lives of its citizens. Faith-based
methods and messages. SO14’s behavior-                    organizations are numerous, powerful, and
change communication (BCC) campaigns will                 reach large numbers of people. The private
recognize the differing knowledge levels,                 sector also has resources for development.
informational needs, and means of access to               USAID already participates in the Nigerian
information of men and women, and design                  Presidential Cassava Initiative, which has
focused      programs     responsive   to    those        brought together donors, GON, and oil
differences.                                              companies to stem a potential epidemic of
                                                          cassava mosaic disease, to increase cassava
Environment:     Unsustainable use of natural             production and productivity, and to identify
resources, unplanned urban development, and               value-added products in the food and light
petroleum industry operations threaten Nigeria’s          industrial sectors to increase household income.
fragile environment, carrying grave implications          Partnerships in the Niger Delta to combat
for agricultural productivity, food security and          HIV/AIDS, mitigate conflict, provide microfinance
nutrition, and the availability of potable water          services, and contribute to environmental
and wood fuel. Rapid unregulated urbanization             sustainability are under development.
poses enormous problems of sanitation and
waste disposal, and is flooding the cities with
unemployed ripe for conflict. The oil companies
have damaged the environment generally and


                                                     xi
                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


Performance Management

USAID/Nigeria is moving from a Transition Plan
that required very rapid scaling-up of the
program, to a full five-year sustainable
development strategy. The CSP is marked by a
high degree of integration within and between
Strategic Objectives, and a strong focus on
managing for results and attaining broad-based
impact. Program integration will allow us to
build effectively on existing synergies and
collaborative activities between sectors to a
much greater extent than was possible during
the transition phase. The Mission anticipates
being able to develop new, innovative cross-
sectoral programs that will contribute to the
achievement of results under more than one SO.
Such an integrated program will require new
approaches to and significant investments in
performance monitoring and management.

Support to all of the SOs in performance
management responsibilities will be provided
through a Mission-level umbrella monitoring and
evaluation contract, a performance monitoring
specialist in the program office to provide
technical assistance to all of the teams, and
broad-based performance management training.
Each SO will develop the performance
management capabilities of selected staff,
require performance management plans from
each implementing partner directly linked to SO
reporting requirements, and design baseline
surveys and special assessments to fill
particular data needs.




                                                  xii
                           USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


III.     Overall Assistance Environment                        West African States (ECOWAS), a 15-nation
                                                               grouping designed to promote economic
A. Introduction                                                integration and, increasingly, to foster regional
                                                               stability. The NEPAD and ECOWAS agendas
Nigeria has been governed by a democratically-                 dovetail with key USG Mission Performance
elected leadership for just 13 of the 43 years                 Plan (MPP) goals of growing Nigeria’s economy,
since Independence from Britain.              The              opening markets, and improving the ability of
enormous economic and social potential of sub-                 ECOWAS to monitor and coordinate sub-
Saharan Africa’s most populous nation has been                 regional responses to new and ongoing
stifled by decades of corrupt and brutal military              conflicts.
dictatorship, a debilitating civil war, and the
failure of successive governments, whether                     The USG has further strategic interests in
elected or imposed, to deliver basic services to               Nigeria that are reflected in the MPP, most
their people. But in April 2003 Nigeria achieved               importantly        strengthening       democracy,
a landmark. For the first time, the country                    counterterrorism,      and    fighting    narcotics
successfully completed a transition from one                   trafficking and other international crimes,
elected     civilian   government    to   another.             including trafficking in persons.       Both the
Although far from flawless, the re-election of                 Government of Nigeria (GON) and civil society
President Olusegun Obasanjo to his second and                  have demonstrated that they are responsive to
final four year term provides much needed                      these strategic issues, which are also high
continuity and the prospect of increased stability.            priorities for USAID/Washington, the State
Since under the 1999 Constitution he will not be               Department, and the White House. State and
eligible to stand for election again in 2007, the              USAID/W have confirmed that Nigeria remains
President may be emboldened to more                            among their top priority countries in Africa. The
vigorously promote key policy reforms, and push                visit of President George W. Bush to Nigeria in
harder to fight corruption.                                    July 2003 reaffirms this commitment.

Nigeria is strategically vital to U. S. interests. It          Nigerians have reciprocally demonstrated their
is the fifth-largest supplier of oil to the American           recognition of common interest with, and support
market and its share of this market, now at                    for, the U.S.       The proportion of Nigerians
about 8-10 percent, is expected to increase in                 questioned in a poll conducted by the Pew
the future. Nigeria is also our most important                 Global Attitudes Project who have a favorable
trading partner in Africa, and the recipient of                view of the U.S. was 77 percent in 2002,
over $7 billion in U. S. foreign investment. With              compared to just 46 percent in 1999. Even in
a population of 135 million, Nigeria has a                     the Niger Delta, where American oil companies
commanding presence in world affairs by virtue                 are negatively perceived, the favorable rating
of its size alone. Nigeria also has the largest                stands at 62 percent, while in the largely Muslim
Muslim population in Africa, and the sixth-largest             North-West 68 percent of Nigerians have a
in the world, of between 65 and 70 million.                    favorable view of America. Almost two-thirds of
Political isolation and suspension from the                    Nigerians believe that U. S. policies work to
Commonwealth,          triggered       by      military        decrease the gap between rich and poor, and
dictatorship and human rights abuses, were                     even larger proportions express admiration for
reversed by the democratic election in 1999 and                American ideas about democracy (86 percent)
                                                                                                             1
Nigeria has now begun to assume an increasing                  and ways of doing business (85 percent). With
leadership role in regional and Pan African                    the GON also expressing support for U. S.
organizations. President Obasanjo serves as                    ideals and economic policies, the environment
Chairman of the Heads of State and                             for a strong alliance at the official level and with
Government Implementation Committee of the                     Nigerian society at large is highly positive.
New Partnership for Africa’s Development
(NEPAD),        an    African-driven     agenda      for       B. Wealth and Poverty
sustainable development and public-private
partnership. NEPAD’s goals are to promote                      When vast petroleum reserves were discovered
accelerated        growth        and       sustainable         in the Niger Delta in the 1950s, Nigeria’s future
development, eradicate poverty, and integrate                  prosperity seemed assured. During the oil boom
Africa into the world economy. Nigeria is also                 of the early 1970s, annual per capita income
                                                                                          2
the major player in the Economic Community of                  tripled to over $1,000        and the central


                                                           1
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


government       invested   its    resources   in         associated with poverty. Households headed by
infrastructure and service provision.        This         women are slightly less likely to be poor than
honeymoon did not last for long. Subsequent               those headed by men, but female-headed units
decades       of    economic     mismanagement,           constitute just 17 percent of Nigerian
                                                                       10
macroeconomic instability, political repression           households.        The vast majority of Nigerian
and institutionalized corruption undermined               women live in male headed households, have
social and economic development and fueled                significantly less formal education than men and
dramatic increases in poverty. The estimated              are also more likely to live in rural agricultural
             3
$320 billion generated from oil revenues over             settings.     Clearly the burden of poverty in
the past 30 years have not improved the                   Nigeria is more directly felt by women and their
wellbeing of the mass of Nigeria’s people.                children than by men.

Poverty in Nigeria was first measured in 1980,            The Nigerian government’s response to the
when 27.2 percent of the population, or 18                poverty in which the bulk of its citizens live has
                                         4
million people, were classified as poor. This             been slow to take shape. A National Poverty
rate surged to 66 percent in a 1996 survey and            Eradication Program (NAPEP) was established
the total number of poor nearly quadrupled, to            in 2001, with the goal of eliminating “core”
           5
67 million. Estimates put the poverty rate today          poverty over the next ten years, but up to this
at close to 70 percent, or 90 million people.             time has lacked the resources to support
Perhaps 40 percent of these people are the                meaningful poverty reduction efforts. The new
“core” poor, so impoverished that they cannot             administration has made commitments to
meet their basic food needs, and indeed the               increasing expenditures in the health and
stunting rate for young Nigerian children, a              education sectors and to the needs-based
measure of chronic nutritional deprivation and            allocation of funds to activities under this
                                      6
food insecurity, stands at 42 percent. Although           program. Still, the economy would have to grow
rural poverty is more extensive, urban poverty            at an annual rate of 7 to 8 percent to achieve
has also grown at a rapid rate, to 58 percent in          this poverty reduction goal, but between 1989
      7
1996. This is an ominous figure given the size            and 1999 grew at only 2.7 percent per year, at
and complexity of many Nigerian cities, their             approximately the same rate as population
                                                                  11
very rapid rate of growth, and the difficulties           growth.
attending    service   delivery  in    such   an
environment.                                              Although the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy
                                                          Paper (IPRSP) tabled in late 2002 has yet to be
Nigeria’s wealth distribution is distorted and            formally reviewed by Cabinet and donors, the
increasingly inequitable. According to the 1996           President’s new economic team has moved
survey, the richest ten percent of the population         forward with a new National Economic
had a 27 percent share of consumption                     Empowerment        and   Development      Strategy
expenditure, against a three percent share for            (NEEDS).         State governments are being
                     8
the poorest decile.        In 2001 the gap had            encouraged to develop strategies for economic
increased even further, with the top decile               and fiscal discipline, good governance, and
having 31.4 percent of income and the poorest             reform, and the Federal government proposes to
decile just 1.3 percent.       Between 1980 and           establish monitoring and evaluation mechanisms
1996, the consumption expenditure of the poorer           and introduce performance-based rewards for
half of the population declined by half in real           states that demonstrate such reforms. These
terms.     The distribution of poverty is also            steps may nullify some of the criticisms levied
inequitable on a geographic basis. Regionally             against the GON for the lack of transparency
the North West geopolitical zone has the largest          and civil society engagement demonstrated in
proportion of its population living in poverty, and       the PRSP process.          Nonetheless, although
the three northern geopolitical zones have 65             other donors, including the European Union
percent of the nation’s population but account            (EU)     and     Department    for    International
                                 9
for only 35 percent of GDP.         No part of the        Development (DfID), have adopted poverty
country is exempt from poverty, however, and              reduction as the centerpiece of their strategies
severe poverty is also experienced in the                 for Nigeria, the slow pace at which the GON has
Southern regions. Lack of formal education,               shaped its poverty approach argues against a
large household size, living in a rural area and          poverty reduction goal for the USAID/Nigeria
pursuing an agricultural livelihood are strongly          CSP.


                                                      2
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


                                                          less than one percent of the country’s
C. The Development Environment                            employment, directly benefiting no more than
                                                          five percent of Nigerians.
Nigeria is a complex country, in many ways
more akin to a region than a nation.            Its       Budget: The revenues that the GON receives
population of 135 million is double that of the           from petroleum exports constitute the core of the
next most populous sub-Saharan African nation;            Federal budget.        However, Nigeria lacks a
Nigeria alone has 20 percent of the sub-                  transparent budgeting and public procurement
continent’s population and 60 percent of the              system. Allocation of resources in the budget is
population of the ECOWAS states. The size of              distorted by the huge civil service wage bill.
the economy is second only to that of South               Public sector employment provides an estimated
Africa among sub-Saharan countries. More than             50 percent of all formal sector jobs in the
300 distinct ethnic groups, with their own                country, and consumes at least 45 percent of all
languages and traditional values, live in Nigeria.        government expenditure – at minimum 5 billion
                                                                            13
Most Nigerians have adopted either Islam or               dollars per year.      According to one estimate,
Christianity, but these world religions coexist           after personnel, overhead, capital investments,
and interact with a plethora of indigenous belief         interest and debt service are attended to,
systems. Nigeria is still more rural than urban,          perhaps ten percent of resources remains for
                                                                                             14
but the balance is rapidly being altered. In 2001         delivering services to the people.
45 percent of Nigerians lived in towns and cities,
and the rate of urban growth, at 5-7 percent per                 :
                                                          Table 2 Sectoral Composition of GDP, 1965
year, is significantly higher than overall                and 2001
                   12
population growth.    The northernmost of the 36                  Sector            1965           2001
States that make up the Nigerian Federal                        Agriculture          68             43
                                                                    Oil               8             13
Republic border the Sahara desert, while                    Manufacturing and         5              8
remnants of dense tropical forest receiving                    Construction
upwards of 80 inches of rain each year are still                 Services             19             36
found near the Niger Delta.         This diversity,                Total             100            100
complexity and potential must be understood in            Source: Addison, 2002
order to appreciate the significance of Nigeria in
the world order, and the challenges to                    Debt:      Years of corruption and economic
development that exist in the country.                    mismanagement have left Nigeria with a
                                                                                                           15
                                                          massive foreign debt ($28.4 billion in 2002),
D. Economic trends                                        most of it in arrears. In 2001 the GON’s budget
                                                          provision for debt service, although not all
Neither civilian nor military government in               disbursed for the stated purpose, amounted to
Nigeria has been able to diversify the economy            over 14.5 percent of export earnings, six times
away from almost exclusive dependence on                  the federal government’s budgetary provision for
crude petroleum exports, which generate $12 –             education, 17 times that for health, and 25 times
                                                                                16
18 billion in revenues per year, accounting for at        that for agriculture.    The Federal government
least 95 percent of foreign exchange earnings             also bears the burden of a large stock of
and over 80 percent of budget resources. The              domestic debt, estimated to be in excess of $8
distortions and dependencies created by oil may           billion, and many if not most of the 36 states are
become even greater in future, when Nigeria               also heavily indebted.      Generated by deficit
begins to exploit its vast natural gas reserves.          spending, this debt stock has the potential to
Given its dominance of the economy, regular               accelerate inflation. However, on the positive
fluctuations in international oil prices often have       side, the 12 month moving average inflation rate
a dramatic impact on the country's economic               fell throughout 2002 and in April 2003 was down
                                                                           17
performance. However, when examined in the                to 10.1 percent.
framework of Nigeria's domestic economy, oil
plays a much less prominent role. The industry            Trade policy: Nigerian trade and tariff policies
contributes only about 13 percent of GDP, one-            have also contributed to the poor economic
third the share of agriculture, and it does not           situation in the country. Trade policy is highly
provide jobs. Annual revenues from oil provide            protective of local industry, imposing import
only $100-150 per Nigerian per year. Oil is               restrictions and bans and imposing high tariffs
capital rather than labor intensive and generates         particularly on those goods that have the



                                                      3
                          USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


potential to be locally-produced. The result of             industry. Investment in other sectors is sorely
protectionism has been the erosion of Nigerian              needed to diversify and grow the economy, but
competitiveness in a wide range of agricultural             has been slow to materialize. It is not difficult to
and manufactured products. The government                   understand why: under existing administrative
invested heavily in state-owned enterprises                 procedures, laws and regulations, infrastructure
(SOEs) in the light and heavy industrial sectors,           constraints and insecurity, Nigerians and non-
including textiles, paper, and steel.       Cost            Nigerians alike have very weak incentives to
                                                                   23
overruns and corruption bloated the costs of                invest.   Under the new administration the GON
these investments, resulting in the misdirection            has now begun to institute key reforms to
of budget resources. The Ajaokuta steel mill, for           encourage the investment that will stimulate
example, cost $5-6 billion to build and                     growth and reduce poverty.
production costs are estimated to be four times
                      18
the industry average.    Only about 40 percent of           Agriculture: The performance of the Nigerian
manufacturing capacity in Nigeria is actually               agricultural sector has steadily deteriorated
                                               19
utilized, and the sector does not create jobs.              since Independence. In the 1960s Nigeria was
Nigeria has paid dearly, and continues to pay,              a net exporter of agricultural commodities. Key
for these protectionist policies. Although the              income earners included cocoa, palm oil,
GON has embarked upon a program of                          peanuts, rubber and cotton as well as staple
privatization of SOEs and the Bureau of Public              food products. The deterioration commenced in
Enterprise (BPE) is a highly-professional and               the 1970s as a result of the oil boom,
capable organization, the pace of privatization             unfavorable policies, and outright neglect.
has been slow, key transactions have failed to              Agricultural exports currently account for less
go forward, and protectionism still prevails.               than five percent of foreign exchange earnings,
Tariffs actually increased in 2002, and the                 and Nigeria now relies heavily on food imports to
government continues to promote import                      feed both the growing urban population and the
substitution in the media.                                  increasingly food insecure farmers themselves.
                                                            The annual bill for rice imports alone stands at
                                                                                                        24
Infrastructure:        The     deteriorated    and/or       $750 million, and is projected to increase.
inadequate infrastructure (roads, public utilities,
railway and port operations) is one of the main             Nigeria’s agricultural sector today is focused on
factors constraining the expansion of the non-oil           food production for household consumption. A
economy. The Nigeria Electric Power Authority               more commercial orientation is deterred by
(NEPA) is one of the highest cost producers of              stagnant or declining productivity, huge post-
electricity in the world, and is regarded as very           harvest losses, limited market access and lack
                                           20
dishonest by most of its customers.           NEPA’s        of competitiveness of Nigerian products. Growth
inability to deliver reliable electricity imposes on        in total agricultural production was 3.5 percent in
business firms the necessity of putting                     2001, only slightly above the rate of population
                                                                     25
alternative power supplies in place, at significant         growth.      The GON Crop Area and Yield Survey
additional cost. 97 percent of firms with more              indicates that yields of cereals, roots/tubers and
                                                   21
than 20 employees have their own generators.                pulses increased an average of 3.7, 1.9, and 4.7
Many major road transport routes are potholed               percent per year respectively between 1996 and
and choked with debris from past vehicle                    2001, but there is no obvious explanation for
accidents.       Although this does not deter               these increases as improved inputs were largely
motorists from driving at excessive rates of                unavailable during the period, and these findings
                                                                                                  26
speed, it does contribute to delays and high                must be interpreted with caution.          Lack of
maintenance costs. The country has only four                appropriate      technologies     and    production
fixed telephone lines per 1,000 population,                 enhancing inputs such as improved seeds and
barely one third of the average for sub-Saharan             fertilizers, and erosion of the natural resource
       22
Africa , although the recent open and                       base are key contributing causes to poor overall
transparent auction of licenses for mobile                  productivity. Rural to urban migration, an aging
telecommunications operations is a very positive            farming population, and, increasingly, HIV/AIDS
development.                                                have also played a role. The high post harvest
                                                            losses are also attributable in large measure to
Investment: Although Nigeria has attracted over             the lack of appropriate technologies, including
$7 billion in foreign direct investment from the            storage,      processing,      and     value-adding
U.S. alone, virtually all of this is in the petroleum       technologies. Poor market linkages are partly a


                                                        4
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


problem of infrastructure, partly a problem of             years. A significant reduction in the proportion
information, and partly a problem of financial             of Nigeria's poor would require a growth rate of
services. All of these are lacking in rural areas.         at least 7 percent over the next 5 years, a major
Misguided policies and policy vacuums have                 challenge given the current growth rate of 3.3
also played their part, having, for example,               percent.      President Obasanjo’s final term in
driven a 50 percent decline in fertilizer use over         office gives him an unprecedented opportunity to
the     past    decade,     and     mandated     an        build on key reforms instituted during his first
unsustainable public sector monopoly of                    term, and move Nigeria’s economy further in the
extension services. Production increases are               right direction.
attributable to expansion of cultivated area
rather than intensification, sounding a serious
warning note for what remains of the natural               E. Political trends
resource base. Unsustainable use of natural
resources has been identified as one of three              Nigeria began a new democratic transition in
major environmental threats to Nigeria, along              May 1999, when the last of a succession of
with    unplanned     urban      development    and        three military dictators who had held power for
petroleum industry operations. The implications            over ten years organized democratic elections
for agriculture of deforestation, soil erosion, and        and handed over to the newly-elected civilian
desertification are dire. Nigeria today has less           administration. Four years later, Nigeria’s first-
than 10 percent of the forests that existed a half         ever democratic succession is poised to move
century ago, and only 2.1 percent of the                   the    still-fragile  democracy     forward,    but
country’s land area is protected as national               formidable obstacles remain.            The core
parks. The desert is expanding south at the rate           problems that the nascent democracy confronts
of half a kilometer per year, rendering formerly           include: traditional political elites that remain
                                27
agricultural land unproductive.                            entrenched and that thrive on patronage and
                                                           corruption; weak institutions, public and private,
The state of the agricultural sector in Nigeria is         that are assailed by vested interests; a fragile
particularly distressing because almost in spite           national identity that is frequently subordinated
of itself agriculture remains the backbone of the          to less inclusive identities; continued significant
economy. Although contributing just a tiny share           episodes of conflict; the declining economy; and
of export revenues, it accounts for about 40               a constitution crafted by the military that does
percent of GDP and, critically, over half of               not reflect the popular will and that fails to
employment.        Resuscitation of agriculture is         adequately address contentious issues such as
imperative if the Nigerian economy is to grow              revenue allocations and resource rights.
and lift the people out of poverty. Indeed, given
more positive macroeconomic and sector                     Democratic Foundations:          Nigeria remains
policies and budget allocations, Nigeria's                 unschooled in the practice of democracy.
agriculture     has    tremendous    potential  to         Nonetheless, steps were taken during the first
spearhead economic growth and reduce poverty               Obasanjo administration to begin the learning
because of the favorable climate and soils, large          process and to overcome some of the enormous
labor pool, diversified crop and livestock                 legacy of political constraints to democratic
systems and huge domestic market.                          development.      The signs of this included
                                                           Supreme Court decisions that signal a growing
Overall, the current state of affairs in the               sense of independence, increased autonomy of
Nigerian     economy       presents      significant       the National Assembly and key State
challenges. But, given improved budget, trade              legislatures, and growing engagement of civil
and monetary policies, the economy has shown               society in advocacy and oversight. However, all
that it has the capacity to grow and to reduce             of these democratic institutions remain weak in
poverty.    For example, during the 1987-91                capacity, resources and organization. Less than
period of reform, private non-oil output grew at           one-third of incumbents were returned to the
5.6 percent and the total economy at 5.9 percent           new National Assembly, for example, while the
per annum, permitting a small dip in the                   majority of NGOs have only local reach and are
percentage of people living in poverty.                    much less trusted by the community than
However, these limited gains were soon eroded              indigenous institutions such as age-based and
                                                                                           28
and the reforms were not sustained, contributing           community-based associations.
to the doubling of poverty levels over the past 10


                                                       5
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


Democratic Challenges: Significant challenges             people, and guarantee of basic individual
remain along virtually all dimensions of                  freedoms. There has already been a noteworthy
governance.       Personal interests rather than          improvement in the climate for civil liberties in
broad ideological platforms continue to provide           Nigeria since the end of the military dictatorship
the basis for political mobilization, and                 in 1999, but much remains to be done to ensure
opportunities for participation are limited by            the rights of women and minorities. Nigeria has
factors such as ethnicity, poverty, sex, and age.         an emergent, active and resilient civil society,
While competition has expanded since 1999,                whose capacity to demand transparency and
with 30 political parties registered and a plethora       accountability from government must be
of CSOs and interest groups, this is                      increased.      Although popular support for
countervailed by central control, intimidation,           democracy has declined somewhat from the
poorly managed elections tainted by fraud, and            level of 90 percent recorded in the immediate
patronage politics. The legacy of military rule           wake of the 1999 elections, 68 percent of
translates into poor maintenance of law and               Nigerians polled in the 2002 Nigerbus survey
order, corruption, and lack of access to justice.         agreed with the statement that “Democracy is
                                                                                                           29
Important steps have been taken to dismantle              preferable to any other kind of government.”
this    legacy,    including    the   creation   of       This level of public support for democracy is an
commissions of inquiry and the institution of             encouraging indication of popular commitment to
judicial reform, but these need to go further.            building democratic institutions.

Particularly thorny problems that are faced by            F. Social Sector Trends
the new government are the issue of Shari’a
law, and social conflict and violence.       The          As Nigeria’s oil wealth has not improved the
Federal government has chosen thus far to take            material well-being of the country’s people, but
a hands-off approach to the encroachment of               instead been accompanied by deteriorating
Shari’a statutes on the civil liberties of non-           economic indicators and increasing poverty, so
Muslims and of women, and despite the fact that           too have critical indicators of physical well-being
its imposition seems to be in contravention of            and of long-term investment in human capital
the Constitution. The government has also thus            declined in recent years.             The military
far been ineffective in addressing conflict. The          dictatorships’ lack of commitment to social
approach employed has been to fight violence              sector service provision translates into a health
with violence and there are few early warning or          and education status for Nigerians that is
mediation mechanisms in place.                            scarcely better today than it was a generation
                                                          ago. Basic indicators also display distinct and
Conflict: The prevalence of conflict in Nigeria is        alarming disparities by geopolitical zone.
a matter of the gravest concern requiring a
proactive response from both government and               Child Survival: Nigeria has made much less
civil society.    Conflict is localized and has           progress in reducing mortality among children
multiple causes. In the past four years over              under five in the decades since Independence
10,000 Nigerians have lost their lives to                 than      sub-Saharan    Africa   as   a    whole.
communal violence, and many more have been                Nationwide, at least 15 percent of children will
internally displaced and/or lost property and             die before reaching their fifth birthday, but this
means of earning a livelihood. The national               varies by geopolitical zone from 12 percent in
elections in April and May 2003 were attended             the South West to 22 percent in the North
                                                                 30
by bribery, rigging, intimidation and violence.           West.         Most of these deaths occur from
Encouragingly, however, defeated candidates               preventable causes. Malaria is the biggest killer,
and parties have taken their grievances to the            followed      by   vaccine-preventable   diseases,
courts rather than to the streets, and the                diarrheal diseases, and acute respiratory
Nigerian public has accepted the election results         infections.     The rates of use of preventive
without resorting to violence.                            measures against these diseases are extremely
                                                          low.     Fewer than 15 percent of households
Democracy in Nigeria is far from consolidated.            possess a mosquito net to protect their
                                                                     31
Efforts in the near term must be focused on               children, and only 17 percent of children aged
laying a foundation of sustainable democratic             12-23 months are fully immunized against
processes, including a system of checks and               vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Use of
balances, accountability of government to the             oral rehydration therapy to treat diarrhea stands


                                                      6
                        USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

               32
at 51 percent.       The impact of all of these          about HIV/AIDS unable to identify any
diseases is exacerbated by poor nutritional              preventive measures. Perceptions of personal
status.     Preliminary results of the national          risk are low, with two-thirds of respondents
                                                                                                          38
nutrition survey undertaken in 2001 indicate that        believing they have no risk at all of infection.
42 percent of children are stunted, 20 percent
are underweight, and 20 percent suffer from              These knowledge levels are significantly lower
                               33
clinical Vitamin A deficiency.                           than in other African countries and can be
                                                         attributed to the failure of the military
Maternal Health: Adolescent girls and women              governments of the 1990s to acknowledge the
also suffer excess morbidity and mortality,              gravity of the epidemic or to implement any
largely from causes related to pregnancy and             programs to address it. As recently as 1998 the
childbirth. 55 percent of girls aged 15-19 in the        Federal Government’s budgetary allocation to
North West geopolitical zone are pregnant or             HIV/AIDS was a mere $3,000. The “head in the
already have a child; the median age of                  sand” attitude has also contributed to an
marriage is just 14.6 years, and maternal                extraordinary level of stigma and discrimination
mortality is estimated at 1,600, almost ten times        against people living with HIV and AIDS
higher than in the South West. 175,000 or more           (PLWHA).       President Obasanjo had made
Nigerian women die every year as a result of             HIV/AIDS a top priority, but newly-elected
complications of pregnancy or childbirth – one           legislators   must    now    demonstrate     the
such death occurs every three minutes. The               commitment to implement the President’s plan.
average Nigerian woman will bear six children
during her lifetime, with a median interval              Basic education: The basic education system in
between births of just 31 months, fueling a              Nigeria has also suffered from the neglect and
population growth rate estimated at 2.8 percent          decline of the military years. A 1999 Multiple
          34
per year.                                                Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) revealed that
                                                         between 1991 and 1999, adult literacy declined
HIV/AIDS: Nigeria is also experiencing a rising          from 44 percent to 41 percent for women, and
                                                                                                   39
tide of HIV/AIDS prevalence.         In 2001, 5.8        from 68 percent to 58 percent for men.       About
percent of adults 15-49 years of age were                two-thirds of rural a dult women are illiterate, as
infected, with adult prevalence projected to             are almost 80 percent of women in the North.
increase to 9 percent by 2010. The number of             The democratic government has espoused a
infections will grow from 4 million to more than 7       program of Universal Basic Education (UBE)
million and Nigeria will continue to account for         that would provide nine years of schooling to all
10 percent or more of the world’s HIV/AIDS               Nigerian children, but the authorizing legislation
burden. Close to one million Nigerian children           is still pending. In any case, much of the
                                             35
have already been orphaned by the disease.               responsibility for basic education has been
                                                         delegated to state and local governments that
Nigeria’s epidemic has been characterized as             do not have the resources to support it. Net
“…a group of epidemics at different stages of            enrolment in primary school hovers between 50
                                         36
maturation within the same country”         with         and 60 percent, and approximately one-third of
significant disparities in prevalence levels by          children who enter primary school do not
                                                                       40
State, geopolitical zone, and population group.          complete it.       There are significant gender
The highest prevalence rates are found in                differences in enrolment and persistence rates,
southern and central states and zones and are            with approximately two million fewer girls in
calculated from sentinel surveillance data               primary school than boys. Less than half of
collected at antenatal sites. The most at risk           those who complete primary continue on to
groups are assumed to include prostitutes and            secondary school, and the rate has been
their clients, such as members of the uniformed          declining.    Serious issues remain with both
servi ces and the transportation industry.               quality and relevance of primary education.
Seroprevalence data are not available for client         Mean achievement on standardized literacy and
groups, but up to 70 percent of prostitutes in           numeracy examinations is significantly below the
                                              37
Lagos were seropositive in the mid 1990s.                pass mark – just 32 percent and 25 percent
                                                                               41
Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data                 respectively in 1996.
from 1999 show that 74 percent of women and
90 percent of men have heard of HIV/AIDS, with           Nigeria’s massive unemployment problem, and
over one-quarter of those women who knew                 the large numbers of tertiary graduates who


                                                     7
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


remain jobless or enter the informal sector, are          access to resources, in public discourse, and in
testimony to the inability of the educational             access to justice.
system to equip young Nigerians for productive
livelihoods. Education used to be a mechanism             Domestic duties, lower levels of education, and
through which the children of the poor could              wage discrimination all affect women in labor
become upwardly mobile and move out of                    markets. There are large gender disparities in
poverty. The deteriorating quality and relevance          formal sector employment and the professions.
of public sector education mean that it no longer         Women and girls are heavily represented in
                                            42
plays this role, rendering poverty dynastic.              agriculture and informal sector trading and
                                                          hawking, but their participation is not captured in
Health/education synergies: Further analysis of           any official statistics. Over 90 percent of lands
available data on basic education and health              and properties formally registered are in the
demonstrates the strong linkages and causal               names of men. Under statutory law women
relationships among them.       Use of modern             have inheritance rights, but these are generally
contraceptives is three times greater among               abrogated by customary law. Domestic violence
women with a primary education than among                 and spousal abuse of women by men is both
those with no education, while the rate of                widespread and accepted.          The practice of
adolescent pregnancy drops from 50 percent for            arranged marriage of young girls without their
those with no schooling to just 16 percent for            consent is commonplace in the North, often with
those completing primary. Vaccination rates for           an age discrepancy of 15 years or more
children of mothers with a primary education are          between husband and wife. Nigeria has the
three times higher than for children of mothers           largest absolute numbers of women who have
with no education; educated mothers are also              been subjected to female genital cutting (FGC)
more likely to seek medical attention for a child's       of any nation in the world, most commonly in the
illness (56 percent) than are uneducated                  south and usually carried out in infancy without
                        43
mothers (39.5 percent).                                   the option of consent. Cross River, Edo, Delta
                                                          and Ogun States have enacted laws banning
The impact of children's health and nutritional           FGC, but national-level legislation is still
                                                                   45
status on their access to and benefit from                pending.
education is clear − poor health decreases
attendance and completion rates, and impairs              Widows and their children continue to be
children's ability to learn. As the number of             disadvantaged, often dispossessed by the
children under 12 livi ng in a household                  deceased husband’s family and reduced to
increases, the percentage of primary school-age           extreme poverty, forced to undergo marriage
children from those households who attend                 with a brother in law and/or humiliating
school decreases. At least 56 percent of 5   -12          widowhood rituals. Women are still by and large
year olds from households with one or two                 excluded from decision making at household
children under 12 years of age attend school,             level, with the significant exception of retaining
compared with just 37 percent of school-aged              control over their own income. This, however,
children from households with seven or eight              can be a double-edged sword if women are
                            44
children younger than 12.      These strong and           therefore expected to be solely responsible for
consistent mutually reinforcing impacts provide           the consumption needs of their children.
evidence that greater improvements can be                 Women’s        exclusion       from      community
achieved through sectoral integration.                    participation and decision-making remains a
                                                                                                              46
                                                          hallmark of most Nigerian ethnic groups.
Gender: Nigeria’s record on gender issues is              While parallel women’s groups do exist,
weak and in need of improvement. A forward-               especially in the South, their overall “clout” and
looking National Policy on Women was adopted              capacity to influence events in the wider
by the Federal government in July 2000, but               community is very limited.                 Women’s
there has been little demonstrable impact to              representation in political positions at all levels is
date on the lives of Nigerian women. There is             very small. The National Council of Women’s
significant variation within the country in the           Societies has proposed affirmative action to give
cultural attributes and expectations attached to          women at least one-third of all elected and
gender, but by and large women are                        appointed offices, but to no avail. Only 22
disadvantaged:      in education and training, in         women, less than six percent of the total, were
                                                          returned to the Senate and Assembly in the


                                                      8
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


recent national elections, for example.   In              Packard, Rotary International, and Ford, also
northern Nigeria women were not enfranchised              support programs in Nigeria, focusing on
            47
until 1976.                                               reproductive    health,  HIV/AIDS,       and  the
                                                          environment. Donor coordination mechanisms
Nigeria poses a very difficult situation for making       are in place for each sector and donor relations
any meaningful headway on gender equity.                  are excellent. The collaboration between USAID
Nonetheless USAID/Nigeria sees opportunities              and DfID has been particularly fruitful.
to promote women’s political engagement and
participation, to develop gendered productive             Democracy and G     overnance: DfID, the EU, UN
and processing technologies and enhance the               agencies and CIDA support rule of law, capacity
capacity of women-owned enterprises, to                   building at State level, civil society, media
engage men in reproductive health and child               development        and     conflict   management
survival, to increase girls’ persistence and              programs.       These donors collaborated with
performance in primary school, and to better              USAID to provide technical assistance and
equip men and women both in the fight against             observers for the 2003 national elections and
HIV/AIDS.                                                 will likely do so again in 2007. USAID co-chairs
                                                          the donors’ Democracy and Governance group
G. Other Donors and Partners                              with the United Nations Development Program
                                                          (UNDP) and actively participates in working
Nigeria’s relationship with the donor community           groups on civil society, rule of law, conflict,
has not always been smooth. By any standard               legislative assistance and elections.
Nigeria presents a challenging environment for
donor involvement. Nigeria’s oil wealth makes             Agriculture and Economic Growth: Donors such
the country much less dependent on donor flows            as the World Bank, DfID, JICA and the EU have
than any other country in sub-Saharan Africa.             focused      support   on    economic     policy
While countries such as Uganda receive the                coordination, debt management, privatization,
equivalent of 50 percent or more of their                 transparency, and strengthening the investment
recurrent expenditure in donor funds, in Nigeria          environment.     The World Bank’s Economic
                                                48
the proportion in 2002 was just six percent.              Management       Capacity   Building   Program
Nonetheless the good will of donors is crucial to         (EMCAP) provides a coordination mechanism
Nigeria, especially in the context of debt                for efforts in these areas. In agriculture, the
rescheduling. From the donor vantage point,               World Bank and the Food and Agriculture
Nigeria is simply too important to ignore in both         Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are
regional and global contexts. The return to               making major investment in irrigated agriculture
democracy re-engaged donors whose programs                and food security respectively, and DfID is
had been put on hold during the military years.           developing a new program in agricultural
The modest donor resources also have                      commercialization.   Donors in the agriculture
enormous potential to leverage both Federal               sector meet monthly as the Agriculture Donors
budget resources from oil, and private sector             Working Group. CIDA, the Danish International
monies, from oil companies and others, in                 Development Agency (DANIDA) and Norwegian
growth-enhancing and poverty and corruption-              Aid (NORAD), among others, have small
reducing directions.                                      environment programs and align their efforts
                                                          through     the    Environmental    Coordination
USAID is the largest bilateral donor in Nigeria.          Committee.
Other key donors in Nigeria are the World Bank,
the    British  Department     for   International        Child Survival and Reproductive Health: USAID,
Development (DfID), European Union (EU), and              the World Health Organization (WHO), the
United Nations agencies.          The Canadian            United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), EU,
International Development Agency (CIDA) has               DfID,    JICA   and     CIDA   have    effectively
indicated that it will increase the size of its           coordinated and work with GON and NGO
program over the next three years and move                partners to make progress on polio eradication
into new sectors. Aid through the Japanese                and rebuild routine immunization in Nigeria.
International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is also           These donors are also active in combating
growing. France, Germany and other bilaterals             malaria. WHO, UNICEF and USAID have been
have small assistance programs.            U. S.          instrumental in fostering a renewed interest in
foundations and PVOs, including Gates,                    nutrition and have worked closely with the


                                                      9
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


National Planning Commission (NPC) and the
Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) to develop
policy and coordination mechanisms. DfID is a
key USAID partner in contraceptive social
marketing.        The    Reproductive      Health
Development Partners Forum includes USAID,
WHO, United Nations Fund for Population
Activities (UNFPA), DfID, FMOH and the
Packard Foundation among its members. The
activities these partners support include
advocacy, policy dialogue, capacity building and
service delivery.

Basic education: USAID/Nigeria co-chairs the
Donors’ Coordination Committee, whose other
members are the World Bank, UNICEF, United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO), DfID and JICA. The
World Bank is the largest player, providing $55
million for primary education and $101 million for
Universal Basic Education. UNICEF has done
important work on Islamic and girls’ education.

HIV/AIDS: Donor partners in the fight against
HIV/AIDS include the World Bank, the UN
family, DfID, the Gates Foundation and the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC). The principal focus of interventions is on
prevention, but treatment, care and support are
increasingly being addressed.      CDC provides
technical support to sentinel surveillance efforts,
and WHO, USAID and CDC are working closely
with the Federal Ministry of Health and the
Nigerian Action C  ommittee on AIDS (NACA) to
establish prevention of mother to child
transmission (PMTCT) programs.




                                                      10
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


IV.     Strategic Rationale                                involvement was limited to strengthening NGOs
                                                           to provide rural health services, and a small
A. Introduction                                            initiative to assist women’s groups to participate
                                                           in the political process. By September 1999 a
The USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan                   Transition Strategy with democracy and
(CSP) has been developed over the past year in             governance, economic growth and agriculture,
close collaboration with a broad and diverse set           basic education, health, and infrastructure
of stakeholders, including other USG agencies,             objectives had been put in place, and the budget
donors, the GON, implementing partners, private            had increased to $24 million. The goals of the
sector interests, and civil society organizations          Transition Strategy were to assist Nigeria’s
such as service-delivery and advocacy NGOs,                transition to economic, social and political
producer       associations,   and      faith-based        stability, and restore public confidence in
organizations. The CSP is fully integrated with            civilian-led governance. By FY 2000 resources
and supportive of the USG Mission Performance              to initiate activities in the education and
Plan (MPP) for Nigeria. The strategy is linked to          infrastructure portfolios had been allocated,
and contributes to all of the Agency goal areas.           activities in economic growth and agriculture and
USAID’s management goal, to remain a premier               democracy and governance expanded, and the
development agency, is supported by the                    budget had increased again, to $77.5 million.
development results that USAID/Nigeria has                 Originally designed to end in 2001, the
achieved. The Nigeria strategy is also aligned             Transition Strategy was extended to December
with the goals, precepts and activities of regional        2003 to allow for a thorough planning process
organizations, including USAID’s West Africa               and a smooth transition to the new strategy.
Regional Program (WARP), NEPAD and                         The Transition Strategy was supported by four
ECOWAS.           Increased regional economic              strategic objectives and one special objective.
integration and enhanced trade are themes                  The       SOs     were   re-numbered     in    the
common to all three of these organizations that            USAID/Washington data base when the
are addressed in the CSP. The Nigeria CSP                  Transition Strategy was extended, as shown
also recognizes a number of crosscutting                   below, and the SOs in the new strategy will be
themes of key importance, including HIV/AIDS,              numbered 11 through 14.
environment, gender, conflict and food security.
These themes have implications for each of the             SO6:   Transition to Democratic Civilian
strategic objectives but also interact with each           Governance Sustained
other in converging ways that vary according to
sector and geopolitical zone. The strategy also            This SO addressed elections, civil society,
builds on opportunities to benefit from and                conflict, and selected courts and legislatures.
contribute to the objectives of Presidential and           Technical support built the professionalism and
Agency initiatives: anti-corruption, trafficking in        capacity of electoral commissions at national,
persons, African education, the initiative to end          state and local levels and contributed to the
hunger in Africa, HIV/AIDS, prevention of mother           passage of the Electoral Act 2002. Two political
to child transmission. A fundamental guiding               associations supported by USAID have now
principle in the development of the strategy has           been successfully registered as p   olitical parties,
been the creation of new, dynamic partnerships.            and fielded candidates in the 2003 elections.
Over the past two years USAID/Nigeria has                  Numerous CSOs have also been strengthened
leveraged over $3 million in resources from                to engage in policy dialogue, oversight of
private sector partners to complement its                  government, conflict mitigation and social
investments in health, polio eradication and               mobilization.     Support to women’s advocacy
agricultural development, and we will continue to          groups was instrumental in enacting laws in key
seek opportunities to build new partnerships and           states allowing women to inherit property and
expand existing ones.                                      banning discriminatory practices against them.
                                                           USAID       established    networks    of     conflict
B. Past USAID Performance                                  mediators who successfully promoted an end to
                                                           violent conflicts in Kaduna, Taraba and Kwara
With the democratic election of the civilian               States.       Judicial strengthening activities in
government in 1999, the USAID program in                   Kaduna and Lagos leveraged resources from
Nigeria was revitalized and expanded. In FY                the courts to support the USAID program, and
1998 the OYB was just $7 million and                       significantly    improved    case    management.


                                                      11
                        USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


Members of the National Assembly and targeted             productivity     and    competitiveness in the
state legislatures improved their skills in               agricultural sector and foster a commercial
legislative drafting and passed laws addressing           orientation will be intensified.
core development issues.        Elements of the
program to be carried forward to the new                  SO8: Develop the Foundation for Education
strategy include working with civil society to            Reform
increase transparency and accountability and
manage conflict, and capacity building for the            Implementation of the core activity under this
newly-elected National Assembly. Support to               SO, to improve the quality of teaching and
the electoral process focused on the 2007                 learning in target schools in three states, did not
national elections is also envisioned, contingent         begin until FY 2002. Community participation,
on receipt of Economic Support Funds.                     strengthened data collection and policy support,
                                                          and youth workforce development are also key
SO7: Strengthened Institutional Capacity for              elements of the SO. Although data on pupil
Economic Reform and Enhanced Capacity to                  performance are not yet available, the quality of
Revive Agricultural Growth                                instruction in 327 schools, one-third of them
                                                          Islamic, has been enhanced by master teacher
The diverse portfolio of activities under this SO         training, interactive radio instruction for teachers
addressed economic policy and institutional               and pupils, and provision of resource kits.
strengthening,     the    private   sector,    and        Parent-Teacher       Associations     (PTAs)    have
agricultural productivity. The major emphasis in          responded enthusiastically to the call for greater
private sector development was privatization of           engagement by using participatory methods to
state owned enterprises through capacity                  develop action plans to improve their schools.
building of the Bureau for Public Enterprise              With USAID support, the Federal Ministry of
(BPE). Through this support, BPE has achieved             Education completed a comprehensive national
international standards of technical proficiency          Education Baseline Census in 2002, the first
and operational transparency that have helped             since 1995 and a crucial planning tool for
leverage $127 million from the World Bank and             education reform.          Workforce development
other donors. USAID also worked to build the              efforts provided young Nigerians with critically
capacity of the Economic Policy Coordinating              needed technical skills, and also sensitized them
Committee (EPCC), the Debt Management                     on HIV/AIDS and conflict mitigation. Efforts to
Office (DMO), and the Budget Monitoring and               build the quality of basic education in Nigeria will
Price Intelligence Unit (BMPI) in the Presidency.         continue under the new strategy, and where
Results include the engagement of civil society           feasible and appropriate will be integrated with
in poverty reduction strategy dialogue, the               child     survival    and     reproductive     health
implementation of macroeconomic policies for              interventions to maximize impact.
debt management, the first-ever introduction of
internationally recognized budget standards and           SO9: Increased Use of Family Planning/
practices, and an anti-corruption survey and              Maternal and Child Health/ Child Survival/
media campaign.                                           Sexually-Transmitted Disease/ HIV Services
                                                          and Preventive Measures within a Supportive
The main thrusts of the agricultural activities           Policy Environment
were to improve productivity, increase private
sector input supply, and develop market                   USAID/Nigeria’s SO9 addressed Nigeria’s poor
linkages. Targeted food crops included maize,             health status indicators through an integrated
cassava, cowpea and banana. Thousands of                  program of maternal and child health,
farmers have been reached and on-farm trials of           reproductive health and family planning, and
improved varieties have demonstrated two to               HIV/AIDS interventions.       The SO achieved
threefold increases in yields of these core food          significant results in polio eradication, reducing
security crops under local conditions. Public-            unintended      pregnancies,     and     increasing
private alliances in cocoa and gum arabic                 HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support services.
increased exports and leveraged private sector            USAID’s partnerships with other donors, the
resources for research and investment. Under              GON, and the private sector mobilized
the new CSP work to build the capacity of key             communities throughout the country to immunize
GON anticorruption and economic governance                35 million children against polio. Unmet demand
institutions will continue, and efforts to boost          for family planning is being addressed and use


                                                     12
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


of condoms to prevent HIV/AIDS is increasing.                  •   What has worked in the past, and what
Innovative    new    multisectoral    partnerships                 has not?
bringing together GON, donors and the private                  •   In what areas or sectors does USAID
sector in the fight against HIV/AIDS have been                     hold a comparative advantage?
forged, and 110 local NGOs, half of them faith-                •   What are the opportunities for synergies
based, are now able to provide quality HIV/AIDS                    and     linkages   that  will   increase
prevention and care services.        In the new                    development impact?
strategy, the reproductive health, family planning             •   How can the new strategy build on past
and child survival elements of this SO will be                     achievements and identify opportunities
integrated with basic education for increased                      for innovation, leveraging and new
synergy and impact. Given the gravity of the                       partnerships?
epidemic in Nigeria and the potential for large
and rapid increases in the number of people                The first product of this planning process was
infected, the Mission will address HIV/AIDS (and           the USAID/Nigeria Concept Paper for the
tuberculosis)    in   a    stand-alone    strategic        proposed strategy. This Concept Paper was
objective.                                                 submitted to USAID/W in October 2002, and
                                                           approved at a review meeting convened on
Special Objective: Improved Management of                  November 19, 2002.
Critical Elements of the Infrastructure and
Energy Sector                                              The planning process identified numerous gaps
                                                           and inconsistencies in Nigeria’s data base. The
Nigeria’s    development    is being severely              Mission accordingly designed a broad analytic
impeded by inadequate energy supplies and                  agenda of studies, assessments and evaluations
poor infrastructure. The SpO provided technical            to fill these gaps.      The reports prepared in
assistance, training and equipment intended to             response to this agenda have provided a wealth
improve the electricity, aviation, and ports               of qualitative and quantitative data that
sectors. Program elements included financial               strengthen the empirical grounding in which the
and contract management training for the                   strategy is rooted. Our decisions on strategic
electricity parastatal, aviation safety and                directions have been richly informed by the
security, and efficient and secure port                    results of our analytic efforts. Key pieces of this
operations.     Most of the implementation of              work are provided as annexes, as is a list of all
activities to support the SpO was delegated to             studies undertaken (Annex 2).
other USG entities with comparative advantage
in     those    sectors   through     Interagency          A third component of the planning process was
Agreements (IAAs) and USAID/Nigeria was not                a model strategy of stakeholder consultation,
involved in their management. Given funding                initiated at the concept paper stage. These
constraints in these areas, activities under the           consultations took place at several levels, and at
SpO will not be carried forward to the new                 different points along the continuum of strategy
strategy.                                                  development,     and     invited  the    input   of
                                                           implementing partners, donors, GON, civil
C. The Planning Process                                    society, private sector interests, and USG
                                                           colleagues.     As the strategy evolved, it was
In August 2002, USAID/Nigeria launched a                   repeatedly discussed with and vetted by these
multi-pronged effort that culminated in the new            groups. The final CSP reflects this extensive
CSP.      The first step was a Mission-wide                dialogue and ground-truthing.          Stakeholder
strategic planning retreat in which we took stock          consultation is more fully described in Annex 3.
of progress and constraints under the Transition
Strategy, and identified data and analytic gaps            D. Program Parameters
and strategic opportunities for the new program.
Key questions arising from this initial retreat            USAID/Nigeria’s concept paper for the 2004-
helped to inform the planning process:                     2009 CSP was reviewed and approved in
                                                           USAID/Washington on November 19, 2002.
    •   Where can one intervene in Nigeria and             The Mission was provided with guidelines for
        expect to make a difference – sectors              strategy development in the parameters cable
        and geopolitical zones?                            (03 State 040654) issued subsequent to that



                                                      13
                          USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


                f
meeting. The ollowing points contained in that               interventions that will move Nigeria to realize its
cable informed strategy development.                         potential and allow its people to prosper. In line
                                                             with this thinking, USAID/Nigeria has adopted as
    •   Planning period.    The requested five-              its strategic goal:
        year planning period (2004 – 2009) was
        approved.                                            USAID supports Nigeria in achieving a more
    •   Vision and goal. The Vision Statement                transparent and participatory democracy
        contained in the concept paper was                   with   a   healthier  and   better-educated
        approved and the Mission instructed to               population in a growing and diversified
        develop the goal statement while                     economy.
        preparing the CSP.
    •   Strategic Objectives. The Mission was                F. Strategic Objectives
        authorized to develop four strategic
        objectives, addressing democracy and                 The Concept Paper submitted and approved in
        governance, agriculture and economic                 November 2002 set forth the Mission’s approach
        growth, social sector services, and                  to assisting Nigeria in achieving further progress
        HIV/AIDS.                                            along the democratic road.         Given reduced
                                                             overall funding levels, USAID/Nigeria proposes
E. Program Goal                                              to continue to work in all sectors addressed in
                                                             the Transition Strategy except for infrastructure:
President Olusegun Obasanjo came into office                 that is, democracy and governance, agriculture
in 1999 on a platform that promised                          and economic growth, reproductive health, child
macroeconomic        policy     reform,      poverty         survival and basic education, and HIV/AIDS and
alleviation, improved service delivery, universal            tuberculosis. The analysis completed since the
basic education, accountable government and                  concept paper was submitted, and our intensive
reduced corruption. But the legacy of military               dialogue with stakeholders, have confirmed
rule was not so readily overcome, and most of                these choices.      USAID/Nigeria proposes the
these promises have not yet been realized.                   following four Strategic Objectives (SOs) as the
Nonetheless, important first steps have been                 basis of our assistance program over the next
taken on a number of fronts. The Independent                 five years:
Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offenses
Commission (ICPC) has been established and                       •   SO11:    Strengthened Foundations for
has survived the efforts of the outgoing national                    Democratic Governance
Assembly to emasculate it; the GON has taken                     •   SO12:        Improved  Livelihoods in
major strides in developing a coherent poverty                       Selected Areas
reduction strategy paper (PRSP), with civil                      •   SO13: Increased Use of Social Sector
society     engagement;      sound    policies on                    Services
reproductive health and nutrition have been put                  •   SO14: Reduced Impact of HIV/AIDS in
into place; the President has recognized the                         Selected States
massive threat of HIV/AIDS and thrown his
political weight behind the national program;                USAID/Nigeria will implement this strategy over
entities such as the Bureau of Public Enterprises            the five year period 2004 – 2009. This planning
(BPE), the Debt Management Office (      DMO) and            period will carry us through and beyond the next
the Budget Monitoring and Price Intelligence                 national elections, scheduled for 2007.           If
Unit (BMPI) are soundly managed and have                     successful, these will be the second successive
zero tolerance for corruption; civil society is              elections conducted under the auspices of a
dynamic, enjoys an increasingly open political               democratically elected government, and will
and      social   environment,     and     supports          mark the longest continuous period of civil
democracy.       The reelection of the president             authority in independent Nigeria’s history. The
gives him the opportunity to build on both his               time frame is also consistent with Mission plans
past accomplishments and the positive spirit in              for major data collection and analysis efforts that
the country, and move his reform agenda more                 will provide the basis for clearly measuring
aggressively.      The time is right for the                 progress made and results achieved under the
international community to increase the intensity            CSP.
and focus of dialogue with Nigeria’s government
and      people,   and    to    develop     strategic


                                                        14
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


SO11:     Strengthened         Foundations      for
Democratic Governance                                       Illustrative indicators: Achievement of the SO
                                                            will be measured by levels of public confidence
Rationale: Although the national elections in               in key governance institutions, and client
2003 ushering in the second successive elected              satisfaction with selected government services.
civilian administration were a watershed in
Nigerian       politics,  many    roadblocks      to        Agency goal areas:
strengthened democracy still remain. Aging                     • Democracy and Good Governance
political elites are still entrenched in both                      Strengthened
traditional and modern political structures,                   • Lives Saved, Suffering Reduced, and
excluding the majority of citizens from                            Conditions for Political and Economic
meaningful political participation. Opportunities                  Development Reestablished
are limited not only by the interests of elites, but
by other factors as well, including age, sex,               Linkages to other SOs:             SO11 presents
ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The scale              numerous opportunities for synergies with and
and prevalence of conflict – triggered by                   support to SOs 12-14. Civil society engagement
communal, ethnic, religious or resource issues –            and capacity building are common threads
poses a major threat to democracy in Nigeria.               across all of the SOs. Advocacy efforts with civil
The      structure     of government     and     the        society will call for transparent budgeting,
concentration of power at the center and in the             procurement and management procedures, with
executive have reduced incentives for reform.               resulting positive impacts on social sector and
Systemic corruption is a key governance issue               HIV/AIDS service delivery, and the enabling
that has pervaded the daily lives of Nigerians,             environment for the private sector. Work with
who believe that only unemployment is a bigger              the National Assembly will strengthen its ability
challenge to growth and development in their                to develop improved and more responsive
country. Civil society has been freed of many of            policies in all sectors, and to pass them into law.
the constraints it faced under military rule, but           This engagement is particularly important given
still lacks both the capacity and the resources it          that there is such a large majority of first-time
needs to truly engage with government and                   Senators and Representatives.          Conflict has
advocate for change. Government institutions,               potential impacts on all SOs, at worst making it
for their part, have by and large not established           difficult to implement activities in places where
partnerships with citizens or private sector                conflict is prevalent. Conflict management must
actors, and themselves lack capacity to carry out           therefore be coordinated with and addressed by
their own mandates.                                         all of the Mission’s programs.

Results: To address these constraints, SO11                 SO12: Improved Livelihoods in Selected
will build the capacity of civil society and                Areas
legislative bodies, support efforts to respond to
and manage conflict, and address the need for               Rationale:      Although the country is rapidly
professionalism and transparency in the next                urbanizing, a majority of Nigerians still live in
elections. Civil society is central to making               rural areas, and agriculture forms the basis of
government more responsive and accountable                  their livelihoods.      Over the past 40 years
through advocacy and oversight. Legislatures                agriculture has declined markedly by almost
are a focal point for civil society engagement;             every measure – share of GDP, value of
they also serve to balance power within                     exports, productivity.         Nigerian agriculture
government and as a central point for policy                commodities are no longer competitive in
development. The inability to manage conflict               regional     or     international   markets,   and
perpetuates human suffering, tarnishes the                  policymakers have become preoccupied with the
country’s image, and compromises overall social             struggle over oil revenues, which do not directly
and economic development. Properly managed                  benefit the mass of Nigeria’s citizens. The poor
elections whose results are accepted and                    performance of the agricultural sector has been
agreed to by the people are the cornerstone of              caused by inappropriate policies and the use of
democracy.      While the 2003 elections were               low-input, low-output technologies. Post-harvest
generally successful, administrative problems               losses are high, appropriate processing and
must be addressed early on in order to ensure a             value adding technologies are not available, a
smoother and more credible process in 2007.                 commercial orientation is lacking and market


                                                       15
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


information and linkages are weak. Given this               will make special efforts to target assistance to
low-resource approach and high population                   enterprises among vulnerable populations such
growth, production gains have been made by                  as people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and
expanding the cultivated area, rather than                  orphans and vulnerable children (OVC).
through increased efficiency, putting the
remnants of the natural resource base at rsk.  i            SO13:    Increased Use of Social Sector
Farmers and entrepreneurs also lack access to               Services
critical financial services. Private sector growth
is constrained by a poor enabling environment,              Rationale: Despite its oil wealth, Nigeria has
the erosion of Nigeria’s competitiveness,                   been ineffective in providing quality social sector
poverty, and marginal growth in Nigerian                    services to the people that would reduce child
markets.                                                    and maternal morbidity and mortality, allow
                                                            people to plan their families, or increase literacy
Results: SO12 has chosen to focus its efforts               or academic performance. Almost two out of
on increasing the productivity of selected                  every 10 Nigerian children will die before their
commodities, expanding the number and range                 fifth birthday, from largely preventable causes.
of value added products, building a more                    Use of accessible, affordable preventive
commercial and competitive orientation among                measures is appallingly low.         Adult literacy
farmers and small entrepreneurs, and improving              actually declined during the decade of the
the policy environment. Stakeholder dialogue                1990s, and fewer than 60 percent of children are
and policy analysis have identified low                     in school. Fertility is high, birth intervals are
productivity, a weak business culture, and lack             short, and contraceptive prevalence is low. The
of market opportunities as the three most                   population is growing at close to 3 percent per
important constraints to the revitalization of the          year, placing additional stress on the already
economy. SO12 will directly address these core              overburdened schools and clinics. Data also
barriers to sustainable economic growth in                  indicate that health and education indicators are
Nigeria, and will also support the goals and                much worse in northern Nigeria than in the rest
objectives of the presidential Initiative to End            of the country. The poor quality of education,
Hunger in Africa (IEHA), and the Agency’s                   coupled with lack of access, is encapsulating
agriculture and trade development strategies.               successive generations of the poor deeper and
                                                            deeper into poverty.
Illustrative indicators: Success in achieving the
SO will be measured by increases in volume,                 Results: Key constraints to the use of social
value and income of selected commodities and                sector services in Nigeria include their poor
products, and diversification of commodities and            quality and lack of accessibility. In some areas
products on the farm and in the market.                     of the country, there is also constricted demand,
                                                            for example for antenatal care and family
Agency goal areas:                                          planning services in the North. There is also a
   • Broad Based Economic Growth and                        powerful    need    for    an    improved   policy
       Agricultural Development Encouraged                  environment, given the extremely low resource
   • The World’s Environment Protected for                  levels allocated to health and education in the
       Long Term Sustainability                             Federal budget. SO13 will work to improve the
                                                            quality of social sector services, increase
Linkages to other SOs:           SO12 will work to          demand and access, and improve the enabling
increase productivity and commercialization,                environment at all levels. The impact of these
ultimately raising rural incomes and thereby                efforts should result in increased use of social
increasing access to health and education                   sector services in USAID’s focus states.
services.     Over time, economic growth will
leverage increased public investment in social              Data from the NDHS and other studies
sector service delivery. SO12 will work closely             demonstrate the strong reciprocal relationships
with SO11 to promote accountable governance                 among      health   and    education variables.
and reduced corruption.         Improved livelihoods        Increasing levels of maternal education are
and more sustainable production will reduce the             directly linked to smaller family size and
likelihood of conflict that is rooted in competition        increased use of preventive measures such as
over scarce resources, and will also reduce                 immunization, oral rehydration therapy, and
chronic malnutrition over the longer term. SO12             insecticide-treated mosquito nets. The number


                                                       16
                          USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


of young children in the household is a                      increase to between 7 and 9 million by 2010.
significant predictor of school enrolment and                One million Nigerian children have already been
attendance among those children.        These                orphaned by HIV/AIDS and this number will
linkages argue powerfully for the strategic                  more than treble over the next seven years. The
integration of programs in reproductive health               national response has been slow to develop,
and family planning, child survival and basic                and fear, stigma and discrimination against
education where feasible and practical.                      PLWHA are high.            Efforts to develop and
                                                             disseminate behavior change messages are
Illustrative indicators:    This SO will use                 increasing and condoms are widely available –
performance      measures    such     as    school           sales of socially marketed condoms increased
persistence and performance, immunization                    by 80 percent over the past three years – but
rates, and contraceptive prevalence.       Targets           other basic prevention, treatment, care and
are provisional, pending receipt of data from the            support capacity and infrastructure is largely
2003 NDHS.                                                   lacking; there are only two dedicated VCT
                                                             centers in all of Nigeria, for example.
Agency Goal Linkages.
   • The World’s Population Stabilized and                   Results: Given the size of Nigeria and the scale
       Human Health Protected                                of the problem, SO14 will focus much of its
   • Human        Capacity    Built Through                  efforts in six key states plus the Federal Capital
       Education and Training                                Territory (FCT) of Abuja.           Most at risk
                                                             populations, or MARPs, including prostitutes,
Linkages to Other SOs: Improved health and                   truck drivers, uniformed personnel, and PLWHA
higher levels of numeracy and literacy will                  will comprise the key target groups for
enable Nigerians to take better advantage of the             prevention efforts. Treatment, care and support
opportunities to increase productivity and build             interventions will be targeted to PLWHA and
enterprises offered by SO12. When coupled                    OVC. The SO will address issues of stigma, low
with improvements to their livelihoods, better               knowledge levels, poorly trained providers and
health and education status will also empower                inadequate services in order to increase the
Nigerians to participate more fully in civil society,        demand for and access to quality prevention,
and demand higher standards of performance                   treatment, care and support services, and will
from their government. The linkage of SO13                   also work with partners in the Nigerian public
and SO14 is particularly strong and important.               and private sectors and in the donor community
Schools and health facilities are critical venues            to     improve     the    enabling   environment,
for the delivery of services and impacts for both            collaboration, and coordination.
SOs and there are significant opportunities for
joint programming. Given the disproportionate                Indicators:    As a “Priority Intensive Focus
impact of HIV/AIDS on young people in Nigeria,               Country” in USAID’s Expanded Response
schools are a likely venue for behavior change               program, SO14 is mandated to report progress
communication (BCC) interventions, even given                in reducing seroprevelance among 15 – 24 year
the low enrolment and persistence rates in                   olds, prevention of mother to child transmission,
Nigeria. Family planning and antenatal clinics                                         nd
                                                             and providing basic care a support to PLWHA
also seem viable sites for linking SO13 and                  and orphans and vulnerable children (OVC).
SO14 interventions.                                          The Mission will also report at the sub-SO level
                                                             on core behavior change indicators.
SO14:    Reduced Impact of HIV/AIDS in
Selected Areas                                               Agency Goal Linkage:
                                                                • The World’s Population Stabilized and
Rationale: Nigeria has only recently begun to                       Human Health Protected
understand and to respond to the potential
impact of HIV/AIDS in the country. Although                  Linkages to Other SOs: HIV/AIDS is not a
prevalence is lower than in neighboring                      health problem alone; a vigorous and
countries, Nigeria accounts for nearly 10 percent            coordinated multisectoral response is essential.
of the HIV/AIDS burden in the world, with 4                  SO14        demonstrates    strong     reciprocal
million of its citizens living with the infection. In        relationships across the strategy.       SO11’s
the absence of major targeted interventions, the             legislative advocacy and civil society work will
number of infected individuals is expected to                help to reduce stigma and leverage more


                                                        17
                            USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


budgetary resources for HIV/AIDS.          Conflict                 Table 3: Target States
creates an environment that increases the risk of                       State     Zone    SO11    SO12     SO13    SO14
HIV transmission and conflict management                                Abia       SE              x
                                                                     Anambra       SE                                x
activities under SO11 will have a mitigating                           Bauchi      NE                        x       x
effect.    Increased agricultural productivity will                   Cr. River    SS               x
reduce the cost of food and increase its                                Delta      SS       x
availability and accessibility for PLWHA and                         FCT Abuja     NC               x        x       x
their families. SO12 will also work to build small                      Kano       NW       x       x        x       x
                                                                       Lagos       SW       x                x       x
enterprises and increase their access to
                                                                     Nasarawa      NC                        x       x
business development and financial services,                           Plateau     NC       x
and will make special efforts to make these                            Rivers      SS       x                        x
available to PLWHA and OVC. Better educated
citizens will have better access to information on                  The population of these states in 2003 is close
which to base decisions about their sexual                          to 45 million people, approximately one-third of
behavior, and be more empowered to demand                           Nigeria’s total estimated population of 135
the use of preventive measures. The use of                          million.   At least 55 percent of the target
other social sector services, such as barrier                       population, or close to 25 million men, women,
methods of family planning, also helps people                       and children, live in poverty on less than $1 per
reduce their risk of infection.                                     day, against a national poverty rate of 70
                                                                    percent.    While the population of Lagos and
G. Geographic Focus                                                 Anambra is largely urban, the other states are
                                                                    about 75 percent rural. Overall adult literacy is
In the Concept Paper, USAID/Nigeria made a                          estimated at 70 percent for men and 49 percent
commitment to work in all six geopolitical zones                    for women.       Sentinel surveillance data puts
of Nigeria, with the caveat that not all programs                   overall adult HIV seroprevalence in the target
would be implemented in all zones.               A                  states at around 6 percent, varying from a low
programmatic presence in all six geopolitical                       of 3.3 percent in Abia to a high of 10.2 percent in
zones is a political imperative in Nigeria. It is                   Abuja; in the aggregate, these states bear about
almost impossible to overstate the importance of                    32 percent of the national HIV/AIDS burden.
this issue in the country. State or zone of origin
is a major criterion for selecting Ministerial                      H. Crosscutting and Converging Themes
candidates, for example; and the national youth
employment program is required to create 3,000                      Food Security: Nigeria is a low-income, food
jobs in each state, regardless of population size                   deficit country that spends about 15 percent of
or demand. The sheer immensity of the country                       its export earnings every year on food imports.
and the reduced resource levels for the CSP                         The key contributing factors to food insecurity
have necessitated geographic targeting if results                   are poverty, inappropriate policies, low and
and impact are to be achieved. The Mission                          declining    agricultural   productivity,   conflict,
accordingly developed a set of criteria for the                     HIV/AIDS, and vagaries of climate. Its principal
prioritization of target states.                                    result is a population that is chronically
                                                                    malnourished and cannot develop its full
Box 2: Criteria for Selection of Target States                      potential. All of these contributing factors are
                                                                    long term and chronic, with the exception of the
     •   Critical need
     •   Build on transition program                                weather and localized conflict, and must be
     •   Size of population                                         addressed using a development approach rather
     •   Potential to achieve results and impact                    than short term relief.           SO11’s conflict
     •   USAID comparative advantage                                management activities will help defuse crises
     •   Opportunity for scaling up and sustainability              and abate acute food insecurity, while its work to
     •   Public-private partnerships
                                                                    increase accountability and give a voice to civil
     •   Other donor presence
     •   Synergy with other USAID/USG programs                      society, including the poor, will in the long term
                                                                    enhance food security through policy reform.
Application of these         criteria   identified       the        SO12 will tackle the problem both on the farm,
following target states:                                            through its efforts to increase the productivity of
                                                                    key commodities, and at the center, by creating
                                                                    a more favorable policy environment for the
                                                                    agricultural    sector     and     for    economic


                                                               18
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


management. SO13 has already succeeded in                   relations that make it difficult for them to
focusing attention on nutrition and its role in             negotiate safe sex. Thus far Nigeria has not
child survival and will continue to promote                 mounted an effective response to any of these
behaviors, such as exclusive breastfeeding, that            issues and has been identified as a “next wave”
can mitigate the impact of food insecurity on the           country, facing a massive increase in numbers
most vulnerable. Particularly in its programs for           infected. To forestall this, prevention, treatment,
PLWHA and OVC, SO14 will ensure access to                   care and support interventions must be scaled
nutrition information and counseling and income             up and delivered through multiple channels: the
generating opportunities to boost household                 workplace, the school, the community, the
income and food supply.                                     government, the private sector, and faith based
                                                            organizations. SO11 is positioned to address
Conflict: Conflict in Nigeria is localized and has          advocacy, human rights, and empowerment
multiple causes. Its disruptive effects threaten            issues through its civil society and legislative
food security and income generation, lead to the            work, and also integrate HIV/AIDS messages
destruction of property and loss of life, interfere         into its conflict activities. Increased agricultural
with or prevent the use of health and educational           productivity,     employment      generation    and
services, foster the transmission of HIV/AIDS,              microenterprise development supported by
and have disproportionate negative impact on                SO12 all hold potential benefits for PLWHA and
women and their c    hildren. Conflict also affects         others affected by AIDS.             SO13 already
the implementation of development assistance                supports      condom       social  marketing,    STI
programs.       While none of USAID/Nigeria’s               prevention, prevention of mother to child
ongoing      programs      has    been     seriously        transmission (PMTCT) and antenatal care, and
compromised by conflict episodes, the threat of             there is potential to mobilize PTAs and
conflict is very real throughout the country and            communities to address the needs of OVC.
must be taken into account, and addressed, in               SO14 will provide technical leadership and,
all USAID activities. SO11 will work with civil             potentially, resources to these efforts.
society groups, in particular youth, private
sector, and multi-ethnic and/or multi-regional              Gender:        In comparison to their male
associations, in conflict management initiatives.           counterparts,       Nigerian       women         are
The National Assembly, ultimately responsible               disadvantaged in access to justice and political
for designing policy responses to many of the               participation, their economic roles and control
underlying problems that drive conflict, will also          over resources, their levels of education and
be a key partner.        Competition over natural           access to health care, and their ability to protect
resources is at the heart of many recent                    themselves against HIV/AIDS.          Given these
episodes of conflict in Nigeria, and SO12 will              inequities, there is a clear imperative for the
seek to diversify economic opportunities in areas           USAID/Nigeria program to pay close attention to
where resource competition drives violence.                 gender and to ensure that it is appropriately
SO12 will also look for opportunities to target             addressed throughout the portfolio.             The
microenterprise programs to groups at high risk             Mission’s democracy and governance program
of violence. SOs 13 and 14 can also engage at-              has maintained a strong focus on women’s
risk youth through health and education                     political empowerment even prior to the
activities, or build wider “tolerance” messages             democratic transition and will increasingly
into BCC programs addressing stigma. For all                engage with NGOs working on gender issues in
SOs, associations and activities that “bridge”              the civil society program. SO11 recognizes that
divided groups will be an important vehicle for             women are particularly vulnerable in conflict
conflict management.                                        settings, and will build the capacity of partners to
                                                            address their needs. Given the key role of
HIV/AIDS: HIV/AIDS is a multisectoral problem.              women in agriculture in Nigeria, especially in the
In high prevalence countries it has negative                south, SO12 is well-placed to assist women to
impacts on agricultural production, the skilled             benefit from productivity gains and improved
workforce, and the health care delivery system.             technologies, and also to ease their access to
It is exacerbated by conflict and infringes on              credit. SO13 is devoting particular attention to
human rights and dignity. Women are more                    improving girls’ persistence and performance in
seriously affected than men both in the                     primary school through both teacher training and
proportion infected, their roles as caregivers to           community participation.       Reducing maternal
PLWHA and orphans, and unequal power                        and child morbidity and mortality require


                                                       19
                          USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


addressing the needs and concerns of both men                Transparency International rates Nigeria as the
and women with gender-appropriate methods                    second most corrupt country in the world out of
and messages, also under the mandate of                      102 countries evaluated, exceeded only by
SO13. SO14’s BCC campaigns will recognize                    Bangladesh. The high rate of corruption has
the differing knowledge levels, informational                direct impact on activities implemented under all
needs, and means of access to information of                 of the SOs because it increases the costs of
men and women, and design focused programs                   doing business, prevents direct support to the
responsive to those differences.                             GON, and slows the pace of implementation as
                                                             partners must be carefully vetted, and because
Environment: All Nigerians must grapple with                 rent-seeking impedes the release of imported
one or more of the three key threats to the                  commodities from customs. Each SO must
environment in their country: unsustainable use              address transparency on two levels: as it affects
of    natural     resources,     unplanned     urban         program implementation, and as a core
development,         and     petroleum       industry        development issue.        SO11 and SO12 are
operations. The first of these threats has grave             collaborating in the execution of an anti-
implications for agricultural productivity, food             corruption program that builds the capacity of
security and nutrition, and the availability of              civil society organizations to dialogue with and
potable water and wood fuel. The rapid pace at               lobby the National Assembly to pass freedom of
which urbanization is taking place in a totally              information and other landmark legislation, and
unregulated way is already posing huge                       with key government institutions that have
problems of sanitation and waste disposal, and               demonstrated some degree of transparency in
flooding the cities with unemployed and                      their operations as replicable models. Under the
unemployable youth who can readily be                        CSP the other SOs will also support these
manipulated into violence and conflict. The oil              initiatives and will additionally work at
companies, especially in the Delta, have also                community level to generate increased demand
created an environment favorable to conflict, in             for accountable government functions.
addition to damaging the environment generally
and individual livelihoods particularly through              I. Program Integration
gas flaring, oil spills, pipeline construction and
saltwater infiltration. Each SO will deal with               USAID/Nigeria’s program goal and proposed
some element of these issues. SO11 will build                strategic objectives reflect and support wider
the capacity of environmentally-conscious NGOs               USG interests in Nigeria, as laid out in the
to engage with the government, and will also                 Mission Performance Plan (MPP) 2005. USAID
target the legislatures and mediate resource-                contributes     significantly      to  three    MPP
based conflicts.       A key focus of SO12 is                Performance Goals:
sustainable agriculture that boosts productivity                  • Greater consolidation of democracy and
without encroaching further on the remaining                          opening     of     political  space,     with
forested land. SO12 may also promote the use                          emphasis on strengthening civil society,
of     energy-conserving       technologies,     and                  mitigating      internal     conflict     and
generate alternative economic opportunities in                        increasing government accountability
areas      adjacent      to     natural    reserves.                  (SO11, SO12).
Environmentally-friendly messages can be part                     • Nigeria develops a growing economy,
of the primary school curriculum under SO13.                          open markets and a positive business
Since diarrheal disease, a leading cause of child                     climate that enhances the quality of life
morbidity and mortality, is often a product of                        for Nigerians, with a focus on
inadequate or contaminated water supplies,                            improvements in health and education
SO13 also has a role in promoting rational use                        (SO12, SO13, SO14)
of water resources and improved sanitation,                       • Improve ECOWAS’ ability to monitor
particularly adjacent to schools. Especially in                       and coordinate sub-regional responses
urban areas, appropriate disposal of biomedical                       to    new      and      ongoing     conflicts.
waste is an environmental issue that SO14                             Cooperate bilaterally so that Nigeria
could address.                                                        provides the necessary leadership to
                                                                      prevent and resolve conflict in West
Transparency: Nigeria is notorious for the levels                     Africa and to support conflict resolution
of corruption and the lack of transparency that                       elsewhere on the continent (SO11).
attend    the   conduct    of    daily    affairs.


                                                        20
                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


The USG community in Nigeria is significant and                  Ondo State to strengthen producer
includes representation from a number of                         associations and quality control.
Cabinet     Departments,   including   Treasury,
Agriculture, Commerce and Defense. USAID                     •   Global Technology Network (GTN),
has worked closely with the Agricultural Attaché                 supporting    partnerships between
on commodity import and other issues, and has                    Nigerian entrepreneurs and U. S.
supported Treasury’s work in debt management                     exporters.
through an Interagency Agreement (IAA). IAAs
with    the   Departments    of    Energy    and         Activities funded by other USAID/Washington
Transportation    were    the     implementation         operating units include:
mechanism for the Special Objective under the
Transition Strategy. The USAID Mission is co-                •   Global Development Alliance (GDA):
located with the Nigeria country office of the                   support to the Academy for Educational
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and                   Development         youth        workforce
under the CSP the two Agencies will be jointly                   development activity in the Delta.
implementing a PMTCT program at four
“Centers of Excellence” affiliated to University             •   Leland Initiative, AFR/SD: Capacity
teaching hospitals.                                              building for Nigerian Communications
                                                                 Commission (NCC).
A number of activities directly funded through
USAID/Washington mechanisms are also being                   •   Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance
implemented in Nigeria. The Economic Growth,                     (OFDA):    International Foundation for
Agriculture and Trade Pillar Bureau supports a                   Education and Self Help (IFESH),
diverse portfolio, including:                                    material   assistance      to   internally-
                                                                 displaced conflict victims in Warri, Delta
   •   Association Liaison Office for University                 State.
       Cooperation in Development (ALO) and
       the United Negro College Fund Special                 •   Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian
       Programs (UNCFSP) partnering with U.                      Assistance (DCHA): support to the
       S. and Nigerian universities in meat                      Institute    of   Human   Rights    and
       processing and poultry-rearing activities.                Humanitarian       Law   for    societal
                                                                 responsibility programs.
   •   Collaborative      Research      Support
       Programs (CRSPs) supporting research              USAID/Nigeria’s program will directly support
       into production and productivity of               and benefit from key Presidential and Agency
       sorghum, millet and cowpea, again                 Initiatives, as summarized below.
       through university partnerships.
                                                         Africa Education Initiative: Quality and equity
   •   USAID-World Bank Crisis Mitigation                are core problems in the basic education sector
       Grant, for improvements in maize                  in Nigeria. This initiative will address quality
       production and trade in partnership with          issues in basic education by supporting
       IITA and the West African Maize                   improved pre-service and in-service teacher
       Network.                                          training. The initiative also focuses on Islamic
                                                         education and equitable access. USAID/Nigeria
   •   Dairy      Directive     funds for   the          has already undertaken the implementation of
       International       Livestock  Research           activities under this initiative in its basic
       Institute’s peri-urban dairy development          education program.
       project.
                                                         Trafficking in Persons Initiative:    Nigeria has
   •   Microfinance funding for the Grameen              more victims of trafficking than any other African
       Foundation and Lift Above Poverty                 country. Over 300,000 women are known to
       Organization for accessible financial             have been trafficked to Europe and the Middle
       services.                                         East for sexual purposes, and trafficking in child
                                                         labor is also a serious and growing problem.
   •   Sustainable  Tree   Crops   Program               The Mission is working with a coalition of
       (STCP) working with cocoa farmers in              partners in both public and private sectors to


                                                    21
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


increase a  wareness and to rehabilitate victims of         participation and capacity-building models,
trafficking and equip them for alternative                  engaging with church groups, parent-teacher
livelihoods.                                                associations,         and        community-based
                                                            organizations (CBOs). Large faith-based groups
Anti-Corruption Initiative: Corruption is deeply            such as the Church of Christ in Nigeria (COCIN),
entrenched at all levels of Nigerian life and               the Catholic Church, and the Supreme Council
constitutes a major disincentive to investment in           for Islamic Affairs are on-going partners in
the country and consequently to economic                    reproductive health, child survival, and HIV/AIDS
growth and equity. USAID has developed an                   programming. Opportunities will be sought to
anti-corruption strategy targeted at key reform             engage with FBOs and community organizations
institutions in the government and building the             across all strategic objectives.
capacity of civil society to hold these institutions
accountable, thereby addressing the goals of                Regional partners: Regional USG partners a        lso
this initiative.                                            work closely with the Mission and support the
                                                            achievement of our objectives. USAID’s West
Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief                 Africa Regional Program (WARP) supports the
(PEPFAR), including the Mother and Child HIV                West African Trade Hub and implements
Prevention Initiative: The President’s Initiative           regional      SOs    in   economic       integration,
targets 14 countries, 12 of them in Africa. Four            reproductive health/ nutrition/ child survival, food
million Nigerians are already infected with the             security     and    environment,      and    conflict
virus and on the continent Nigeria is second only           prevention. WARP staff have worked closely
to South Africa in the number of its people                 with USAID/Nigeria to develop the CSP and
directly touched by the epidemic. Over 110,000              ensure that regional programs and regional
babies are infected with the HIV virus in Nigeria           perspectives are given appropriate attention.
every year due to mother-to-child transmission.             WARP is also designing a regional market
The initiative is intended to prevent 7 million new         information activity that will directly support the
adult infections and reduce mother to child                 Mission’s agriculture program.         WARP also
transmission by 40 percent in the next five                 works on regional energy issues, including
years.       Prevention      of     mother-to-child         facilitation of the West African Power Pool and
transmission (PMTCT) activities will be targeted            Gas Pipeline that will ultimately be of enormous
in four states where, in collaboration with CDC,            benefit to Nigeria.
the Mission is supporting Centers of Excellence
at teaching hospitals. Other components of the              USAID/Nigeria’s CSP also recognizes the need
program will focus on most-at-risk populations in           for close coordination and information sharing
key states in its efforts to slow the rate of               with African originated, owned, and driven
increase of new infections.                                 initiatives.  Nigeria has been central to the
                                                            formation and leadership of two of these
Initiative to End Hunger in Africa: Nigeria was             organizations, the New Partnership for Africa’s
once a leading producer of agricultural                     Development (NEPAD) and the Economic
commodities such as cocoa and palm products,                Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
but has now become a net food importer with a               WARP also works closely with ECOWAS on
largely     food   insecure    and   malnourished           regional     economic     integration,    including
population.      The revitalization of a market-            developing a common tariff structure as well as
oriented Nigerian agriculture is the key to                 a unified monetary s  ystem. Nigeria has made
economic growth and poverty reduction.                      commitments to implement a common external
USAID/Nigeria is developing an action plan                  tariff (CET) for the ECOWAS countries, but has
laying out how its investments in agriculture               not      yet  moved     towards     harmonization.
build on key principles of IEHA and the EGAT                Reduction in high duties imposed by Nigeria
agriculture strategy.                                       (and other countries) for regional goods will
                                                            facilitate regional economic integration and
Faith Based and Community initiatives:        A             expand markets for all ECOWAS countries.
fundamental principle underlying the CSP is                 This is clearly a key element in SO12’s policy
engagement with community structures and                    dialogue with the GON. ECOWAS has also
partnership with faith-based organizations.                 formalized its role in regional conflict resolution
Child survival and basic education activities in                                            E
                                                            through its monitoring group ( COMIG), and is
the transition strategy were built on community             supported under MPP Goal 6 in this capacity.


                                                       22
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


                                                            sector,  and      to    communicate      USAID’s
The      Heads   of   State   and    Government             development strategy for Nigeria.
Implementation Committee of NEPAD met in
Abuja on May 28, 2003, under the chairmanship               As a result of the Mission’s efforts to engage the
of Nigeria’s President Olusegun Obasanjo. The               private sector and other partners, including other
committee has given high priority to agriculture            donors, a number of strategic areas have been
and infrastructure and has moved forward with               identified that reflect a convergence of the
establishing a panel of Eminent Persons to                  Mission’s objectives and the private sector’
implement the African Peer Review Mechanism,                priorities. These include:
a tool for promoting transparency and
accountability in public decision making and                    •    Economic      growth   and      income
resource allocation in member states. These                          generation;
priorities are reflected in the USAID/Nigeria                   •    Community       and   social     sector
CSP, particularly the strong emphasis on                             development;
agriculture as a mover of economic growth, and                  •    Conflict management and prevention.
the recognition of the need for accountability.
USAID/Nigeria has already used the Eminent                  The Mission plans to solicit a variety of public-
Persons panel concept in its governance                     private and other partnerships, including
program and will continue to work in this area in           foundations, donors, and the government of
the new strategy.                                           Nigeria, through procurement mechanisms that
                                                            will encourage offerors to think innovatively and
J. Global Development Alliances and Other                   creatively about ways to leverage significant
Partnerships                                                non-USG resources in their proposals to
                                                            USAID/Nigeria. While it may not be possible to
 From the start of the Mission’s process to                 apply this approach to all activities to be funded
develop the new CSP, private-sector partnership             by the Mission, it is preferred whenever and
has been recognized as a critical element in                wherever possible. Public-private alliances and
achieving USAID’s objectives in Nigeria. While              other partnerships are expected to bring
USAID/Nigeria     has    enjoyed     considerable           together coalitions of organizations and
collaboration with and support from the private             individuals who will jointly define a problem,
sector under the current Transition Strategy, the           situation, and solution, thereby capitalizing on
Mission expects to significantly expand the size            the combined knowledge, skills and expertise of
and scope of these partnerships under the new               all partners.
strategy.
                                                            Over the past two years the Mission has
Recognizing that the private sector in Nigeria              leveraged over $18 million through a variety of
has both the resources and the incentive to                 partnership models to complement its own
provide considerable support for sustainable                resources. In September 2003, USAID and the
development in Nigeria, USAID/Nigeria has                   Shell    Petroleum   Development       Corporation
made engagement with the private sector a                   (SPDDC) signed a $20 million memorandum of
priority throughout the Mission. Further, unlike            understanding (MOU) – the largest USAID
many other developing countries, Nigeria does               partnership to date -- to develop projects in the
have significant resources of its own, which, if            Niger Delta, particularly in the areas of
used more productively, can do much to improve              agriculture, malaria prevention and enterprise
the lives of its citizens. E  nhancing the GON’s            development. The first project to be funded
capacity to make sound resource investment                  under this MOU is the Cassava Enterprise
decisions is a key element of the partnership.              Development Project (CEDP). In addition to the
Starting from the initial consultations held for the        Mission’s $1.2 million investment in CEDP for
CSP, the private sector, and other potential                2003, Shell will contribute another $3 million
partners, have been included throughout                     directly to the program.        The USAID-Shell
strategy development as key stakeholders in                 partnership     also  supports     the    Nigerian
Nigeria. Engagement with the private sector has             Presidential Cassava Initiative, under which the
helped the Mission to understand development                Federal Government, State governments, and
issues from the business perspective, to identify           the Niger Delta Development Corporation will
those objectives that are a priority for the private        contribute a combined $17.1 million.          The
                                                            program will be focused in eight states of South


                                                       23
                          USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


East and South South Nigeria and address three                Box 3: Illustrative Scenario Indicators
critical issues: (1) responding to the Cassava                             Illustrative Scenario Indicators
Mosaic Disease; (2) increasing cassava
                                                                       •    HIV/AIDS pandemic
productivity; and (3) developing and expanding                         •    Regional conflict
post-harvest options for cassava.                                      •    Internal conflict
                                                                       •    Poverty
Major manufacturing enterprises, including Coca                        •    Economic inequality
Cola and Guinness, have already contributed to                         •    Poor governance
                                                                       •    Unemployment
USAID activities, in addition to the partnership                       •    Urban unrest
with Shell. The Mission has sustained an on-                           •    Political assassinations
going dialogue with the major oil companies,                           •    Increasing visibility of the military
and provided them with technical assistance to
design corporate social responsibility programs.
Partnerships in the Niger Delta to combat                     Renewal from the Roots:          This democratic
HIV/AIDS, mitigate conflict, provide microfinance             consolidation scenario is modeled on successful
services, and contribute to environmental                     elections    and     continued      progress    in
sustainability are under development.                         strengthening democratic institutions, economic
                                                              performance, and service delivery. Promising
A more expanded description of current                        signs that this scenario may hold include the
USAD/Nigeria “Partnerships with the Private                   government’s     declared    intention    to  use
Sector” and the Mission’s vision of “The Way                  resources generated by the petrol price increase
Forward” for such partnerships can be found in                to fund the social sectors, and the nomination of
Annex 5.                                                      a stellar economic management team.           The
                                                              strategy was designed on the basis of this
K. Scenario Planning                                          scenario. Full implementation of this scenario
                                                              requires minimal resources of $70 million per
Given the political and economic uncertainty that             year, a base of $65 million plus additional funds
characterize Nigeria, high levels of conflict and             from Presidential and Agency Initiatives and
violent crime, and the pending elections in 2003,             Economic Support Funds. This is the scenario
USAID/Nigeria      proposed      three    illustrative        the Mission will use as its basis for program and
program scenarios in the concept paper. These                 budget planning.
scenarios were approved at the parameters
meeting, and the Mission was requested to                     Crippled Giant: This scenario is modeled on
elaborate on these scenarios in the CSP. Even                 continuing transition and political uncertainty.
though     the    elections    have     now      been         Even though the 2003 elections provided a
successfully concluded, with the population                   result that has the general acceptance of the
generally accepting the outcome, Nigeria                      public, any one or a combination of indicators
remains a volatile country and the status quo                 could make it increasingly difficult for the new
can change at any time. The general strike                    regime to govern. A case in point is the petrol
called by the Nigerian Labour Congress in July                price strike in July 2003, which essentially
2003 in protest over increased petrol prices, the             brought the country to a standstill for a week and
recurring violence in the Delta with the loss of              also resulted in a number of fatalities amongst
over 50 lives in August 2003 alone, and failed                the protesters. The impact of the strike was felt
states in the wider West African region are                   hardest in the urban areas and the cities remain
reminders that stability in Nigeria cannot be                 flashpoints for mass protest. Unresolved violent
taken for granted. Over the longer term, as the               conflict, particularly in the Niger Delta states, is
HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to take its toll                  another reminder of the fragility of the civilian
largely unchecked, the delivery of essential                  regime. If disruptive protests or conflicts recur
services will be weakened and direct impact on                and escalate to a level that impedes program
agricultural and industrial productivity will be felt,        implementation, the Mission will respond by
adding to the climate for unrest. The Mission                 redirecting resources to unaffected target areas
has accordingly retained and elaborated the                   and scaling up engagement with civil society,
“Renewal from the Roots”, “Crippled Giant”, and               including national NGOs, community-based
“Things Fall Apart” scenarios presented in the                organizations, think tanks, and political parties.
Concept Paper.                                                We would also continue to emphasize
                                                              transparency and accountability in governance,


                                                         24
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


sound economic management, and improved
service delivery in our dialogue with the GON.
Flexibility and responsiveness will be crucial to
adjust to what might well be rapidly-changing
circumstances. The Mission’s planning for this
scenario is based on a program resource level
of $65 million per year. Under this scenario
SOs11-13 will not receive “plus-up” Initiative
resources. Funding for SO14 is not affected and
remains at the high level in all three scenarios.

Things Fall Apart:       Nigeria’s political history
since Independence demonstrates that a
democratic collapse scenario, a total breakdown
of law and order leading to ouster of the
democratically-elected government, has the
potential to occur. Any of the potential indicators
of scenario change, singly or in combination,
could precipitate such a collapse. In such a
case the Mission would of necessity dramatically
scale back its engagement with government and
revert to a civil society based program such as
prevailed prior to 1999, although at a
substantially higher resource level of $50 million
per year.     Since situations characterized by
disorder and violence have grave implications
for HIV/AIDS transmission, it would be
imperative     to    continue     the     aggressive
implementation of prevention, treatment, care
and support interventions at the planned $30
million+ annual level. In addition to HIV/AIDS,
focus areas for a crisis program would include
continued dialogue on key issues of democracy,
representation and transparency with civil
society partners and the GON, work to combat
infectious diseases, community-level agricultural
productivity    and      enterprise    development
activities, and humanitarian assistance if the
situation deteriorates to the point that such
assistance is required.

Building on the “early warning” system that has
been established, the Mission will continue to
monitor events and potential triggers. Conflict
alone – unless occurring on a national scale –
would not be a trigger for moving from one
scenario to another. However, the impact of
conflict on security and the ability to carry out
activities in specific geographic areas would be
a key determinant for adjusting scenarios.




                                                       25
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


V.      SO11: Strengthened Foundations                     by groups and citizens; (3) competition, or an
        for Democratic Governance                          effective balance between the branches and
                                                           levels of government, civil society and electoral
A. Statement of the Strategic Objective                    competitors; (4) adherence to the rule of law;
                                                           and (5) good governance – accountable and
USAID/Nigeria’s democracy, governance and                  effective governance that delivers public
conflict strategic objective is Strengthened               services. USAID’s approach will also strengthen
Foundations for Democratic Governance.                     democratic governance by building the capacity
This strategic objective reflects the continued            of civil society to articulate its priorities and
fragility of democratic institutions in Nigeria.           press for reform.
Just four years have elapsed since the 1999
democratic elections brought a new government              Building on experience gained under the
into office, and both public and private                   Transition Strategy, which took the initial steps
institutions at all levels remain unpractised in           in establishing a foundation for democratic
democratic ways. Nigeria’s prolonged years of              governance, USAID’s primary focus will be to
military rule destroyed democratic institutions            support these key elements, with the exception
and structures and the country must restart the            of rule of law, by enhancing the capacity of civil
process of providing good governance to its                society to play a more active and productive role
growing population.         Government is most             in the democratic and policy reform process,
legitimate when it is infused with democratic              strengthening key democratic institutions such
principles such as transparency, pluralism,                as national and selected state legislatures, and
citizen     involvement     in     decision-making,        mitigating conflict. While elections are critical to
representation, and accountability. It requires            consensus, USAID will not be able to assist in
checks and balances, government oversight,                 the next round of elections to be held in 2007
public participation in the policy process, access         without a substantial allocation of Economic
to government information and an end to                    Support Funds. Achievement of the SO will be
polarizing conflict.    These conditions for good          supported by four Intermediate Results
governance are at a very rudimentary stage in              addressing        civil    society      capacity;
Nigeria’s experience with democracy.                       accountable GON institutions;            credible
                                                           elections (if provided with ESF resources);
USAID/Nigeria’s DG program was initiated in                and conflict mitigation and management.
1998 to assist the process of democratic                   The SO is linked to two Agency goal areas:
transition in Nigeria. Assessments of the DG               Democracy         and     Good        Governance
sector have revealed that USAID’s Transition               Strengthened; and Lives Saved, Suffering
Strategy was too ambitious and did not take into           Reduced, and Conditions for Political and
account the low capacity of democratic                     Economic Development Re-established.
institutions and structures in Nigeria, or the weak
social environment for change.             Although        Support for Democracy: There are encouraging
progress was made under the Mission’s                      signs that this time, democracy is here to stay in
Transition Strategy, significant challenges lie            Nigeria. Although the actual conduct of the
ahead.                                                     2003 elections was flawed, violence was
                                                           minimal and the results have been accepted.
The May 2003 civilian to civilian political                Members of the new Cabinet have been
transition provides an opportunity for USAID’s             appointed on merit and key government
assistance to be particularly effective in Nigeria.        institutions    have     adopted    anti-corruption
In light of a dramatic 86 percent reduction in             policies. Civil society has an increasing voice
democracy and governance resources for the                 and has been brought into the process of
CSP as compared to the transition period,                  developing a poverty reduction strategy.
USAID will target critical institutions deemed             USAID-funded         survey      research      has
fundamental to democracy. USAID’s approach                 demonstrated the persistence of democratic
under the CSP will be to function as a catalyst to         commitment among Nigerians and the public's
strengthen democratic foundations and practices            continued support for a democratic regime.
in Nigeria. The approach will also focus on the
key elements of democratic governance: (1)
consensus, or agreement of the basic rules of
the political game; (2) inclusion, or participation


                                                      26
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


Figure 2: Nigeria’s Confidence in key Public                military and civilian regimes failed to provide key
Institutions 2001 & 2002                                    public functions and services. Poor democratic
                                                            governance is the major problem threatening to
                                                            erode the legitimacy of Nigeria’s government.
       Nigeria's Confidence in key Public                   Endemic corruption, lack of accountability,
             Institutions 2001 & 2002                       ineffectual public agencies, haphazard services,
                                                            and violent conflict converge to undermine
      80                                                    potential progress. Constraints to democratic
                                       Judiciary            governance are discussed below.               These
      70
                                                            constraints are further undermined by historic
      60                                                    ethnic and religious violence and lack of support
      50
                                       INEC &               for basic human rights
                                       Parties
      40                                                    Consensus:      Although there are hopeful signs
      30
                                       National             that the administration is prepared to deal
                                       Assembly             openly and firmly with key governance issues
      20                                                    that face the country, the core problems are
      10                               Patience             sizeable.      The Federal structure of the
                                       with                 government, which centralizes and redistributes
       0                               Democracy            resources, make the possession of political
             2001        2002                               power extremely lucrative, and the competition
                                                            for political positions intense. Aging political
                                                            elites are still firmly entrenched in both
                                                            traditional and modern political structures,
Although data from the Afrobarometer and                    excluding large numbers of citizens from
Nigerbus surveys show that there is a downward              meaningful political or even public participation.
trend, there is still firm support for democracy as         Women, young people, and the poor are
                                   49
a system of government.                   Nigerians’        particularly disadvantaged in their capacity to
confidence in critical institutions has increased           participate in political processes. There is little
over the past year. The percentage of Nigerians             incentive or opportunity for change in the
who trust the courts “a lot” or “quite a lot” went          system, as dominant executive control at the
up from 26 percent in 2001 to 37 percent in                 Federal level “reinforces the power of patronage,
2002, while over the same period confidence in              and hinders the emergence of checks and
                                                                                                               51
political parties and the Independent National              balances on the power of central leaders.”
Electoral Commission increased from 21 percent              The situation is replicated at State level, with the
to 29 percent. A comparable increase in trust               Governors controlling the allocation of resources
has also been documented for the National                   and privilege. Although 30 political parties are
Assembly (21 percent in 2001, 27 percent in                 now registered and participated in the elections,
       50
2002).         While Nigerians acknowledge that             only five gained any seats in the National
they have a troubled political system, they                 Assembly and the body remains dominated by
continue to value the ideals of a democratic                just two parties. Many of the parties represent
government. This is a noteworthy source of                  local rather than national agendas and rely
strength for creating demand for reform in the              extensively on the cult of personality to attract
coming years.                                               support.     The parties need strengthening in
                                                            order to open up meaningful political space and
B. Statement of the Development Problem                     enlarge the arena of competition. They also
                                                            need to do more to foster the inclusion and
Although the national elections in April-May                participation of women, youth and minorities in
2003 that culminated in the second successive               political processes.
elected civilian administration were a landmark
in Nigerian politics, the country remains in a              Although the 2003 elections took place without
state of transition. When the democratically-               the widespread violence that had been predicted
elected government first came into power in                 and feared by many, they were marred by
1999, it inherited a challenging political legacy.          procedural flaws, voting irregularities, voter
                                                                                     52
Predecessor         regimes       institutionalized         intimidation, and fraud.    In the eyes of many
substantial shortcomings in governance. Both                Nigerians, these irregularities compromised the


                                                       27
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


integrity of the electoral process.       Despite          communalism, widespread use of patronage
approximately 70 percent turnover of elected               politics, corruption from top to bottom, and
officials in the new legislatures at both national         factional disputes among key personalities and
and state levels, an op-ed piece in the Nigerian           their allies.
Daily Times begins, “Everything has changed,
                             53
yet nothing has changed.”       Nonetheless there          Law-making bodies at both State and national
are positive signs in that defeated candidates             levels are unclear on their mandates and do not
and their supporters have chosen to resolve                function to effectively regulate or balance the
their disputes in the courts, rather than by               powers of the executive.          Although showing
resorting to violence, and that the mass of                incipient signs of independence, the majority of
Nigerians has accepted the election results and            legislators are new to the job and have no
appears to be prepared to work with, rather than           previous       experience      representing     their
against, the new government.                               constituencies,      shaping      policy,    drafting
                                                           legislation,    or     exercising     oversight     of
Inclusion:        Civil society in Nigeria was             government functions.         The majority of the
repressed under decades of military dictatorship,          incumbents elected to the National Assembly
but the improvement in the climate for human               (NA) in 1999 were not re-elected, many o them f
rights and freedom of association during the               having been eliminated from contention during
democratic transition has contributed to the               the party primaries, and the skills that they might
emergence of active civil society organizations            have gained during their four years in office are
over the past several years. While there is no             lost to the body. Of the NA’s 469 members only
comprehensive catalog of CSOs in Nigeria,                  22 are women, fewer than six percent of the
thousands are legally registered and many more             total. Special attention must be given to building
exist without having gone through the formality            the capacity of these women legislators to
of registration. A vibrant and active civil society        represent a broad platform of gender-sensitive
is a fundamental component of a democratic                 interests in the legislature.
system, articulating society’s demand for
change, reform and accountability and acting as            Competition over resources is a signal problem
a watchdog over governmental institutions and              in Nigeria which leads to sporadic conflict. A
actions. The general strike in July 2003 called            Strategic Conflict Assessment commissioned by
by the Nigerian Labor Congress to protest an 80            the donor community and conducted by the
percent increase in the retail price of petrol was         Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution
effective    in  forcing   the    government     to        (IPCR) analyzed the causes of conflict in each of
compromise. CSOs are a crucial component of                the six geopolitical zones and identified multiple
a democratic society, but these organizations              conflict “triggers”, including competition over
remain very weak in Nigeria. Extensive efforts             scarce or contested resources, unemployment
in capacity enhancement at all levels are                  and poverty, ethnic, religious, and/or regional
required to build key advocacy and oversight               differences, human rights abuses, and elections,
skills so that civil society can engage                    boundary      disputes,    creation    of   Local
meaningfully with the government and bring                 Government, migration, internal displacement,
about desired reforms.                                     and changes introduced by development
                                                                     54
                                                           projects.     The ongoing eruptions of violence
Competition:       Most of the democratic                  also reflect stubborn problems of identity and
government’s early initiatives in the 1999-2003            national unity, as Nigerians seek a common
period stalled as a result of legislative                  ground for governance and social accord. These
opposition, competition and contention from                problems of identity and accommodation are key
various interest groups, and lack of sustained             to understanding how violence can be triggered.
attention from the administration. Problems of             Over the past three years, an estimated 10,000
representation and accountability emerged as               people have died in at least 50 incidents of
the    National   Assembly      appeared       more        violence around the country. The prevalence of
interested in perquisites of office and infighting         conflict and its devastating social and economic
than in addressing important public concerns,              consequences require a proactive response.
while the executive appeared to many as aloof,             Many of the long-term causes of violence –
arrogant, and ineffectual. Many of the least               economic stagnation and decline, competition
desirable characteristics of civilian politics were        over natural resources, inequitable access to
on display, including crude appeals to                     social services, lack of transparency and


                                                      28
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


accountability – are already key concerns of the           calls for harsh punishment for offenders. The
development community and the Nigerian                     Government also created an inter-agency
government.                                                committee to coordinate federal assistance to
                                                           victims repatriated to Nigeria. Crucial next steps
Rule of Law: A major challenge facing Nigeria’s            are    the    identification  of  socio-economic
civilian government is how to reshape or replace           alternatives to trafficking both for trafficked
the former lawless autocracy, with a regime of                        nd
                                                           persons a those who exploit them, and public
law. The issue of constitutional change lies at            awareness campaigns to alert potential victims
the heart of this matter.        It is generally           and their family members to the problem and
recognized that the 1999 constitution formulated           alternatives to trafficking.
by the military forms a questionable basis for
establishing a regime where government                     Good Governance: Corruption and illicit rent-
operates within the rule of law. Outstanding               seeking are deeply entrenched in Nigeria, the
issues include separation of powers and                    product of weaknesses in the political system
jurisdiction between and among the tiers of                and patterns of political culture that developed
government, the adoption of uniform civil and              over a century of colonialism and subsequent
criminal     codes,   electoral   law,   citizens’         decades of military rule. A recent analysis of the
fundamental rights, and revenue allocation. The            corruption problem concluded that “…reducing
issue of a parallel system of Shari’a law,                 corruption to manageable levels will take many
however, is among the greatest challenges for              years of dramatic change and inspired
                                                                         56
legal development and reform.                              leadership.”         Since 1998, Nigeria has not
                                                           gained ground in its standing in Transparency
Nigeria has one of the largest Muslim                      International's Corruption Perceptions Index,
populations in the world, estimated at 65-70               being consistently ranked as the second most
million, concentrated in the north of the country.         corrupt country out of 102 surveyed, surpassed
                                                                                   57
In October 1999, the Northern Nigerian state of            only by Bangladesh.          A USAID-funded public
Zamfara introduced Muslim religious or Shari’a             opinion survey on corruption found that 84
law and began developing structures to                     percent of citizens and 70 percent of private
implement Shari’a statutes.          Eleven other          sector interests polled had paid “irregular
northern states soon followed suit. The Shari’a            gratification to public officials to obtain
                                                                      58
courts that have been established in the north             services”.      Only unemployment is perceived by
impose       strict    punishments,       including        citizens as a more significant threat to the
amputations and death by stoning for                       country’s stability and future progress than
transgressions such as theft and adultery.                 endemic corruption. During his first term in
Human rights groups have complained that such              office President Obasanjo took the initial steps in
religious laws are archaic and unjust, and create          fighting     corruption    by     establishing   the
an     atmosphere     of    intimidation    against        Independent Corrupt Practices Commission
Christians, even though Christians are not                 (ICPC) and his vision and support have been
subject to Shari’a.      Following protests from           crucial. During his second-term inaugural
around the world, sentences of death by stoning            address, President Obasanjo indicated that anti-
have not been carried out, but the possibility             corruption will be a leading priority, starting with
remains.     Tension between Shari’a and civil             civil servi ce reform and a “Publish What You
courts will remain a major challenge for Nigeria           Pay” initiative for the oil industry. As he grows
for some time to come.                                     increasingly concerned with his “legacy” in
                                                           office, he will doubtless be looking to entrench
Nigeria is one of eight West African countries             his anti-corruption initiatives in the system, and
that fail to meet minimum standards to combat              may well be supportive of a     ctivities to augment
trafficking under the USG Victims of Trafficking           those gains. His influence may also help open
and Violence Protection Act of 2000. Trafficking           the National Assembly to additional anti-
in persons has become a serious human rights               corruption legislation, such as the Freedom of
violation in Nigeria, with an estimated 500,000            Information Act and the Whistleblower Bill.
women trafficked to Europe as sex workers over
                       55
the past five years.          To address non-
compliance, in 2003, President Obasanjo signed
the “National Trafficking in Persons Law
Enforcement and Administration Act”, which


                                                      29
                          USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


                                                             Conflict: Over the past four years USAID/Nigeria
                                                             has invested approximately $3.2 million in
C. USAID Achievements and Comparative                        conflict management and mitigation activities.
Advantage                                                    The Mission has supported post-conflict
                                                             reconciliation activities, election monitoring
USAID/Nigeria’s democracy and governance                     training with a special focus on election-related
strategic objective in the 1999-2003 Transition              violence, and conflict early warning. Training
Strategy was “Transition to Democratic Civilian              and sensitization of community and opinion
Governance Sustained”. The SO set extremely                  leaders, eminent persons groups, youth and
ambitious targets that underestimated the very               other vulnerable groups, and faith-based
low capacity for democratic governance at all                organizations helped to establish the Conflict
levels of Nigerian society that was the product of           Resolution Network (CRESNET) and Inter-Faith
decades of neglect.           The Mission received           Peace Dialogue bringing together Muslims and
significant resources, both DA and ESF, to                   Christians to resolve conflict. The Basketball for
implement a wide range of activities under the               Peace (BB4P) program has targeted violence-
D/G program in order to address a number of                  prone youth and defused electoral and ethnic
interlocking     impediments        to    democratic         violence.
transition in Nigeria.       Despite the challenging
environment, important progress has been made                Elections: Free and fair elections are the core of
in     several    institutional  arenas     including        political competition.          USAID’s technical
legislatures, electoral administration, and the              assistance to improve Nigeria’s electoral
judiciary.     Non-governmental         organizations        process has focused on strengthening electoral
supported by USAID have played significant                   commissions at all levels, professionalizing
roles in setting legislative agendas, managing               political parties, and training polling agents and
conflicts and exercising oversight of government             election monitors. Technical support to INEC
at all levels.                                               contributed to the eventual passage of the
                                                             Electoral Act 2002 and the development of draft
Political Party Development: Nigeria remains a               guidelines for political party consultation. USAID
divided society highly prone to polarization and             assistance      provided     a    unique    National
political conflict. USAID endeavored to build                Information Center (NIC) to civil society
consensus by encouraging political parties to                organizations for “real time” data transmission
embrace peaceful competition, bargaining and                 from nearly 12,000 domestic monitors, providing
negotiation.      Technical assistance improved              a nationwide snapshot of election trends and
campaign planning, communications, polling,                  also identifying trouble spots. Parties and
resource mobilization and voter outreach and                 political    associations      conducted     credible
permitted two associations to be registered as               campaigns, and two associations supported b         y
parties.    USAID also promoted dialogue on                  USAID were successfully registered as parties.
issues underlying electoral violence and its                 Parties and CSOs worked together to curb
prevention.                                                  electoral violence.

Civil Society: Civil society organizations are               Legislative strengthening: The USAID program
continuing to increase their participation in policy         worked with the National Assembly and selected
dialogue,    government       oversight,     conflict        state assemblies to instill principles of good
mitigation and mobilization. USAID-supported                 governance. Legislators were enabled to draft
CSOs expanded their networks and doubled                     legislation     addressing       key    development
their advocacy outreach as measured by                       priorities, and pass it into law. They were also
number of contacts made. USAID’s support for                 introduced to information technology through a
greater inclusion of women in politics                       USAID-supported computer resource center.
encouraged six parties to exempt women from                  The National Assembly program also afforded
payment of nomination fees. USAID’s work to                  an opportunity to provide HIV/AIDS awareness
enhance legislative advocacy on key women’s                  training to legislators, staff, and constituents.
rights issues has given women legal protection
from expropriation of property and domestic                  Judiciary: Increasing ownership of the judicial
abuse.                                                       reform process in three USAID-assisted courts
                                                             was demonstrated by voluntary cost sharing. In
                                                             Lagos, for example, the court donated space to


                                                        30
                        USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


establish an alternative dispute resolution               Specific       recommendations          from       the
center, and other courts have purchased                   consultations include:
computers and other technology with their own                • Programs must address pre- and post
funds.    More importantly, the Nigerian Bar                       election issues, particularly conflict;
Association has documented improved case                     • Civil society organisations and NGOs
management in the assisted courts, and the                         need capacity strengthening to enable
National Assembly has responded by approving                       them take up proactive oversight roles
increased budget allocations for the judicial                      to address accountability, transparency
sector.                                                            and responsiveness.           Non-traditional
                                                                   partners      such      as     cooperatives,
Over the past four years, USAID/Nigeria has                        professional associations and producer
established itself as the lead donor in the                        organizations will ensure wider reach,
democracy and governance sector and has                            greater       program       impact,      cost
demonstrated its credibility and comparative                       effectiveness     and     sustainability of
advantage in its civil society, National Assembly,                 interventions;
elections and conflict mitigation work. Given                • Greater interaction between public office
dramatically reduced resource levels for the                       holders        and      their     respective
sector under the new strategy, and the need for                    constituencies should be facilitated,
a more focused program, these four elements                        given the high level of ignorance about
will constitute the core of the SO11 strategy.                     the activities of public office holders,
                                                                   particularly the legislature;
D. Consultative Process                                      • Public-private partnerships that bring
                                                                   together the government, civil society,
Key      democracy     and    governance sector                    the organized private sector and NGOs
assessments considered central to helping the                      are essential to achieving results,
Mission to identify issues for the new strategy                    particularly given the declining resource
were commissioned as the first step in the                         envelope.
strategy development process. These include a
nationwide      multi-donor    strategic  conflict        E. Development Hypothesis and Strategic
assessment, a media impact assessment,                    Objective
evaluation of the legislature and election
activities, an anti-corruption assessment, and a          USAID’s experience during the four-year
broad democracy and governance sector                     Transition Strategy, and the results of
assessment. A synopsis of these assessments               assessments and evaluations undertaken by the
was factored into the agenda of meetings with             Mission, provide the basis of the Mission’s
stakeholders. The meetings had representation             strategy to focus on democratic governance.
from multi-national agencies, civil society               The strategy will address four of the five
organization activists, human rights groups, and          elements      of       democratic     governance:
officers of the National Planning Commission              consensus, competition, inclusion, and good
(NPC),       Independent      National   Electoral        governance.      Due to significantly reduced
Commission (INEC), the Institute for Peace and            resources for this strategic objective over the
Conflict Resolution (IPCR), and the private               previous strategy period, the Mission will no
sector.     The SO11 team also had intensive              longer support rule of law activities in Nigeria.
interaction with the Washington-based virtual             The development hypothesis underlying SO11,
team members who provided invaluable insights             Strengthened Foundations for Democratic
and guidance into the strategy process.                   Governance, is that an improved environment
                                                          for democratic governance is critical for
The assessments identified six fundamental                economic growth and development. This can be
issues central to Nigeria’s new democracy:                achieved through a combined catalytic and
social conflict and violence, constitutional              integrated approach to improving civil society
change, elections and accountability, corruption,         advocacy to build constituencies for targeted
civil-military relations and the economy. The             public policy reforms; improving processes for
stakeholder consultations reinforced all issue            policy and legislative reforms within selected
areas identified by the assessments as critical to        government institutions; supporting transparent
democratic progress.                                      and credible elections; and strengthening the
                                                          capacity of both civil society and government for


                                                     31
                          USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


conflict mitigation and management. Continued                World Bank on the Federal Ministry of Finance,
electoral reform is critical and is presented as a           and     considering       USAID’s      comparative
separate intermediate result due to the need for             advantage and experience in supporting
significant levels of Economic Support Funds to              Nigerian civil society groups, civil society will be
achieve results.                                             the primary focus of SO 11 anti-corruption
                                                             assistance.
Civil Society Awareness, Advocacy and
Empowerment: The existence of a lively and                   Accountable Institutions:     The SO11 strategy
active civil society with capacity for increased             also recognizes the importance of working to
participation in the policy making process                   strengthen the capacity of selected governance
through advocacy will contribute to the                      institutions, including key committees of the
democratic process in Nigeria by promoting                   National Assembly, their members and their
good governance, ensuring inclusion for                      permanent staff.      On one hand this will bring
marginalized        groups      and      populations,        about improvements in specific technical areas
particularly women and youth, by fostering                   such as legal drafting, budget preparation and
consensus around commonly-agreed upon                        analysis, and management of relations with civil
societal goals, and by demanding that leaders                society and constituencies.      SO11 will foster
abide by the rule of law. Civil society will work to         dialogue within the legislatures and between
promote greater openness, accountability and                 these institutions and civil society to reform
transparency at all levels of government. That               policies and enact laws addressing key cross
civil society should remain a core emphasis in               cutting issues and specific sectoral concerns
the new strategy is best indicated by lessons                such as HIV/AIDS, Universal Basic Education
learned during the Transition Strategy. Many                 (UBE) and agricultural policies.      Since good
public officials still respond to a set of incentives        governance in Nigeria is also undermined by
that emphasizes patronage and leads to                       rampant corruption, USAID will work with both
corruption and misuse of resources. In order to              civil society and selected government agencies
change these incentives, continued emphasis                  to address corruption, building on achievements
must be placed on improving the ability of the               under the Transition Strategy.         USAID will
public to hold leaders accountable through                   create      linkages   between     civil   society
increased and more effective participation in                organizations and government Institutions such
governance. Over the past four years, the civil              as legislatures, the Auditor General and the
society sector has demonstrated that it has the              Accountant       General   to    foster    greater
potential to serve as an agent of change in                  transparency and accountability.
Nigeria. SO11 will build on this foundation.
Focal areas for civil society engagement may                 Credible Elections:       Holding free, fair and
include key public policies focused on economic              transparent elections is the first step in
governance such as budget policy and process,                establishing democratic governance. Nigeria’s
revenue allocation formulas, social sector                   capacity in this regard has improved only
reform, and anti-corruption, anti-trafficking,               marginally over the past four years and although
women’s empowerment and other critical policy                the results of the 2003 elections were generally
issues.                                                      accepted, the process was seriously flawed. If
                                                             provided with requested ESF resources,
USAID’s previous experience, as well as that                 USAID will employ a two-pronged approach of
gained by the U.S. Embassy under its program                 strengthening the capacity of the Independent
with the Independent Corruption Practices and                National Electoral Commission (INEC) to
Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) and                 manage and administer elections, and civil
that achieved by the Mission under its other anti-           society groups to conduct civic and electoral
corruption initiatives, particularly those carried           education, monitor adherence to election time-
out with the judiciary, will be used to strengthen           table and activities by electoral bodies, advocate
civil society organizations to promote greater               for electoral reforms through appropriate
transparency and accountability in the area of               legislation, and monitor party primaries and
policy reform in targeted institutions. In this              campaigns to ensure fairness. While initial w  ork
regard, USAID will target both the critical points           in this area can be started using funds carried
of progress within the Nigerian government and               over from transition strategy activities, the
the positive efforts emanating from civil society.           Mission has requested substantial ESF
                       fID
Given the focus of D on the ICPC and of the                  resources beginning in FY 2005 (or earlier) to


                                                        32
                          USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


continue these activities and to support free and            acute shortage of rehabilitation and reintegration
fair elections in Nigeria in 2007. With this ESF             options for returning victims of trafficking and at-
funding, the Mission will step up its elections              risk girls, i.e., access to HIV/AIDS education,
assistance program, particularly in the areas of             medical and psychosocial care, and income-
elections administration, voter and civic                    generating and educational opportunities, SO 11
education, international and domestic election               will    work     with  international     and   local
observation, election information management,                organizations to reduce the number of trafficking
support for political parties, and increased                 incidents and provide alternative income-
participation by women.                                      generating opportunities for returned victims and
                                                             at-risk youth.
Conflict Management and Mitigation: Conflict in
Nigeria is symptomatic of a lack of consensus, a             Illustrative Indicators for SO11:
sense of exclusion, and disregard of the rule of
law by both government and private individuals.                  •   Level of public confidence in democracy
The government’s capacity for managing                               and democratic institutions;
conflicts is weak. When conflicts erupt, the                     •   Client satisfaction with selected public
inability of the police to maintain order leads to                   services.
deployment of the military, in its turn often
leading to serious human rights v    iolations. The          F. Critical Assumptions
failure of government to establish basic security
and stability, as well as the increased visibility of            •   2003 elections results continue to be
the military in the management of domestic                           accepted;
conflicts, is a major source of popular                          •   Communal conflict will continue to occur
discontent, and a liability for democratic                           at current levels;
legitimacy.                                                      •   Corruption     will remain      a    core
                                                                     governance issue;
Over the next five years, SO11 will work to                      •   Critical reforms (especially addressing
reduce conflicts in targeted states by increasing                    accountability and participation) will be
the capacity of government institutions, civil                       implemented.
society, political parties, and other stakeholders
to prevent, manage and mitigate the impacts of               G. Intermediate Results
conflict.   SO11 will respond to episodes of
violence by supporting the efforts of community              IR 11.1:      Increased Civic           Awareness,
based organizations to redress grievances,                   Advocacy, and Empowerment
mediate disputes, and restore social harmony.
At the same time, the program will take a more               The strengthening of democracy requires
proactive, peace-building approach that seeks to             greater     demand for consensus building,
develop      cross-cultural    and    inter-religious        inclusion of all groups and good governance by
awareness and sensitivity, through public                    Nigerian citizens.          Increasing capacity and
education       and     participatory    community           effectiveness of civil society to hold public
development projects, including youth-focused                officials    accountable,        to    express   their
activities,    A large population of unemployed              preferences,      engage       in    policy dialogue,
and underemployed young people – an                          influence       public       policies     and    their
estimated 33 million Nigerians are between the               implementations        will     not    only   enhance
                            59
ages of 15 and 29 years -- increases the risk                confidence in democracy but strengthen
of conflict and violence in Nigerian society. In             foundations of democracy. Work in this area will
conjunction with SO12, the SO11 strategy will                build on current support for civil society by
seek ways to increase social participation,                  increasing its involvement in the formulation and
promote responsible citizenship, and provide                 implementation of key policy issues.              The
gainful employment to Nigerian youth as                      Mission’s longstanding focus on women’s
alternatives to violence. As part of the overall             empowerment will foster the substantial
approach to dealing with conflict and violence,              representation of women-focused organizations
the SO11 strategy will also address the situation            in civil society capacity building.
                                         oth
of victims of trafficking in persons, b women
trafficked for sexual purposes and children
abducted or sold into labor. Because there is an


                                                        33
                           USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


Illustrative Indicators:                                          •   Budgetary      allocations    in    targeted
                                                                      sectors.
    •   Civil society input reflected in target
        policies;                                             Illustrative Activities:
    •   Civil society advocacy capacity index;
    •   Number of organizations advancing                         •   Capacity building for select committees;
        human rights issues;                                      •   Training     for   permanent     National
    •   Individuals trained to become self-                           Assembly professional staff;
        reliant.                                                  •   Co-fund policy reform activities with
                                                                      other USAID SO teams;
Illustrative Activities:                                          •   Promote constituency outreach by
                                                                      legislators.
    •   Train        DG,      health,       HIV/AIDS,
        environment, agricultural CSOs              to        IR 11.3:       Enhanced          Credibility      of
        advocate for           policy reform and              Electoral Processes
        accountable governance;
    •   Support institutional capacity building               Elections that are not credible are a source of
        initiatives;                                          conflict which can destabilize the foundations of
    •   Integrate     media      interventions    with        democracy. The 2003 elections were held
        advocacy activities;                                  without the anticipated widespread violence;
    •   Promote       activities     that    empower          however, there were reported cases of electoral
        women;                                                irregularities and procedural flaws.        These
    •   Promote linkages between civil society,               issues if ignored could destabilize the country’s
        legislative, election and anti-corruption             democratic journey, reverse the successes that
        institutions.                                         have been made and undermine the next set of
                                                              elections scheduled for 2007. It is critical that
IR 11.2:        Increased      Accountability      of         civil society be engaged in the processes of
Key Institutions                                              elections and peace building as well as
                                                              addressing the underlying political, social and
Positive disposition of government institutions to            legal challenges to sustained democratic
accountability and increased openness in                      governance, such as constitutional reform,
government transactions is indicative of the                  transparency and accountability which have
improved capacity of democratic institutions.                 implications for credibility of elections. ESF
Broadening         consultations     demonstrates             resources will be required to achieve this
improved institutional capacity.         Increased            intermediate result.
                 ill
accountability w reduce the corruption that has
undermined delivery of public services. As an                 Illustrative Indicators:
entity whose members are elected by the public
to represent their interests, the National                        •   Number and percentage of voters
Assembly is a key focal point for building greater                    correctly registered;
transparency and accountability. In promoting                     •   Number         of     reported       election
accountability, efforts will be made to build more                    irregularities OR number of reported
permanent linkages between the National                               infractions of election regulations.
Assembly and key civil society organizations.
Other anti-corruption “arms” of government such               Illustrative Activities:
as the ICPC and the Budget Monitoring and
Price Intelligence Unit (BMPI) will also be                       •   Post elections assessment - learning
targeted.                                                             lessons (with other donors);
                                                                  •   Electoral law reform;
Illustrative Indicators:                                          •   Basic Electoral Administration Training
                                                                      for SIECS;
    •   Number of corrupt public official                         •   Political   party     capacity building,
        prosecuted;                                                   including women politicians;
    •   Citizen awareness of public officials’                    •   Domestic monitoring training;
        roles and responsibilities;                               •   Technical assistance to INEC.



                                                         34
                           USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


                                                           developed a set of selection criteria to assist it in
IR 11.4:      Strengthened         Capacity     for        the process of defining highest-priority states for
Conflict Management                                        intervention.

Conflict threatens the foundations of democracy.           Box 4: Criteria for Geographical Targeting
Community       based     conflicts    ignited   by
competition over scarce resources, religious                      Critical need
                                                                  Opportunities for synergy with other SOs
differences, ethnic and tribal differences, access                Opportunity to address crosscutting issues
to land and the manner in which people deal                       Presence of other donors
with their differences including establishing                     Ability to build on past investments
militias, independent security forces or vigilante                US national interest
                                                                  Potential to achieve results and impact
groups undermine community cohesiveness and                       Population coverage
freedoms.      Strengthening the capacity of civil                USAID comparative advantage
society and selected government institutions to                   Opportunity for scaling-up and sustainability
manage conflict will help establish a peaceful
environment         to    advance        democratic
governance. One of the weaknesses of current               Using these criteria, Kano, Lagos, Delta, Rivers
efforts is that there are a great number of                and Plateau States will be targeted under the
individuals who facilitate dialogue but there are          SO11 program.       These states have a total
too few organizations.       USAID’s support will          population of more than 30 million, and reflect a
build the capacity of civil society and                    broad cross section of Nigeria’s religious and
government entities to mediate conflict and                ethnic diversity. Investments made under the
institute    conflict  avoidance      and     peace        Transition Strategy provide a foundation for
maintenance mechanisms.                                    achieving higher levels of impact. These states
                                                           are also conflict “hotspots” where engagement
Illustrative Indicators:                                   with youth and civil society has very high
                                                           potential payoffs.
    •   number of assisted CSOs       taking action
        to mitigate conflict;                              I. Cross Cutting and Converging Themes
    •   number of civil society       organizations
        with improved conflict        management           Gender: SO11 made considerable efforts in the
        skills;                                            Transition Strategy to address gender issues,
    •   number      of     conflict   interventions        particularly in the areas of women’s human
        implemented by IPCR.                               rights and participation in socio-economic and
                                                           political activities. In the new strategy, work with
Illustrative Activities:                                   women’s       groups      to   promote    increased
                                                           participation in the electoral process will
    •   Build the capacity of IPCR and CSOs                continue. Networking of women groups will also
        working in conflict management;                    be promoted to facilitate exchange of vital
                                                           information for greater participation in political
    •   Support the initiatives of faith-based
        organizations;                                     process and to help build constituency bases.
                                                           SO 11’s new focus on youth and conflict will
    •   Support youth activities that help to
                                                           primarily target young urban males to increase
        minimize conflict in Northern Nigeria and
                                                           social     participation,    promote    responsible
        the Niger Delta;
                                                           citizenship, and provide gainful employment to
    •   Continue existing conflict management
                                                           Nigerian youth as alternatives to violence.
        activities that address ethnic/religious,
        land tenure, resource allocation conflicts
                                                           Food Security: Sporadic localized conflict in
        under the new strategy.
                                                           Nigeria impacts on food production and other
                                                           activities in the agricultural sector, and also
H. Geographical Focus
                                                           disrupts     non-agricultural  income-generating
                                                           activities that contribute to household food
With an anticipated resource envelope of just
                                                           security. Conflicts have resulted in population
over $3 million per year, even supplemented by
                                                           displacement and rural-urban migration that
Initiative funds, SO11’s program cannot be
                                                           includes fleeing farmers who had to leave their
national in scope.       The team accordingly
                                                           farmlands in search of security in nearby cities.



                                                      35
                        USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


To the extent possible, SO11 will address                 Global Development Alliances and Other
conflict in food-insecure settings. SO 11 will            Partnerships: In March 2003, the Mission began
also support the work of civil society advocacy           a pilot conflict mitigation activity that engaged
organizations that push for transparency and              youth between the ages of 14 and 18 to
accountability as well as economic policy reform.         participate in Basketball for Peace (BB4P)
                                                          tournaments, with support from the U. S.
Conflict: Conflict mitigation and management is           Embassy, Coca Cola, and other private sector
a key intermediate result for SO11. The team              partners. The program was highly successful
has already designed a youth-focused conflict             and in response to popular demand it will be
prevention activity to be implemented in States           expanded to additional states where young
in the Northwest and the Niger Delta with                 people have been instrumental in recent
histories of ongoing conflict involving youth. In         episodes of violent conflict. USAID/Nigeria and
addition, the Mission will link civil society with        the US Embassy are currently in discussion with
government institutions and the private sector to         Shell Oil Company, Nigeria about providing
jointly carry out peace building and conflict             assistance for this project. Senior management
management activi ties in areas where stability           in Shell have expressed interest in collaboration
and security would generate jobs and private              with USAID/Nigeria on this project. The existing
sector investment.                                        collaboration with Coca Cola and other private
                                                          sector partners is expected to continue.
Environment: SO11 will help to build the
capacity of civil society organizations and NGOs          J. Linkages
to improve their advocacy skills to engage the
government for policy reforms that will help to               •   With other SOs in strategy
improve the environment. S    ince many conflicts
stem at least in part from competition over               SO12: SO11 and SO12 will collaborate in the
scarce or contested resources, SO 11 will also            areas of agriculture, environment, conflict, anti-
implement conflict management activities in               corruption, and civil society assistance. SO11’s
target states to mitigate such resource-based             conflict    management       activities  will be
conflicts.                                                implemented jointly with SO12 programs to
                                                          diversify economic opportunity through provision
HIV/AIDS:     SO11 will implement several                 of micro-credit, agriculture and small scale
approaches to mitigating the impact of                    enterprises to help generate jobs for youth.
HIV/AIDS. PLWHA are objects of stigma and                 Programs will aim to reduce the recruitment of
discrimination and civil society dialogue will            youth as vigilantes or militias by providing
address the human rights concerns that affect             economic alternatives.      SO11 and SO 12 will
them. HIV transmission is also exacerbated by             work closely with the private sector and
conflict, so conflict management and prevention           economic associations because they have a
efforts will have an impact on reducing                   vested interest in helping to keep the peace and
transmission.      SO11 will also continue to             are able to bring pressure on local and national
sensitize the National Assembly on the rights of          government officials in a different manner than
PLWHA and the long term impact of the                     traditional peace-building NGOs.
epidemic.
                                                          SO13 and 14: SO 11 will work with the social
Transparency: SO 11 will work with target civil           services (SO 13) and HIV/AIDS (SO 14) teams
society groups and organizations such as the                                             se
                                                          to identify opportunities to u their health and
Independent Corrupt Practices Commission, the             education activities as entry points for dialogue
Independent Nigerian Elections Commission,                in areas experiencing violence.             Health
political parties, trade unions, and professional         interventions, such as national immunization
organizations      to    promote     transparency,        days (NIDs) have been undertaken successfully
accountability and openness. SO 11 will support           in conflict-prone societies and have even served
activities that will increase the capacity of             to open avenues for peacebuilding. As with
government and civil society in areas such as             economic growth activities, efforts will be made
budget      preparations,     procurement,    and         to develop ways to engage at-risk youths in
operational procedures.                                   health and education promotion activities as well
                                                          as conflict mitigation. Recognizing that conflict
                                                          situations    increase    vulnerability  to   HIV


                                                     36
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


transmission, SO11 and SO14 will develop joint              Donor coordination: Funding for programs in the
programs to increase awareness of risk and                  Democracy and Governance sector comes from
empower young people, particularly women, to                diverse sectors of the donor community. USAID
protect themselves.                                         has been a lead donor in the sector. USAID co-
                                                            chairs along with United Nations Development
    •   With Agency/Presidential Initiatives and            Program (UNDP) the donors Democracy and
        regional programs                                   Governance group and actively participates in
                                                            working groups on civil society, rule of law,
Trafficking in Persons: USAID/Nigeria received              conflict, legislative assistance and elections.
funds in FY 2002 and FY 2003 to support anti-
trafficking initiatives. The Nigerian government            The     British     Department    for   International
has been responsive to comply with both USG                 Development (DfID), the Canadian International
and United Nations legislation and guidance on              Development Agency (CIDA) and the World
trafficking in persons. The USG’s short and                 Bank are providing support to the judiciary,
long-term        Anti-TIP   Policy      (protection,        conflict mitigation, and legislative strengthening
prosecution, and prevention) will include public            at state level. They are also involved in civic
and private diplomacy, engagement with                      education related to human rights and election
ECOWAS and other regional organizations, and                issues. More specifically DfID’s program has
collaboration with other donors to combat forced            been committed to building up local capacities to
child labor and the commercial sex trafficking of           drive forward the economic reform and good
girls and women (largely from Nigeria).                     governance program of the GON. Their three
                                                            areas    of      focus   are    supporting    federal
AFR Conflict and Peacebuilding Fund:         With
                                                            government reforms, state governments, and
funding received from the Conflict and
                                                            HIV/AIDS. The support for federal government
Peacebuilding Fund, the Mission will support
                                                            reforms targets poverty reduction through
the conflict mitigation objectives of the Africa
                                                            improvements in health, education, rural water
Bureau through a program that will reduce
                                                            supply and access to justice particularly for the
conflict in target states in the north and in the
                                                            poor and anti corruption. The Delegation of the
Niger Delta. This youth-focused program will
                                                            European Commission is promoting human
emphasize social participation, responsible
                                                            rights through collaboration with Nigerian civil
citizenship,    and    gainful   employment    as
                                                            society organizations covering legal reforms,
alternatives to violence. Corporate partners will           human        rights,   conflict   prevention     and
also provide funding for the program.                       management and women’s empowerment. The
                                                            World Bank has a governance and corruption
    •   With GON initiatives                                project at the state level and is involved in the
                                                            assessment of financial management and
IPCR: The Institute for Peace and Conflict                  procurement at the Federal Ministry of Finance.
Resolution (IPCR) was established by the late
military dictator Sani Abacha during the 1990s              A number of other bilateral and multilateral
and is housed in the Presidency. President                  donors as well as private foundations are
Obasanjo has been very supportive of the goals              providing support to civil society organizations,
of IPCR and in 2002 commissioned them to                    including the Ford Foundation, the MacArthur
carry out a Strategic Conflict Assessment in                Foundation, OSIWA Foundation, the Packard
Nigeria.       Key donors, including USAID,                 Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates
collaborated in this assessment and in the                  Foundation. These foundations have been
development of a National Action Plan (NAP) for             involved in legal and constitutional reforms,
conflict mitigation, management and prevention.             elections and electoral reforms, anti corruption
USAID participates on several sub-committees                and CSO capacity building.               German
created under the action plan and will continue             foundations, including the Friedrich Ebert
to build the capacity of the IPCR, civil society,           Stiftung and Konrad Adenauer, work mainly in
political parties, and other stakeholders to help           the area of civic education.
reduce violent conflicts in Nigeria.
                                                            It is expected that USAID in collaboration with
    •   With other donors                                   DFID, the EU, CIDA, UNDP and other donors
                                                            will provide assistance for Nigeria’s 2007
                                                            elections. UNDP, DfID, The World Bank and EU


                                                       37
                        USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


have also shown interest in continuing and in
some cases expanding their work with the
judiciary; USAID will therefore drastically reduce
its commitment to this sector. USAID will
however continue to collaborate with all the
                             nd
donors in its civil society a conflict mitigation
programs, and ensure that its program
complements rather than duplicates other donor
efforts.




                                                     38
                                                      USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


K. Results Framework



                                                                            SO11 Results Framework




                                                                                                                     Illustrative Indicators for SO11:
                                                                                SO11: Strengthened
                                                                             Foundations for Democratic              •Level of public confidence in democracy and
                                                                                                                     democratic institutions;
                                                                                   Governance                        •Client satisfaction with selected government
                                                                                                                     services.




                      IR 11.1                                                                                                                             IR 11.4
                  Increased civic                                 IR 11.2                                    IR 11.3
                                                         Increased accountability of                Enhanced credibility of the                Strengthened capacity for
             awareness, advocacy and                           key institutions                         electoral process                         conflict management
                   empowerment


           Illustrative Indicators:                     Illustrative Indicators:                  Illustrative Indicators:                   Illustrative Indicators:
           •Civil society input reflected in target     •Number of corrupt public official        •Number and percentage of voters           •number of assisted CSOs taking action to
           policies;                                    prosecuted;                               correctly registered;                      mitigate conflict;
           •Civil society advocacy capacity index;      •Citizen awareness of public              •Number of reported election               •number of civil society organizations with
           •Number of organizations advancing           officials' roles and responsibilities;    irregularities OR number of reported       improved conflict management skills;
           human rights issues;                         •Budgetary allocations in targeted        infractions of election regulations.       • number of conflict interventions
           •Individuals trained to become self-         sectors.                                                                             implemented by IPCR.
           reliant.




                                                                                             39
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


VI      SO12: Improved Livelihoods in                       and products; and an improved policy
        Selected Areas                                      environment. The integration of agricultural
                                                            productivity, market opportunities, value-adding
A. Statement of the Strategic Objective                     processing, business development and financial
                                                            services, as well as policy reform, is crucial,
SO12, Improved Livelihoods in Selected                      given multiple weaknesses and lukewarm
Areas, will address core problems of low                    support for the organized private sector. SO12
productivity, lack of competitiveness, an                   will also exploit opportunities to link its
inconsistent     policy    framework,      and    an        interventions with those of other SOs and other
unfavorable environment for investment and                  development partners to achieve synergies and
enterprise development that are stifling the                leverage efforts in such areas as budget reform,
Nigerian economy.         The SO will identify key          rural finance, and the fight against corruption.
agricultural commodities and other products to              The SO will address two Agency goals: Broad-
enhance their competitiveness, productivity, and            based Economic Growth and Agricultural
commercial potential. Farmers and micro, small              Development Encouraged; and The World’s
and      medium      entrepreneurs     in   selected        Environment       Protected    for    Long-term
geographical areas will be the targeted                     Sustainability.
beneficiaries. Farmers will improve productivity
and increase net incomes through greater                    B. Statement of the Development Problem
access      to    improved     inputs,    processing
technologies, and marketing options provided                The Nigerian bureaucracy runs on oil. Crude
through      commercial       agribusinesses    and         petroleum exports account for 95 percent of
producer associations. The SO will promote                  foreign exchange earnings and over 80 percent
environmentally-sound agricultural production               of the Federal budget, the bulk of which is
                                                                                                    60
technologies to stem expansion of cultivation               expended on civil service salaries.           The
into fragile dry lands and tropical forests. Input          petroleum sector is, however, capital rather than
suppliers and processors will expand their                  labor-intensive and provides employment to less
activities through improved technical and                   than one percent of Nigerians. Despite huge
management skills. A growing number of self-                earnings from petroleum exports over the past
sustaining microfinance institutions and an                 three decades, Nigeria remains a poor, majority
increasingly sophisticated financial system will            rural country.        Annual economic growth
                                                                                                            61
offer small businesses and consumers an                     averaged just 3.3 percent during the 1990s,
increased range of financial services, including            barely keeping pace with population growth, and
loans and savings options. More use will be                 mean per capita income in 2002 was just $300,
made of improved agricultural inputs, and                   lower than at Independence. The proportion of
technologies to transform and add value to                  Nigeria’s people living in poverty climbed to 70
selected commodities and products will be                   percent in 2001 and inequality grew, with the
disseminated. Policy reform efforts will target             wealthiest controlling 25 times more income
                                                                             62
issues such as agricultural input supply,                   than the poorest and with women and Northern
accountable      government       procedures, best          Nigerians disproportionately impoverished.
practice in the delivery of financial services, and
a more favorable investment climate. USAID’s                        :
                                                            Table 4 Percentage of Nigerians Living in
resources for this SO are very limited,                     Poverty
particularly relative to the size and complexity of          1980     1986 1992   1996    2001
Nigeria. SO12 will therefore seek to influence               28.1     46.3 42.7   65.5     70.0
government policy and resource allocation, and
provide targeted assistance to increase farmer              Rural-Urban Dynamics:         Fifty-five percent of
access to improved technologies, inputs and                 Nigerians live in rural areas, and over half of the
markets through the private sector.                         population earns its livelihood solely or largely
                                                            from low-input, low-output agriculture.         Yet
The SO will be achieved through four                        agricultural production is barely keeping pace
intermediate results: improved productivity of              with population growth, and even the limited
selected     commodities     and     products;              gains in agricultural production have come from
increased      value-added     of     selected              an unsustainable expansion into savanna and
commodities      and    products;   increased               tropical forests. The unpromising condition of
commercialization of selected commodities                   the agricultural sector has accelerated the pace


                                                       40
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


of rural to urban migration. Nigeria is one of the         capacity of the private sector to invest in
most rapidly urbanizing nations on earth, with             modern, competitive commercial agriculture.
urban population growing at five to seven                  Public investment in Nigeria during the oil boom
percent per year, double the overall population            did not accord agriculture any priority. As a
             63
growth rate.      The cities do not provide the            result, research institutes that had once been
estimated three million new jobs that Nigeria              centers       of    excellence     in    agricultural
needs to create each year and unemployment                 development became starved for funds, the
and underemployment are rife in urban areas.               extension      service    atrophied,   and     roads
The manufacturing sector has a very small base             deteriorated from lack of maintenance.           The
and contributes less to GDP and employment                 limited resources that federal and state
today than it did twenty years ago. Nigerian               governments invested in agriculture were largely
industry is uncompetitive and highly protected,            expended on a series of expensive irrigation and
and operates at about only 40 percent of                   other agricultural development schemes that
capacity. Without systemic reforms that would              were      generally     failures.       Government
foster increases in the negligible level of non-oil        interference in and ineffective attempts to
direct foreign investment, opportunities for               subsidize the price of fertilizer have led not to
formal-sector employment generation in the                 lower fertilizer prices for farmers, but rather the
urban-based manufacturing sector will remain               opposite, as a result of manipulative control,
seriously constrained.                                     corruption, ill-timed deliveries, and scarcity,
                                                           which seriously disrupted the development of a
The linkage between rural poverty and the                  network of private agricultural input suppliers.
movement of people to the cities implies that              The result is an agricultural sector that struggles
there is a need to address both rural and urban            to overcome key constraints of degraded
poverty over the life of the CSP. Only very                infrastructure, poor access to inputs and
                                                                                                         64
rapid, broadly based economic growth will have             technologies, and lack of financial services.
a significant effect on poverty reduction. Yet
because of the constraints on expansion of                 Enabling     Environment:        The unfavorable
manufacturing, much of this growth will have to            enabling environment facing the agricultural
be derived from rural-based economic activity,             production and processing sectors is not unique,
especially agricultural production and value-              but rather reflects pervasive problems that have
adding     processing     of   primary   products.         built up over decades of military and civilian
However, the current state of agriculture and              misrule and that have only begun to be
rural development in Nigeria requires significant          addressed since the democratic transition in
reform if such growth is to be achieved.                   1999.      Of eighteen African countries surveyed
                                                           in 2000, Nigeria has one of the poorest
Agriculture Sector Performance: The continued              environments for private sector investment in
                                                                   65
poor performance of the agriculture sector has             Africa.          Inadequate    and     state-owned
many causes. Starting with the oil boom of the             infrastructure, poor economic governance, and
1970s, the sector has suffered from a steady               an unfavorable business climate were the top
decline due to neglect and an inconsistent policy          obstacles identified. Nigeria continues to rank
environment. Rapid growth during the 1970s of              as one of the most corrupt countries surveyed
the    value    of   crude   oil  exports    and           by Transparency International, a ranking that is
macroeconomic        mismanagement      led    to          borne out by the results of a USAID-funded
                                                                               66
substantial appreciation of the real exchange              corruption survey.     In planning investment and
rate (the so-called Dutch Disease), which                  expansion, investors must confront such critical
severely eroded the profitability of traditional           obstacles as a weakened but still extant statist
agricultural exports such as cocoa, rubber, and            ideology, chronic overvaluation of the exchange
oil palm products. At the same time, a flood of            rate, corruption, macroeconomic instability, and
                                                                                               67
cheap food imports, especially cereals, sugar,             an unfavorable business climate.         The latter
livestock products, and other tradable goods,              was confirmed and documented in great detail in
undermined the food producing sector.                      the "Investors' Roadmap." The existing policy
                                                           environment has ironically been termed the
                                                                                   68
Subsequently, during the 1980s and 1990s, as               "Investor's Roadblock."
the real price of crude oil declined, exchange
rate mismanagement and chronically high fiscal             Financial Services: At the same time, a dearth
deficits reduced both the incentive and the                of critical financial services means that it is


                                                      41
                          USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


difficult to acquire the capital necessary for               Environmental Concerns:        Nigeria must also
developing      or     expanding     private   sector        contend with a severely degraded natural
enterprises, both rural and urban.           Limited         resource base, from causes that include high
availability of financial services is also important         population growth, unplanned development of
in increasing uncertainty, which discourages                 infrastructure, and the expansion of economic
investment. Poor bank supervision, a legacy of               activities such as agriculture, fisheries and
government ownership, high fiscal deficits, high             aquaculture, shipping, and offshore oil drilling,
and variable inflation, a fragmented exchange                without taking into account their environmental
                                                                              74
rate regime, and recently re-introduced arbitrary            consequences.       Nigeria is a global reservoir of
caps on interest rates, have created severe                  primate species, including the most endangered
constraints on financial sector development.                 gorilla subspecies on earth, and the threats to
Rates offered to savers are low, yet the cost of             biodiversity, tropical forests, and the many
credit is high. Access to financial services is              ecosystems       and      natural    habitats     is
particularly limited in rural areas, where poor              overwhelming and escalating due to population
policies and lack of technical experience hamper             pressure. These problems point to the need to
rural financial institutions. Fewer than half of the         enhance the environmental awareness of
branches of the country's formal financial                   national institutions and Nigerian citizens,
institutions are located in rural areas, and they            conserve and protect the natural resource base,
                                                   69
only reach about 10% of the rural population.                and mitigate the adverse environmental effects
Because access to formal lending is so low,                  of economic activity.
informal     sources       (e.g.,  family,   friends,
moneylenders, or money keepers) provide the                  Economic Potential: There is cause for cautious
bulk of rural credit.     However, with an average           optimism that as conditions for private sector
lending period of three months and a focus on                growth become more favorable, Nigerian
established, traditional activities, the informal            agriculture will respond, as well as other sectors
sector cannot provide the capital or other                   of the non-oil economy. From 1986 to 1992, a
services necessary to support the expansion                  period when imports and the financial sector
that is critical to rural economic growth. More              were liberalized and the exchange rate was
generally, despite Nigeria's well developed                  more favorable, agriculture grew at a rate of
commercial banking sector and the second                     5.4% compared to -0.5% and 2.6% in the five-
                                                                                                         75
largest stock market in sub-Saharan Africa,                  year periods preceding and following.            Since
financial markets still lack the capacity to provide         the Obasanjo Administration has been in power,
the full range of financial products necessary for           the policy framework has been less hostile to
increased, sustainable economic growth.            In        agriculture and rural sector growth (agriculture,
1998 the size of the financial sector in Nigeria             livestock, forestry, and fishing) has picked up to
                                                                              76
compared to the total economy ranked behind                  3.3% annually.      Although this is still far too low
such countries as Ghana, Kenya, and                          to make much of a dent on rural poverty, past
            70
Zimbabwe.                                                    performance has shown that with a stable
                                                             macroeconomic environment, a more favorable
Food Production: In the face of policy barriers              exchange rate, less preemption of credit by
and financial system constraints, production and             public sector deficits, and a reorientation to
exports of many cash crops have declined                     market-driven        agricultural      development,
markedly, and food production, especially over               agriculture and agribusiness could become
the past decade, has barely kept ahead of the                engines for growth and poverty reduction.
                             71
rate of population growth.        The FAO lists
Nigeria as a Low Income Food Deficit Country,                C. USAID Achievements and Comparative
and a comprehensive food security assessment                 Advantage
has estimated that the southern parts of the
country are the most deficient in per capita                 USAID’s SO7 under the Transition Strategy was
                    72
calorie production.         A net exporter of                “Strengthened     Institutional  Capacity   for
agricultural commodities such as cocoa, oil                  Economic Reform and Enhanced Capacity to
palm, and rubber at the time of independence,                Revive Agricultural Growth”.    The SO7 team
Nigeria today is a substantial importer of                   also managed the Special Objective “Improved
agricultural products, including rice imports                Management of Critical Elements of the
                                    73
worth nearly $750 million annually.                          Infrastructure and Energy Sector”. These two
                                                             SOs addressed economic policy and institutional


                                                        42
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


strengthening, private sector development,
agricultural productivity and input supply, and             Policy Reform: Substantial progress has also
ports, aviation and electricity management.                 been achieved in enhancing the capacity of the
                                                            Debt Management Office and in the preparation
Agriculture:         Notwithstanding     significant        of intellectual property rights legislation. Finally,
constraints to increased agricultural productivity,         an important activity has been initiated to
USAID has provided appropriate technologies to              rationalize the federal budgetary process and
farmers that have allowed them to better than               make it more efficient. USAID efforts ensured
double their yields and improve the quality of              that, for the first time, dialogue on poverty
key crops such as cassava, maize and cowpea,                reduction included civil society voices.
and demonstrated that farmers will readily adopt
new technologies once they have been shown to               Lessons learned from the Transition Strategy
be effective.      Efforts to improve marketing             and USAID’s comparative advantage will be
linkages facilitated the sale of about $2.4 million         applied going forward:
in     commodities       through   USAID-assisted               • Political will is pre-requisite to reforming
producer associations to private sector agro-                        institutions or policy areas;
industries in FY 2002.         Improvements in on-              • Effective counterpart agencies and
farm post-harvest and processing technologies                        operationally focused activities are key
have reduced the labor burden of rural women                         to success;
and provided increased income. USAID-funded                     • Constituencies must be built for reform;
activities to disseminate improved planting                     • A key USAID strength lies in developing
seeds of key staples in northern Nigeria have                        models of successful interventions in
helped farmers increase yields threefold and net                     specific commodities with significant
revenue by almost $600 per hectare. In the                           potential    for     value    added   and
Niger Delta, improved varieties of banana and                        commercialization through commodity
plantain have decreased losses due to disease                        chain analysis and an enterprise
and increased net farmer revenue by 50                               development approach;
percent.         Fertilizer marketed through the                • Always take account of both the
private sector totaled $21 million in FY 02,                         microeconomic        and    macroeconomic
opening the way into a sector dominated by                           policy     conditions      necessary   for
government procurement that has resulted in                          enterprise growth.
shortages.
                                                            D. Consultative Process
Private Sector: USAID’s portfolio of technical
assistance instruments has supported budget                 Under the Transition Strategy, USAID’s SO7
reform,     debt   management,     trade    policy          worked with a number of partners to deliver
development,     investment    promotion,     and           services to its customers.           The major
privatization. The Bureau of Public Enterprise,             stakeholders from whom the new SO12 team
the GON’s privatization agency, has more                    has drawn insights during strategy preparation
clearly codified and established transparent                include implementing partners, donor agencies,
procedures in privatizing 17 state-owned                    other USG agencies, the Federal Government of
enterprises. Technical assistance to the Nigerian           Nigeria, state and local governments, the private
Communications Commission contributed to a                  sector, civil society organizations leading
model auction of GSM licenses that yielded over             research institutes, economic think tanks, and
$1.0 billion in revenue for the government.                 private individuals and groups.          Ultimate
Through the Special Objective, the Nigerian                 customers are the Nigerian public, mainly the
Electric Power Authority received help to                   farmers, entrepreneurs, and enterprises at all
prepare for privatization, and the provision of             levels that depend directly on the natural
equipment to the international airport in Lagos             resource base for production and income.
has resulted in safer and more secure air travel.
Progress has also been made in support to
                                                            To fully involve these partners in the preparation
improved public procurement and to aid the
                                                            of the Country Strategic Plan, SO12 initiated an
establishment of the Independent Corrupt
                                                            inclusive consultative process beginning in
Practices Commission (ICPC) and the Budget
                                                            September 2002. The purpose was to identify
Monitoring and Price Intelligence Unit (BMPI) in
                                                            the development priorities and strategies to
the Presidency.


                                                       43
                        USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


enhance economic opportunities in Nigeria. The            growth potential of oil and gas revenues is
initial consultations were on generic issues              limited. Annual per capita receipts are only
involving large groups of participants; however,          about $100, and given the cap placed by OPEC
at later stages, more focused in-depth                    on increases in oil production in Nigeria, these
discussions were held with smaller groups of              revenues are unlikely to grow by much in the
people on specific technical issues.                      near term. If the Nigerian economy is to expand
                                                          its growth from the present 3.3 percent to the
The major recommendations coming out of this              desired 7 percent, agriculture must be the
extensive stakeholder participation, while not            engine of growth for the country.
unexpected, have served to codify these as the
major issues:                                             The typical Nigerian farmer:
    • Increased         productivity,   enterprise           • Is over 50 years old;
        development and commercialization of                 • Is illiterate;
        agricultural products through the private            • Lives on less than $1 a day;
        sector are key to more rapid growth;                 • Farms less than two hectares of land;
    • Civil society, producer associations and               • Employs only hand tools;
        private enterprises must be assisted to              • Produces a very narrow range of crops;
        advocate reform;                                     • Does not use productivity-enhancing
    • Increased agricultural production and                       inputs;
        productivity must be achieved in                     • Does not receive reliable extension
        environmentally sustainable ways;                         advice;
    • The range of financial services to the                 • Lacks market information and linkages;
        private sector must be expanded and                  • Has limited access to financial services;
        broadened;                                           • Produces just three-quarters or less of
    • Priority must be given to key e     lements                 household food requirements.
        of macroeconomic reform;
    • Corruption is a major obstacle to                   Nigeria’s women farmers, with lower educational
        development and to reform;                        levels and less access to land, labor, information
    • To develop the economy, stabilize the               and technology than men, are even more
        macroeconomic situation, and reduce               handicapped by these conditions than their male
        poverty, Nigeria must diversify its               counterparts.
        enclave economy out of excessive
        dependence on oil and gas.                        The imperative is clear: Nigerian farmers and
                                                          entrepreneurs must be assisted to increase their
E. Development Hypothesis and Strategic                   productivity, diversify their output as a risk-
Objective                                                 management strategy, add value to the
                                                          commodities they produce, increase their
Nigeria’s size and complexity and reliance on oil         incomes, and gain better access to input and
and gas has resulted in a structure of incentives         output markets through the private sector. The
that has encouraged a significant diversion of            approach must be environmentally sustainable,
resources away from export and import-                    so as to counter the disastrous effects on soil
competing      sectors   and   towards     public         fertility, land degradation, and biodiversity that
administration, construction, and other non-              population growth is having in rural areas.
tradable activities.   This has led to strong             Under the current USAID program, Nigeria’s
measures to protect Nigerian industry and other           farmers have already demonstrated their
import-competing sectors from competition,                capacity to take advantage of new technologies
which has further exacerbated the distortions in          and information to increase their production,
the structure of incentives. Large government             productivity and incomes. To leverage greater
revenues from oil and gas have also insulated             impact and reach a larger number of
government from the need to undertake                     beneficiaries under the new strategy, SO12 will
fundamental reforms despite abundant evidence             employ a commodity chain approach, identifying
that public policies and expenditure patterns             selected commodities and product chains that
have slowed economic growth and contributed               can benefit from proven technological packages,
to impoverishment of much of the population.              increased value added through storage and
Nowhere is this truer than in rural areas. The            processing, and significant commercialization



                                                     44
                          USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


backed up by policy reform to make these                          •   Volume of production of           selected
changes possible.        Increasing economic                          commodities and products;
opportunities will also give more people a                        •   Value of production of            selected
material stake in democracy’s success and                             commodities and products.
contribute to long-term political and economic
stability in Nigeria, as well as contribute to
poverty reduction.                                            F. Critical Assumptions

USAID and partners, including other donors and                    •   Communal conflict will continue to occur
the GON, have already made significant                                at current levels and will not impact on
progress in areas such as quantifying and                             implementation;
managing        domestic       and    foreign    debt,            •   Corruption     will   remain     a     core
establishing a budget process, identifying highly                     governance issue;
competitive       agricultural     commodities     for            •   Funding levels for agricultural research
domestic and export markets, strengthening                            and     extension    and      rural    road
elements of infrastructure, improving the                             maintenance will be sustained;
investment environment, and expanding the                         •   Critical reforms (especially addressing
availability of financial services. SO12 will build                   agriculture and financial services) will be
on these past investments and USAID’s                                 implemented.
technical leadership in enterprise development,
private     sector-led     approaches,     technology         G. Intermediate Results
transfer, sustainable agriculture and commodity
chain development.          Because resources are             IR 12.1: Increased Productivity of Selected
limited relative to the size and complexity of                Commodities and Products
Nigeria, USAID's assistance will be directed
strategically to directly support farmers,                    This IR will focus on improvements in the
entrepreneurs, and selected institutions. Direct              productivity of land, labor, and capital used to
interventions will be focused primarily in rural              produce selected commodities originating in
areas, but will impact urban poverty through                  rural areas.        Yield enhancements are the
increased productivity that should reduce the                 essential ingredient of increased productivity
cost of food, and by reducing the flow or rural to            and competitiveness gains, and are most
urban migration. By building the capacity and                 effective when accomplished synergistically
increasing the voice of primary producers and                 together. Key elements of improved agricultural
processors, SO12 will also influence the way the              technology include:
Government employs its own resources and the
                                                                   • the development of new crop varieties;
incentives that are created for private sector
                                                                   • increased         availability of   selected
development. SO12 and partners will also work
                                                                        fertilizers and other inputs through the
with policy makers to increase the capacity to
                                                                        private sector to maximize the potential
deliver reform and with the private sector and
                                                                        of improved varieties;
civil society to demand reform.                 Direct
                                                                   • the adoption of improved agronomic
interventions      to boost productivity, build
                                                                        practices developed through adaptive
enterprises, and add value to selected
                                                                        agricultural research.
commodities will be focused on a few selected
                                                              Efforts to increase productivity will be more
geographical areas where the needs are great
                                                              effective through such an integrated approach.
and the probability of success is high. Policy
reform will be undertaken at the federal, state,
                                                              Illustrative indicators:
and local levels, with the last two being
concentrated in the same geographical areas
where the direct interventions are undertaken,                    •   Yield per hectare or unit of selected
so as to maximize the synergies between the                           commodities and products;
different components of the SO.                                   •   Area under sustainable management.

Illustrative Indicators for SO12:                             Illustrative activities:

    •   Incomes from selected commodities and                     •   Technical assistance to private sector
        products;                                                     input suppliers;



                                                         45
                           USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


    •   Adaptive research and dissemination of             agricultural technologies. When farmers do sell
        sustainable practices;                             their products, their need for cash is usually
    •   Rapid dissemination of improved crop,              immediate and they are rarely able to hold their
        livestock, aquaculture and forestry                produce for more favorable market conditions.
        technologies;                                      The quality of their produce is often poor, and
    •   Capacity-building for selected research            many farmers do not participate in organizations
        organizations, especially those involved           such as producers’ associations that can
        in the application of biotechnology to             function     as    intermediaries     for     market
        improve agricultural productivity.                 information, market linkages, and economies of
                                                                          i
                                                           scale. An ncreased orientation to the market
IR 12.2: Increased Value-Added of Selected                 will assist producers to identify the most
Commodities and Products                                   profitable    market    opportunities     for   their
                                                           commodities. Increased commercialization may
Developing more productive enterprises that                be manifested by produce sales rather than on-
also add value to and diversify the product chain          farm     consumption;     marketing       of   basic
is essential ro increasing incomes and reducing            commodities or processed products in local,
risk. Rural enterprises include farm enterprises,          regional, or national markets; or exports to other
but they also comprise agribusinesses involved             countries.
in input delivery, processing, storage, industrial
transformation and other pathways by which                 Increased access to product markets may in turn
value may be added to basic commodities and                be influenced by transportation infrastructure,
products. Non-agricultural enterprises such as             taxation and regulation of the transport sector,
micro, small and medium-scale manufacturing                corruption exercised at checkpoints along the
firms or service providers will also be assisted to        roads, customs duties and procedures, and
acquire and apply improved technical and                   other potential barriers to marketing and trade.
management skills and to access a wider range              Infrastructure is a key constraint that is beyond
of financial services under this IR.           The         the manageable interest of SO12. However,
development of rural enterprises increases rural           policy dialogue conducted under IR 12.4 will
employment and income, helping to reduce                   advocate for liberalizing the agriculture sector
poverty.                                                   and for significant resources of the GON and the
                                                           private sector to be applied to priority
Illustrative Indicators:                                   infrastructure    development.        Efforts   to
                                                           commercialize agriculture through activities to
    •   Number       of     new      value-added           increase use of proven agricultural technologies,
        commodities and products;                          improve      domestic     and     export    market
    •   Range of value-added products;                     opportunities, add value to agricultural products,
    •   Capacity index of assisted enterprises.            and decrease post-harvest losses will enhance
                                                           the productivity component of the strategic
Illustrative activities:                                   objective. The approach will build private-public
                                                           alliances to improve post-harvest processing,
                                                           and also create income-generating opportunities
    •   Improved     milling    and    processing
        technologies for selected crops;                   for women.
    •   Business development training and
                                                           Illustrative indicators:
        technical assistance;
    •   Expanded financial service availability
                                                               •   Percentage    of    production volume
        for   micro,      small   and     medium
                                                                   marketed;
        enterprises.
                                                               •   Number of farmers and producers
IR 12:3:   Increased Commercialization of                          selling;
Selected Commodities and Products                              •   Number of sustainable producers’ and
                                                                   marketing associations;
Nigeria’s rural producers are subsistence-based                •   Number of farmers and producers who
and lack a market orientation. This is a function                  are members of associations.
of poor market information, limited market
access, and negligible use of appropriate



                                                      46
                           USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


Illustrative activities:                                     offering the best opportunities to implement
                                                             SO12’s program are identified in Box 1.
    •   National and regional market price
        information system development;                      Box 5: Target State Selection Criteria
    •   Technical support to build the capacity                    Critical need
        of producer and marketing associations;                    Opportunities for synergy with other SOs
    •   Research and analysis to identify high-                    Opportunity to address cross cutting issues
        potential   products   for   local   and                   Presence of other donors
                                                                   Ability to build on past investments
        international markets.                                     U. S. national interest
                                                                   Potential to achieve results and impact
IR 12.4: Improved Policy Environment                               Population coverage
                                                                   USAID comparative advantage
                                                                   Opportunity for scaling-up, replicability and
Without a significant improvement in the policy                    sustainability
environment, farmers and entrepreneurs will
have neither the means nor the incentive to
invest and to innovate. Better and more stable               Using these criteria, Kano, Cross River, and
macroeconomic, trade, investment, and public                 Abia States and the Federal Capital Territory
expenditure policies will be pursued in close                (FCT) of Abuja will form the initial focus for
coordination with other donors and other SO                  SO12 investments. These states have been
partners within the Mission. Where competent                 outstanding    performers     in   USAID     pilot
and committed public sector counterparts exist,              production and productivity activities.     Total
USAID will assist government to identify and                 population of these states is on the order of 15
reform policies that hinder growth and poverty               million. They are also centrally-located in major
reduction. It will also help private enterprise and          agro-ecological zones that are catchment areas
civil society to build cross-SO constituencies for           for much larger populations.      As and when
multifaceted reform.                                         additional resources become available, for
                                                             example from the Initiative to End Hunger in
Illustrative indicators:                                     Africa, technologies and practices will be
                                                             extended to adjacent states from these first-tier
    •   Milestones achieved on policy reform                 states.
        matrix.
                                                             I. Cross Cutting and Converging Themes
Illustrative activities:
                                                             Gender. Women’s labor is a crucial input if
    •   Analysis and advocacy for reform of                  increased agricultural productivity is to be
        fertilizer   subsidy     and other key               achieved, and Nigerian women already play the
        agricultural policies;                               leading role in post-harvest processing of
    •   Technical support to debt and budget                 agricultural commodities.      SO12 will target
        management processes;                                women for the dissemination of improved post-
    •   Capacity-building for civil society to               harvest and value-adding technologies such as
        advocate       for      better economic              cassava processing facilities. Women will also
        management             and     increased             benefit from business development and financial
        accountability and transparency in                   services provided under the SO. The policy
        government operations.                               dialogue will address issues of concern to
                                                             women such as registration and inheritance of
H. Geographical Focus                                        land and other property.         The results of
                                                             nationwide assessments of the nutritional status
Total base resources for SO12 per year are                   of women and children and of household food
anticipated to be in the range of $10-11 million.            security will help to inform the SO’s choices of
Although policy reform and advocacy efforts will             crop production strategies and appropriate
clearly be targeted at the national level, activities        technologies.
to enhance productivity and market focus and to
build enterprises will target not only key                   Conflict:   The immediate trigger of many
commodities, but selected geographical areas                 localized conflicts in Nigeria is competition for
as well.     Criteria applied to identify states             scarce resources, including land, water and



                                                        47
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


forest resources.    Issues related to resource             Transparency: Under the Transition Strategy,
control and livestock movements, especially in              the Mission c   onducted an anticorruption survey
Northern Nigeria, are one potential area of                 and media campaign and also supported key
intervention.    Producers’ associations and                institutions to promote improved economic
advocacy groups that “bridge” lines of division             governance and accountability. Work with the
such as religion and ethnicity are also a target            debt management and budget offices will
for support, as such groups have been shown to              continue into the new strategy and other GON
check communal violence.                                    institutions showing potential for reform will also
                                                            be identified and targeted. As one example, the
Food Security: SO12 will have direct impact on              Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission will
food security.      Nigeria’s southern geopolitical         be       encouraged    to    promote      improved
zones are the most food-insecure in the country             transparency in the investment climate, the
in terms of per capita calorie availability from            absence of which is a barrier to investment.
agriculture. The two focus states in southern
Nigeria will be laboratories for developing and             Global Development Alliances and Other
disseminating technologies – improved varieties,            Partnerships: The commodity chain approach
fertilizers, sustainable agriculture techniques,            that SO12 is undertaking lends itself strongly to
post-harvest and value-adding technologies –                the development of public-private partnerships.
that will boost overall calorie and protein                 By       identifying   opportunities    for       the
availability in these areas and improve                     commercialization of agriculture, and addressing
household food security. Northern Nigeria is                the key policy constraints, this approach will be
also highly vulnerable to food insecurity and this          driven by opportunities identified by the private
approach will be replicated in the north.                   sector, who will be key stakeholders in the
Enhanced food security can also contribute to               design, development and implementation of the
conflict mitigation.                                        activities. Key private sector partners will include
                                                            producer and processing associations, women
Environment: SO12 will incorporate sustainable              micro-entrepreneurs, merchants, commercial
agriculture technologies in all activities in which         banks and agro-industrial owners.              SO12
increased production and productivity are goals,            already partners with the Government of Nigeria
in order to avoid degradation of land and water             and major oil companies in cassava production
resources, and to limit increased expansion of              and processing, and additional partnerships are
agriculture into critical habitats. Sustainable             under development.
agriculture practices, including use of perennial
tree crops, will be employed in a joint donor               J. Linkages
effort to protect the last remaining tropical forest
in Cross River State, a biodiversity hotspot.                   •   With other       SOs    in   USAID/Nigeria
                                                                    strategy
HIV/AIDS:       Increased agricultural productivity,
enterprise      development    and     microfinance         SO11: Democracy and governance clearly has
services provided under SO12 all have the                   important linkages with SO12. These include
potential to mitigate the impact of HIVAIDS and             the positive impact that SO11 will have on the
to benefit PLWHA and OVC. Higher yields of                  enabling environment for private business and
nutritionally-improved varieties will serve the             commerce. The success of SO11 in mitigating
increased nutritional requirements of those                 civil disturbances will enhance order and
infected while requiring less agricultural labor.           stability, both of which are necessary conditions
Income-generating activities are also crucial for           for economic growth. These activities will be
PLWHA who may have lost their jobs due to                   linked closely with SO 11’s PROSPECT project
stigma, discrimination or reduced work capacity,            to strengthen the capacity of civil society to
and widow(er)s and orphans in households                    make its voice heard on economic reform
where an income earner has died. SO12 will                  issues.
also use the medium of training activities such
as farmer field days, demonstrations, and                   SO13: Successful rural development requires a
microfinance meetings to enhance knowledge of               healthy    and     reasonably     well   educated
HIV/AIDS.                                                   population. To the extent that SO13 contributes
                                                            to that goal, the likelihood of success for SO12
                                                            is enhanced.      The reverse is also true. A


                                                       48
                         USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


population that is better nourished is less                 arrangement with the IMF. While thus far little
susceptible to both morbidity and mortality from            progress has b een made in the tariff alignment,
communicable disease, and is also likely to                 Nigeria is participating in the ECOTrade
perform better at school.                                   program through its National Coordinating
                                                            Committee.    Reducing the high duties on
SO14: SO12 will work with SO14 to identify                  regional goods will facilitate regional integration
PLWHA and OVC who can participate in                        and expand markets for all member countries.
microfinance     and      agricultural  production
activities, and producer associations.         The          Private Sector Development:        Agriculture is
income generated can be used for routine                    inherently a private sector activity and USAID
household expenditures as well as to pay school             has created private sector linkages within
fees, buy books, and purchase medicines and                 Nigeria through its rural sector enhancement
health services.     Frequently, cash needs for             and private sector fertilizer activities. In the
these purposes are not large, but the cash has              wider West African region, the Mission works
to be available at the right time, which often it is        with the West African International Business
not. The availability of microfinance services              Links programs (WAIBL) and through a regional
can make all the difference to individuals and              women’s business group, the West African
households impacted by HIV/AIDS.                            Businesswomen’s Network (WABNET).

    •   With Agency/Presidential Initiatives and            West African Global Competitiveness Hub: The
        regional programs                                   West African Global Competitiveness Hub will
                                                            reinforce regional efforts to enhance trade
Initiative to End Hunger in Africa (IEHA): SO12             competitiveness for Nigeria and other West
fully integrates the six major focal themes of              African countries through training and direct
IEHA and the SO’s Performance Management                    technical assistance, including assistance for
Plan includes key IEHA indicators. The Mission              businesses to take greater advantage of the
strategy will result in improved productivity,              increased trading opportunities provided through
reduced food insecurity and expanded agro-                  the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA)
processing industries by targeting small-scale,             and other global trade initiatives.
resource poor farmers, including women. In
addition, the Mission is likely to fund research            Regional Market Information System: USAID
and development of insect-resistant cowpea, the             will collaborate with the West Africa Regional
major food legume for West Africa, which could              Program (WARP) in the development of a
increase cowpea productivity 10-fold over local             regional market information system to enhance
varieties, and eliminate the need to spray                  opportunities for trade. To date, Mission
insecticide.                                                activities have been limited to selected states,
                                                            commodities and inputs. A more integrated and
Anti Corruption Initiative: The Mission realizes            broader approach is needed to enhance the
that corruption undercuts every activity to be              opportunities and options for producers and
undertaken and will compete vigorously to                   processors.
supplement resources to devote to anti-
corruption efforts.      SO12’s strategy is to                  •   With GON initiatives
strengthen key institutions of transparency (as is
being done already under the Budget Process                 Nigerian Presidential Cassava Initiative: USAID
Reform project) and to encourage NGOs with                  took the lead in FY02 in efforts to combat the
which each SO cooperates to include activities              Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) by providing
to build demand for more transparent and                    the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
accountable governance.                                     (IITA) with an initial grant of $300,000 for
                                                            monitoring, testing and dissemination of CMD-
Trade: As a member of ECOWAS, Nigeria has                   resistant cassava varieties. This initial grant will
made commitments to implement a common                      be expanded to develop commercial markets for
external tariff (CET) for the ECOWAS countries,             cassava products, including starch, industrial
which if met would represent a major step                   ethanol, bakery and other food products, and
forward in trade policy.       Movement toward              livestock feed, in a broad partnership involving
Nigerian harmonization with ECOWAS tariffs                  the Niger Delta Development Commission
was an unmet condition of the 2000 Standby                  (NDDC),      Shell      Petroleum     Development


                                                       49
                        USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


Corporation, private farmer producers and
processing associations, and commercial banks.
To date, contributions of over $4 million have
been made to this activity by the NDDC, GON
and Shell, and USAID will contribute an
additional $1.2 million.

    •   With other donors

Donor coordination: USAID and other donors –
especially DfID, the World Bank, the IMF, and
the EU – support economic policy coordination,
reform and capacity building at the federal level
in the Budget Monitoring and Price Intelligence
Unit (BMPI), Debt Management Office (DMO),
Bureau of Public Enterprise (BPE), Federal
Office of Statistics (FOS), National Planning
Commission (NPC) and Nigerian Investment
Promotion Committee (NIPC).          These are
coordinated in a series of “Thematic Groups”
organized by UNDP, but with different donors
taking more or less active roles. Support for
transparency, accountability, and anti-corruption
is an essential element of the USAID strategy in
which we work closely with the World Bank, DfID
and UNDP.

In the agricultural sector, USAID, UNDP, DfID,
France, EU, JICA, World Bank, and African
Development Bank (ADB) are also focusing on
sustainable agriculture, rural development, and
environmental programs. These donors are
individually supporting the national effort on
sustainable food security and poverty reduction
through agriculture. In this sector, USAID, the
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and
the World Bank will take the lead in effective
coordination of donors in order to have
maximum impact on agriculture and the
environment.

DfID has traditionally been one of the most
active donors to Nigeria's environmental
protection programs. DfID funds a Social
Development Adviser in the EU and an
Environment     Adviser   in    the  Canadian
International Development Agency (CIDA).
Other donors who are also supporting activities
in      the    environment/natural  resources
management domain are Denmark, JICA,
Germany, Norway, UNDP, United Nations
Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Bank, and
African Development Bank (ADB).




                                                    50
                                        USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


K. Results Framework




                                                          SO12 Results Framework




                                                                                             Illustrative Indicators for SO12:

                                                                                             •Incomes from selected commodities and
                                                        SO12: Improved Livelihoods in        products;
                                                               Selected Areas                •Volume of production of selected commodities
                                                                                             and products;
                                                                                             •Value of production of selected commodities and
                                                                                             products.




                                                                                        IR12.3
                  IR12. 1                         IR12. 2
                                                                                      Increased                                      IR12.4
          Improved productivity for      Increased value-added of                commercialization of                            Improved policy
         selected commodities and       selected commodities and
                                                                              selected commodities and                             environment
                  products                       products
                                                                                       products

       Illustrative indicators:       Illustrative Indicators:               Illustrative indicators:                     Illustrative indicators:

       •Yield per hectare or unit     •Number of new value-added             •Percentage of production volume             •Milestones achieved on policy reform matrix
       of selected commodities        commodities and products;              marketed;
       and products;                  •Range of value-added products;        •Number of farmers and producers
       •Area under sustainable        •Capacity index of assisted            selling;
       management.                    enterprises.                           •Number of sustainable producers'
                                                                             and marketing associations;
                                                                             • Number of farmers and producers
                                                                             who are members of associations.




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                           USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


VII.       SO13: Increased Use of Social
           Sector Services

A. Statement of the Strategic Objective                        past several decades is the crisis facing
                                                               Nigeria’s children and young adults. Almost one
Strategic Objective13 is Increased Use of                      in five Nigerian children will die before reaching
                                                                                          77
Social Sector Services, where “social sector                   his or her fifth birthday.    Of those who survive,
services” comprise those in the health (family                 only 55 percent will regularly attend primary
planning, reproductive health and child survival)              school, and fewer than 2 out of 3 of these will
                                                                                                      78
and basic education sectors. Service use will be               complete their primary education.          Of those
reflected by changes in childhood immunization                 who do complete school, fewer than half will
coverage,    contraceptive      prevalence,  and               possess functional literacy and numeracy skills.
primary school retention rates.                                One million children have been orphaned by
                                                               HIV/AIDS, a number that will triple over the next
Integrated and synergistic social sector                       seven years, and many are themselves infected
programming in select geographic areas will                    through mother-to-child transmission.        Almost
result in the greatest returns on health and basic             two million Nigerians aged 15-29 are HIV
education investments. This is critical given the              positive, out of four million total infections.
size of Nigeria’s population, the magnitude of                 Young women are especially vulnerable to HIV
the population’s needs and the limited resources               infection because they lack information,
available.        Strategic     approaches    and              services, and the power to protect themselves
interventions developed under SO13 will                        against risk. Half of these same young women
reinforce and help to sustain the conditions for               will be mothers by the age of 20, and in the
increased use of health and education services                 absence of quality health services, are 100
by addressing key constraints and challenges.                  times more likely to die of maternal causes than
These conditions are SO13’s intermediate                       their sisters in industrialized countries. Nigeria’s
results: improved quality of social sector                     young adults, both men and women, face poor
services,          strengthened          enabling              employment prospects, with ten jobseekers
environment,       expanded       demand,     and              vying for each vacancy, and will begin their own
increased access to services, commodities                      families mired in poverty. And so the cycle
and materials. The SO is linked to two Agency                  begins     anew.         Nigeria’s   indicators   of
goals: The World’s Population Stabilized and                   fundamental human well-being rank at or near
Human Health Protected; and Human Capacity                     the bottom among countries with populations
Built Through Education and Training.                          greater than 100 million in all key social sectors.

One major consequence of the social, political
and economic deterioration in Nigeria over the

Table 5: Social Indicators, 2002
 Country      Births      Net primary       Rate of      Infant       Total      Percent of Married Women    Adult literacy
               per           school         Natural     Mortality    Fertility   15-49 Using Contraception   rate
              1,000       enrolment/       Increase       Rate        Rate
               pop.       attendance          (%)
                                                                                   All          Modern       M       F
                                                                                 Methods        Methods
   Nigeria       41             56             2.8         75           5.8        14              9         58.0    41.0
   Mexico        29            100             2.4         25           2.8        68             59         93.5    89.5
   Brazil        20             97             1.3         33           2.2        76             70         87.4    87.2
Bangladesh       30             79             2.2         66           3.6        54             43         49.9    30.8
    India        25             76             1.7         66           3.1        48             43         69.0    46.6
  Pakistan       37             46             2.7         91           4.8        28             20         58.2    28.8
 Indonesia       22             91             1.6         46           2.6        57             55         92.1    82.6
   China         13             93             0.6         32           1.7        83             83         92.5    78.7
   Russia        10             93            -0.7         15           1.3        67             49         99.7    99.4
Sources: Population Reference Bureau, Human Development Report 2003, UNICEF, DHS.




                                                         52
                      USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

B. Statement of the Development Problem                   for children of mothers with no education;
                                                          educated mothers are also more likely to seek
The health and basic education sectors have               medical attention for a child’s illness (56
been particularly hard hit by the twin impacts of         percent) than are uneducated mothers (39.5
rapid population growth and poor economic                 percent). The association between children’s
performance under the military regimes of the             health and nutritional status and their access to
1980s and 1990s. Facing a rapidly growing                                                i
                                                          and benefit from education s also clear: poor
population of young children and adolescents              health decreases attendance and retention
and adults in their reproductive years, the public        rates, and impairs children’s ability to learn. As
sector has been unable to meet the growing                the number of children under 12 living in a
demand for health and education services, let             household increases, the percentage of primary
alone improve the quality of existing services.           school-age children attending school decreases.
The lack of government commitment to health               At least 56 percent of 5 – 12 year olds from
and basic education service provision has been            households with one or two children under 12
reflected in very low levels of financial                 attend school, compared with just 37 percent of
commitments in these sectors: only 4.1% of the            school-aged children from households with
                                                                                            80
Federal GON budget was allocated for health               seven or eight children under 12.
                                   79
and 6.7% for education in 2002.         Budgetary
figures are not available for State and Local             Child Survival: Each year almost three million
Government allocations to these sectors, but              Nigerian children fall ill and die, principally from
based on the scarcity of health services in rural         diseases that are preventable by simple and
areas, and the overcrowded conditions in                  affordable measures.        Over 80 percent of
classrooms, it can be assumed that those                  mortality and 90 percent of morbidity in children
allocations are also low. This deterioration has          less than five years of age can be attributed to
been exacerbated by increasing poverty and a              four causes:       malaria, vaccine preventable
widening of inequities in access to social sector         diseases (VPD), diarrheal disease and acute
services.                                                 respiratory infection (ARI).           Significantly,
                                                          malnutrition underlies more than 50 percent of
During the decades of military rule, the Nigerian         all morbidity and mortality in young children in
                                                                   81
health and education infrastructure nearly                Nigeria.
collapsed, resulting in a decline in human
capacity. Interventions often cost twice as much          Malaria: Nigeria is a major malaria endemic
to implement in Nigeria as compared to other              country. Nigerians experience over 50 million
countries. The most cost-effective investment of          episodes of malaria each year. Although malaria
USAID funds will be to simultaneously address             is preventable, easily treatable and curable, it
the health and basic education needs of                   accounts for 30 percent of all childhood deaths
Nigerians, particularly women and children.               and is associated with about 11 percent of
                                                                               82
Economies of scale, and USAID involvement to              maternal deaths.         The disease is also
date, suggest that the greatest return on                 responsible for up to half of inpatient admissions
individual investments will occur through                 in health facilities. Malaria is both a disease of
targeted activities in health and education at the        poverty and a cause of poverty. Three key
community level, such that gains in health status         strategic interventions can vastly reduce malaria
reinforce gains in educational achievement and            transmission and impact: a     ccess to and use of
vice versa.                                               insecticide-treated nets (ITNs); intermittent
                                                          presumptive treatment (IPT) of malaria in
                                         i
The validity of an integrated approach s borne            pregnancy; and prompt and effective treatment
                                                                                                      83
out by the strong links between levels of                 of malarial illness in children under five.    The
education, particularly for women, and family             use of these strategies in Nigeria is negligible:
planning/reproductive health and child survival           fewer than 15 percent of households own a
                                                                            84
outcomes. Contraceptive use more than triples             child-sized ITN, there is no policy for IPT in
among Nigerian men and women with a primary               pregnancy, and treatment takes place largely
education compared to those with no education,            outside of the formal sector, often with
while the rate of adolescent pregnancy drops              adulterated and/or ineffective drugs.
from 50 percent to just 16 percent. Likewise,
vaccination rates for children of mothers with a          Vaccine-Preventable    Diseases     (VPD):
primary education are three times higher than             Complete immunization coverage for Nigerian


                                                     53
                      USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

children aged 12-23 months fell from 30 percent           Nigerian women underutilize reproductive health
in 1990 to 17 percent in 1999, the lowest rate in         and safe motherhood services. 45 percent of
                          85
the West African region.      This is largely the         women under 20 years of age receive no
result of a focus on polio eradication at the             antenatal care and 60 percent of births occur at
expense of routine immunization, as Nigeria is            home without qualified assistance.       Nigerian
one of just five remaining global polio reservoirs        women’s use of family planning methods is low,
and polio eradication has commanded a high                with just 16 percent of currently married women
                                                                            89
priority in the international health community.           using any method.
Lack of government commitment; tension
between the state and federal levels concerning           As one result of these fertility behaviors, the
vaccine procurement and distribution systems;             level of maternal mortality in Nigeria is among
frequent vaccine stock-outs at the state and              the highest in the world. For every 100,000 live
local government levels; failure to integrate the         births, 704 Nigerian women die as a result of
routine immunization program into the primary             complications of pregnancy and childbearing.
health care system; and cultural attitudes also           This average masks huge regional disparities,
contribute to the problem. The failure of the             ranging from 166 per 100,000 live births in the
system translates into close to half a million            southeast to 1,549 per 100,000 live births in the
preventable child deaths in Nigeria each year             northeast.    One Nigerian woman dies every
from VPD alone.                                           three minutes from pregnancy and childbirth
                                                                          90
                                                          related causes.
Nutrition:    High levels of malnutrition and
micronutrient deficiency further compromise the           In addition to the high level of maternal deaths in
health status and cognitive potential of Nigerian         Nigeria, levels of pregnancy-related morbidity
children. 42 percent of children under five are           are significant. For every maternal death, it is
stunted, 11 percent of them severely; 25 percent          estimated that 15-20 women suffer debilitating
                                                86
are underweight and 9 percent are wasted.                 conditions as a result of pregnancy including
Micronutrient deficiencies are also a serious             obstetric fistulae, ruptured uterus and pelvic
                                                                                 91
problem, with 20 percent of children under five           inflammatory disease.      Alarmingly, almost one
and 19 percent of pregnant women vitamin A                in five births to adolescents is unplanned. One
deficient.     Exclusive breastfeeding among              in every four Nigerian women has been
infants younger than 4 months ranges from as              subjected to the harmful practice of female
low as three percent in Kano to 19 percent in             genital cutting, which is known to increase the
        87
Lagos. Such low levels compromise immune                  risk of death or injury.       Many of the unsafe
response and contribute to the burden of                  reproductive health practices that increase the
infection and malnutrition.     Improving infant          risk of maternal morbidity and mortality are
feeding practices will become ever more                   completely preventable.
relevant in the context of reducing mother to
child transmission of HIV.                                Safe Motherhood:        Much infant morbidity and
                                                          mortality can be prevented by the increased use
Family Planning and Reproductive Health:                  of quality reproductive health care. A significant
Nigerian women begin childbearing at a young              percentage of infant deaths, for example, results
age, bear an average of six closely-spaced                from low birth weight. In turn, low birth weight is
children during their reproductive careers, and           associated with poor maternal weight gain
suffer appallingly high rates of morbidity and            during pregnancy and illness during pregnancy,
mortality from causes associated with pregnancy           including the serious consequences of malaria
and childbirth. Much of this could be prevented           and HIV.      Complications at delivery, such as
by regular and appropriate use of reproductive            asphyxia and birth trauma, are important
health and safe motherhood care.                          determinants of the level of perinatal mortality.
                                                          The health of the mother during pregnancy can
Reproductive Health: The median age at first              be     protected    through    simple    preventive
marriage for Nigerian women is 18 years and 50            measures; e.g., transmission of and illness from
percent of women will be mothers by age 20. In            malaria can be reduced if women and their
the Northwest zone median age at first marriage           children sleep under insecticide-treated nets,
is 14.6 years and 47 percent of girls 15-19 are           and if pregnant women receive intermittent
                                        88
pregnant or have already borne a child.                   presumptive treatment for malaria.



                                                     54
                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

Basic Education: Learner outcomes and the                   service training program for primary school
overall provision of quality basic education in             teachers is geared for secondary school
Nigeria eroded significantly during the 1980s               teaching, and that in-service training is not
and 1990s. While estimates of the primary                   standardized and is implemented inconsistently.
school gross enrollment rate (GER) vary from
source to source and from state to state, recent            Special attention must also be paid to Islamic
estimates place the GER in 1999 at 81 percent               schools.     An estimated two million Nigerian
(77 percent for girls, 84 percent for boys).                children attend Islamic schools, over half of
                                                                        95
Nigeria’s net attendance rate, however, is                  them girls.     A wide range of Islamic schools
estimated to be only 55 percent (53 percent for             exists in Nigeria, varying between those that
                             92
girls, 57 percent for boys).                                focus on the memorization of the Qur'an alone to
                                                            those that teach a fully integrated contemporary
From a gender perspective, Nigeria’s basic                  curriculum. Regardless, it must be assumed
education system performs quite poorly. Girls               that the teaching methods employed, and the
make up only 45 percent of total primary                    learning achieved, in Nigeria’s Islamic schools
enrollment across the country, with wide                    are at best at the same standard as public
regional disparities (only 18-23 percent in the             primary schools and therefore are in need of
northern states). This gender disparity results in          attention.
at least 1.5 million fewer girls than boys enrolling
in public primary school. Although girls and boys           C. USAID Achievements and Comparative
demonstrate similar levels of primary school                Advantage
completion     rates    (65     and    64   percent
respectively), the female population as a whole             In the 1999-2003 Transition Strategy, USAID
demonstrates lower levels of educational                    addressed the problems summarized above
achievement. In 1999, Nigeria’s adult literacy              through two separate SOs: SO8, Develop the
rate was estimated to be 49 percent: only 41                Foundation for Education Reform, and SO9,
                                             93
percent for women, and 58 percent for men.                  Increased use of FP/MCH/HIV/AIDS Services
                                                            and Preventive Measures within a Supportive
While school enrolment and retention rates                  Policy Environment.
provide information on levels of participation in
the formal educational system, they do not                  SO8 activities have been implemented on the
address attainment of functional competencies.              ground for the past two years, focusing on
At the primary level, 1996 data from the                    primary education improvements in three states
Monitoring of Learning Achievement study, or                that reach over 100,000 students in 327 schools,
MLA, show that the great majority of primary                one-third of them Islamic.        Activities have
school students do not acquire even rudimentary             centered on improving the students’ literacy and
English language literacy skills by grade four.             numeracy by providing in-service teacher
The mean score for all pupils on the literacy               training, both face to face and through
section of the MLA was 25.1%, and 32.2% for                 Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI); increasing
                      94
the numeracy section.                                       community support to primary education through
                                                            Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) and local
Nigeria’s basic education system, from the                  NGOs; improving information management and
federal level to the individual school, is                  policy      development;   and    fostering    the
bedeviled with problems: poor data collection               development of action plans for educational
and use; inadequate educational financing and               improvement at the school, local government,
management;        inappropriate   curricula    (for        and state levels. To increase the relevance of
students and teachers both); lack of supervision;           vocational education and reduce unemployment
limited availability of textbooks and other                 among youth in Nigeria, SO8 has also worked to
instructional materials; and poor quality of both           improve skills training and curricula, as well as
teaching and learning. Teacher competency is                introduce market-driven vocational training and
clearly an important determinant of the system’s            life skills education.
performance, and while many factors underlying
this should be addressed, arguably the most                 The Transition Strategy’s SO9 addressed
important are the quality and content of pre-               maternal and child health, reproductive health
service and in-service training programs. This is           and family planning, and HIV/AIDS.      USAID
particularly true given that Nigeria’s current pre-         played a leadership role in polio eradication,


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                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

directly improving the quality and coverage of              Governments, implementing partners, donors,
oral polio vaccination efforts through National             academics, “think tank” heads, civil society
Immunization        Days      (NIDs). The     Polio         organizations (CSOs) and the private sector.
Eradication Initiative (PEI) in Nigeria achieved            The meetings informed USAID of key actors’
an isolation of cases in the north of the country           commitment to and interest in working with
in 2002, helping Nigeria reach the final stages of          USAID, and their views on which strategic
polio eradication. The immunization campaign                options have the greatest potential for success
also provided a vehicle for Vitamin A                       in Nigeria.
supplementation.        Other USAID-led efforts to
improve       nutrition     included   the     first        Among the topics addressed were formulation of
comprehensive and valid national nutrition                  the development hypothesis; indicators that will
survey in 30 years, and promotion of exclusive              signify   achievement     of   results;   creative
breastfeeding in target areas.        USAID also            approaches to achieve synergy with cross-
participates in the Roll Back Malaria Initiative,           cutting themes (gender, conflict mitigation, HIV
supporting the commercial marketing of                      and AIDS, food security, and environmental
insecticide-treated nets in 6 states.                       protection); illustrative activities; geographic
                                                            focus; and the respective roles of USAID, the
SO9 activities have also increased the use of               GON, and other partners.
family planning and improved reproductive
health, filling the gap in unmet demand.                    USAID was encouraged by stakeholders to
Socially-marketed condom sales reached 125                  continue providing a leadership role in advocacy
million in 2002 and DfID contributed $75.5                  with the GON to create an enabling environment
million against USAID’s $35 million to launch the           for commitment to social sector services in all
biggest social marketing program on the African             strategic areas. The Mission was encouraged to
continent. To help address unmet demand for                 continue its work to ensure high quality data is
birth spacing and family planning, training of              collected, collated, and disseminated for
service providers, quality assurance efforts and            program      formulation,   implementation,   and
distribution of socially-marketed contraceptives            monitoring and evaluation. Likewise USAID was
resulted in almost 1.9 million couple-years of              also asked to continue to emphasize community
protection in FY 2002, an increase of 27 percent            participation and empowerment to bring about
over FY 2001. USAID helped increase the                     ownership of projects and to ensure commitment
availability of FP/RH commodities and services              and sustainability.          Successful program
through 2,000 commercial outlets, 3,000                     implementation depends upon collaboration with
community based distributors and over 60                    the private sector.       USAID should continue
private and NGO clinics.                                    collaboration with the private sector and provide
                                                            assistance wherever possible through Global
Under the new strategy, USAID/Nigeria’s                     Development Alliances (GDA) and other
comparative advantage is the integration of its             partnerships.
FP/RH, CS, and education programs under a
combined Strategic Objective. Integrating these             Stakeholders also made specific health sector
sectors will enhance logical links at the impact            recommendations. Men should be involved in
level, improve the opportunities for synergistic            USAID reproductive health and family planning
links at the implementation level, and combine              programming. Routine immunization coverage
under a single SO, the vast majority of                     in Nigeria is low, due in part to funding shifts
USAID/Nigeria’s programs that have an impact                towards polio eradication. Partners emphasized
on the under-15 population, who comprise                    the need to increase resource commitments to
almost half of Nigeria’s population.                        ensure polio eradication and to revitalize routine
                                                            immunization and urged USAID to use its global
D. Consultative Process                                     influence and ask partners to recommit
                                                            resources to major childhood killers including
Throughout the development of SO13, USAID                   measles, whooping cough, and addressing
conducted broad consultation with Nigerian                  diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections.
counterparts and partners to ensure Nigerian                USAID/ Nigeria’s commitment to mitigating the
ownership of priorities and activities articulated          impact    of    HIV/AIDS    in    Nigeria     was
in this strategy.          Informants included              acknowledged and the Mission was requested to
representatives from Federal, State, and Local              increase its activities in collaboration with


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                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

communities, the private sector, and NGOs.                   is growing at a rate of 2.8 percent per year, and
Participants during this process highlighted the             the economy is stagnant. This set of factors,
need for affordable high-quality anti-retroviral             compounded by years of neglect of the social
drugs (ARVs).                                                sectors under military dictatorship, has spelled
                                                             disaster both for service delivery and for human
Specific    education      sector     input     from         impact. Nigeria’s basic health and education
stakeholders included an emphasis on the issue               indicators make a very poor showing against
of girls’ education. USAID was encouraged to                 countries of similar size, against other countries
advocate for the promotion of girl-child                     in sub-Saharan Africa, and even against its own
education      and     to   increase     resources           human development record. Nigeria’s Human
accordingly. The Mission was also encouraged                 Development Index (HDI) has increased only
to continue to work to improve in-service training           marginally during the decade of the 1990s and
for teachers but also to initiate complementary              remains mired in the bottom quarter of all
                                                                                                      96
assistance        for     pre-service       training.        countries for which data are available.      Even
Stakeholders also advocated for continued                    the modest gains recorded are threatened by
support of PTAs and Islamic schools and                      declining immunization coverage, deplorably low
communities, and emphasis on basic skills in                 utilization rates for key services such as
education focusing on “the 3 Rs” (reading,                   antenatal care and malaria prevention, and by
writing and arithmetic).                                     low primary school attendance, retention and
                                                             achievement rates. Encouraging the effective
To provide more depth to the consultative                    use of available services through quality,
process,     USAID    also    undertook    and/or            access, demand and policy improvements is the
participated   in   a    series   of   sub-sector            key to improving social sector outcomes in
assessments during 2002-2003.          The Child             Nigeria.
Survival      Assessment       Report,    Family
Planning/Reproductive      Health    Assessment              Increasing the use of social sector services
Report, LEAP: Situational Analysis, National                 depends on the attainment of certain necessary
Education Baseline Census, Primary Education                 and sufficient conditions: improved quality of
Situation Analysis, and HIV and AIDS                         social sector services, a strengthened enabling
Assessment Report summarize the extent of                    environment, expanded demand, and increased
these sub-sector analyses and provide an                     access     to      inputs    such      as   vaccines,
empirical basis against which strategic choices              contraceptives, textbooks and teaching aids.
were assessed.                                               SO 13 will address quality gaps through
                                                             improved pre- and in-service training and the
The SO13 design also takes into account                      application of standards of practice and quality
lessons learned worldwide from USAID child                   control through improved supervision. Demand
survival, nutrition, family planning, reproductive           creation    will     require   increased      accurate
health, and basic education programs, with                   knowledge of service availability and positive
particular attention to those that have been                 outcomes from using services, and will also
carried out in an integrated manner (Zambia,                 assist communities to identify needs and
Mali, Madagascar and Uganda). In both the                    constraints and ways to address them. Access
health and education sectors, experience has                 includes elements both of availability and the
shown that successful programs almost always                 capacity to use services and must take full
involve a combination of evidence-based and                  cognizance       of    the    overall    socio-cultural
cost effective strategies, solid partnerships and,           environment. Since GON budgets at Federal
where appropriate, national coverage.                        and local levels pay mostly for salaries, leaving
                                                             few resources focused on programs and
E. Development Hypothesis and Strategic                      services,       strengthening        the      enabling
Objective                                                    environment will require creating more public-
                                                             private partnerships.
The current level of human development in
Nigeria, and particularly the situation of children          USAID plans to invest 60 percent of its
and women of reproductive age, has been                      resources at the local and community level, as it
shaped by political and institutional factors that           is at this level at which communities are
have constrained the use of the country’s wealth             mobilized for action; health and education
for balanced development. Nigeria’s population               services are delivered; and impact will take


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                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

place and be measured. It is acknowledged that              three focal areas of the SO will focus on PTAs
local level programming requires strong state               and CAPAs as community partners for
and national support and that many constraints              information dissemination, development of policy
to improving local programs rest at the state and           agendas, and on the ground implementation.
national levels. Consequently, approximately 40             The matrix of prospective interventions is
percent of this SO’s resources will be invested at          summarized in the Venn diagram on page 66.
the national (20 percent) and state (20 percent)
levels. Interventions at the national and state
                                                            The development of SO13 has been based on
levels     are    intended  to   legitimize   and
                                                            the following strategic principles: the program
institutionalize specific approaches, methods
                                                            will    be    customer-driven      and     culturally
and financial commitments in the health and
                                                            appropriate;    it   will   be    developed      and
basic education sectors that have the greatest
                                                            implemented with active stakeholder input and
potential for long-term capacity building,
                                                            participation; every effort will be made to
replication, scale-up and sustainability. It is
                                                            optimize community level implementation; the
expected that this distribution is necessary to
                                                            program will capture opportunities to integrate
have the greatest direct and measurable impact
                                                            health and education; it will promote long-term
on health and education outcomes through
                                                            capacity building and sustainability; all decision-
improvements in the conditions (quality,
                                                            making will build on best practices and past
enabling environment, demand and access)
                                                            successes; and it will be evidence-based and
identified in the development hypothesis.
                                                            informed by a strong analytic foundation. The
Integration:    In support of the development               program will ensure maximum collaboration and
hypothesis, USAID will purposefully integrate               coordination among development partners and
priority health and basic education interventions           will be committed to strengthening public-private
in selected geographic areas to maximize the                partnerships at national, state and local levels.
effectiveness of individual interventions, and to
take      advantage     of     similar    program           Illustrative Indicators for SO13:
implementation modalities. “Integration” in this
context is defined as the implementation of                     •   Children 12-23 months receiving three
social sector interventions at the community                        doses of DPT before their first birthday
level     that    will  achieve     sector-specific                 in target LGAs;
programmatic results while simultaneously                       •   Primary school retention, by sex, in
taking advantage of all opportunities to promote                    target schools;
synergies between health and education.                         •   Contraceptive prevalence rate (modern
Tactically, achievement of such integration will                    methods) among women 15-49 years.
require geographic co-location of health and
education programs as appropriate to the                    F. Critical Assumptions
intervention.
Integrated child survival and basic education                   •   GON political commitment to social
activities     may        include      micronutrient                sector services will improve, and
supplementation in the school setting, or social                    resources to social services will remain
marketing of ITNs and other products through                        stable or increase at all levels;
PTAs or other school- or community-based                        •   USAID and other donor resources for
organizations.       The intersection of family                     social services will remain relatively
planning/reproductive health and child survival                     stable or increase and will be closely
provides opportunities to promote breastfeeding                     coordinated;
both for its benefits to both sides of the equation,            •   Increased private sector partnerships in
and to communicate the positive health impacts                      delivery of social sector services can be
of family planning interventions such as child                      stimulated;
spacing for both mothers and children. While                    •   Localized conflict will continue but will
joint family planning/reproductive health and                       not get substantially worse.
basic education activities are not anticipated in
school settings, communities have shown their
receptiveness       to     culturally    appropriate
community based dialogue on reproductive
health issues for young people. Integration of all


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                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

                                                              •   Develop and implement institutional
                                                                  management       systems     based    on
                                                                  performance improvement approaches
G. Intermediate Results                                           and using data for decision-making;
                                                              •   Share    best    practices   in   quality
IR 13.1 Improved quality of social sector                         assurance methods, approaches and
services                                                          tools.

The real and perceived quality of health and              IR13.2 Strengthened enabling environment
basic education services greatly influences the
level of social sector service use. In the health         The federal government has established a
and education sectors, while state-of-the-art             generally favorable policy environment for social
standards of practice may exist on paper,                 sector service delivery, including recent national
teachers and health care providers are often not          policies on population, reproductive health, the
trained in their use, whether in a pre-servi ce or        multisectoral HIV and AIDS Emergency Action
in-service setting.      Among those trained,             Plan, UBE, and the belated launching of the
teachers and health care providers are rarely             1994 National Food and Nutrition Policy. These
adequately monitored or supervised, and,                  federal policies are complemented by similar
consequently,         procedures often are not            policies and/or strategic documents at the state
adhered to; barriers to improved performance              level. There exist, however, numerous systemic
are not addressed; and the clients’ perceptions           barriers to their full implementation that cut
of service quality are not fully integrated into          across several sectors. First, the re-imposition
program      planning    and    service   delivery        of high taxes and tariffs on nets and insecticides
approaches.       Although the GON has made               has effectively undermined progress in the ITN
great strides since 1999 in drafting and/or               program to date, and requires attention by the
reinvigorating many relevant national policies to         SO13 team as well as colleagues addressing
guide provision of social sector services, gaps           barriers to private sector growth under SO12
remain. Significant assistance is needed to get           and to governance under SO11.               Second,
what is on paper operational, and to assure that          unclear roles, non-enforced policies and weak
minimal levels of quality can be provided,                coordination similarly hamper the capacity to
particularly at the LGA and community level               achieve high levels of routine immunization
where most results accrue.                                coverage.      Instead, the National Program on
                                                                           N
                                                          Immunization ( PI), a parastatal agency related
Illustrative Indicators:                                  to the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH), has
                                                          focused most of its attention on the NIDS for
    •   Teachers’/providers’ compliance with              polio eradication.      Establishment of improved
        basic quality standards in target LGAs;           vaccine procurement procedures in particular
    •   Client/customer/pupil/parent satisfaction         may require collaboration of SOs 12 (private
        with services used;                               sector) and 11 (governance).           Third, while
    •   Increased      English     literacy  and          various policies call for routine Vitamin A
        numeracy scores of students in target             supplementation to be integrated within facility
        LGAs;                                             services, there is little evidence that this is
    •   Public and private facilities meeting             happening.           Increased     advocacy     and
        national service standards for priority           participatory fora need to demonstrate practical
        interventions in target LGAs.                     means of achievement.          Fourth, although the
                                                          national population policy was revised in 2001,
Illustrative Activities:                                  efforts to have the policy approved by the
                                                          President and the Federal Executive Council
    •   Develop/revise standards of practice              have thus far not met with success. Fifth, the
        (SOPs) for target impact services and             UBE legislation has languished for more than
        disseminate/train throughout the service          two years and the current version of the Bill is
        systems;                                          still unclear and inconsistent about roles and
    •   Develop and implement pre-service and             responsibilities for the federal, state and local
        in-service training curriculum that are           governments. Facilitation of dialogue to move
        based on the SOPs and developed for               these “paper policies” to useful implementation
        specific client populations;                      is indicated.


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                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

                                                           knowledgeable client or student from acting on
Illustrative Indicators:                                   the demand that does exist.

    •   Targeted policies modified/enacted at              Illustrative Indicators:
        the national level (index);
    •   Key enabling legislation/ regulations/                 •   Clients seen by health providers, by sex
        procedures aligned with policies;                          and age, in target LGAs;
    •   New resources leveraged by private                     •   Condoms and other contraceptives sold,
        sector alliances (communities, NGOs,                       nationally;
        Global Development Alliance – GDA).                    •   Schools implementing girl friendly
                                                                   approaches;
Illustrative Activities:                                       •   Pre-packaged      drugs   (PPDs)     and
                                                                                                I
                                                                   insecticide treated bednets (TNs) sold,
    •   Support the development of community                       nationally.
        partnerships and participatory planning;
    •   Support the development of improved                Illustrative Activities:
        policies and action plans;
    •   Advocate for greater national, state, and              •   Develop and integrate BCC for child
        LGA resources and use for health and                       survival, reproductive health and basic
        education;                                                 education;
    •   Develop donor and private sector                       •   Undertake      operations   research  to
        partnerships to leverage new resources;                    improve understanding of the factors
    •   Improve      information    systems     for                affecting     behavior     change    and
        management,        decision-making    and                  expanded demand;
        advocacy;                                              •   Expand and strengthen social marketing
    •   Develop national, state and local                          for selected products and services;
        capabilities in planning, implementation               •   Scale     up    successful    models  of
        and evaluation of programs.                                community mobilization for demand
                                                                   expansion.
IR13.3       Expanded       demand             for
improved Social Sector Services                            IR13.4 Increased  access             to     services,
                                                           commodities and materials
Lack of demand is considered a key contributing
factor to poor performance of the social sectors           The concept of “access” is multi-dimensional.
in Nigeria. Lack of demand for health services             For the purposes of this strategy, access
may result from inadequate or incorrect                    includes the availability of services, commodities
knowledge of disease transmission, prevention              and materials (their physical presence in the
and treatment. Within the basic education                  marketplace and/or facility).         Access also
system, families may not be aware of the                   encompasses the ability of individuals, families
opportunities that would result from investments           and communities to avail themselves of those
in girls’ education. In other cases, knowledge             services, commodities and materials. Increasing
may be high, but individuals and community                 access in both of its dimensions will require
members lack the will to act on the knowledge              greater synergies in the development of logistics
by making timely and appropriate decisions                 supply systems; greater equity in pricing
about health care and education opportunities.             structures; greater diversity in the range of
Provider biases in the delivery of health care             providers so as to minimize the distance to
and teacher biases in classroom instruction                service;    and     strengthened       public-private
often result in the poor quality of those services,        partnerships to maximize service and product
leaving     clients    and students     with    low        access.
expectations and little motivation to return to a
service delivery point or to the classroom.                At the community level, cultural issues must be
Equally important are constraints within the               more fully incorporated into health and basic
community or the family (including opportunity             education activities, including consideration of
costs)     that     impede  a     motivated     and        gender roles, opportunity costs and individual
                                                           motivation.  Conversely, in some regions of


                                                      60
                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

Nigeria, and especially in the urban southwest,              Box 6: Target State Selection Criteria
demand for commodities and services is high,
but cannot be met. It is important that demand                     Critical need
                                                                   Opportunities for synergy with other SOs
not be further expanded, if the commodities and                    Opportunity to address cross cutting issues
services required to satisfy that demand cannot                    Presence of other donors
be ensured.                                                        Ability to build on past investments
                                                                   U. S. national interest
                                                                   Potential to achieve results and impact
Illustrative indicators:                                           Population coverage
                                                                   USAID comparative advantage
    •   Facilities    offering   Family     Planning/              Opportunity for scaling-up, replicability and
                                                                   sustainability
        Reproductive Health services;
    •   Primary Gender Parity Index in target
        LGAs;
                                                             Given low resource levels, integrated primary
    •   Classrooms        equipped     with     basic
                                                             education, child survival, and FP/RH will be
        instructional materials;
                                                             mounted in no more than five states. USAID’s
    •   Facilities offering routine immunization in
                                                             initial target states for integrated social sector
        target LGAs;
                                                             services programming will be Kano, Lagos, and
    •   Vitamin A sold/distributed, nationally.              Nasarawa States, with some activities in Bauchi
                                                             State and/or the Federal Capital Territory.
Illustrative Activities:                                     Activities in these five states will reach an
                                                             estimated 21,100,000 people (based on 2000
    •   Develop initiatives directed to special              DfID data), or 16% of the total Nigerian
        groups such as girls, adolescents, Islamic           population. Because these are also five of the
        schools, OVC, FBOs, uniformed services,              seven target states for SO14, program synergies
        and hard-to-reach populations;
                                                             will be possible and pursued.
    •   Develop     and    provide     supplemental
        teaching and learning materials;
                                                             I. Cross Cutting and Converging Themes
    •   Strengthen commodity logistics systems;
    •   Develop cost recovery systems, including             Gender:          Although    gender      roles vary
        innovative community financing;                      considerably from state to state, in general
    •   Improve vaccine security.                            young girls have less access to education than
                                                             boys, and both men and women face numerous
H. Geographic Focus                                          cultural barriers to accessing RH services. In
                                                             addition, women face many cultural practices
Although the magnitude of total USAID funding                which are harmful to their reproductive health.
for Nigeria is one of the highest in Sub-Saharan             SO13 will incorporate approaches that have
Africa, consideration of health and education                proven successful in addressing such barriers
funding on a per capita basis paints a different             and will promote equity in service delivery where
picture. These levels of are among the lowest in             possible.      Development and use of gender-
Africa.    The size and diversity of Nigeria’s               neutral training materials, methods, and
population, and geopolitical imperatives, must               curriculum, for example, will be common across
always be considered in any discussion of                    sub-sectors.        BCC approaches and social
funding levels, coverage or impact. Although                 marketing campaigns will specifically address
some programs will clearly be targeted at                    gender roles. PTAs will be assisted to establish
national level, resource constraints dictate that            “girl-friendly” schools, and to understand why
focused programs must be limited to selected                 such might be necessary. Ambassador’s Girls
states.                                                      Scholarships, financed under the Africa
                                                             Education Initiative, will assist girls to make the
                                                             transition from primary to junior secondary
                                                             schooling.      Sex disaggregated data will be
                                                             collected, shared, and interpreted to promote a
                                                             broader understanding of gender differentials in
                                                             use of social sector services.




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                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

Conflict:      SO13 activities will incorporate             transparency and accountability will be central to
inclusive, participatory processes that foster              sensitization and training efforts on constitutional
collaborative engagement.       Implementation will         responsibility,      oversight       of       policy
be undertaken through instruments that provide              implementation, and budget formulation and
adequate flexibility to adjust if conflict precludes        reporting.
work in a given area for a period of time. Also
noted is that access to social services is                  Civil society’s role will also continue to be
disrupted by conflict, which causes social                  strengthened to ensure a productive partnership
indicators to decline. Conflict mitigation is key to        with the public sector based on transparency
achieving results under SO13.                               and accountability.          Advocacy activities
                                                            conducted by media, PTAs, NGOs, CBOs and
Food Security:       SO13 will place particular             FBOs can continue to push for increased
emphasis on decreasing malaria morbidity that               transparency in health and education programs
inhibits nutrient intake and drains labor from              at the national, state and local levels. SO 13 will
food production, improving access to and                    draw on lessons learned and materials and
demand for Vitamin A and other key                          curricula developed under SO 11 to strengthen
micronutrients, and incorporating nutrition and,            its program in these areas.
possibly, school gardens into primary schools. If
adequate funds are available, SO13 will also                Global Development Alliances and Other
work on improving infant feeding practices (e.g.,           Partnerships:      Increased participation of the
breastfeeding).                                             private sector is important if social sector
                                                            services are to meet real and perceived
HIV/AIDS: In SO13, HIV/AIDS awareness and                   demand. In addition to owning and operating
prevention will, where appropriate, be integrated           private facilities, the private sector provides
into health and education activities. Prevention            direct and indirect support to public services
of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS will            through provision of scholarships, classrooms
provide a major contribution to SO13’s child                and instructional materials for education, of
survival activities. Children born to infected              worksite programs for primary and reproductive
mothers in Nigeria are left with little chance of           health care, and of pre-paid managed care and
survival. While with healthy mothers exclusive              insurance schemes for health care. The private
                i
breastfeeding s a major child survival thrust, an           sector is also an increasingly important actor in
infected mother is left with fewer options.                 production and/or marketing of social sector
PMTCT therefore will cut across maternal health             commodities ranging from pharmaceuticals to
and child survival interventions.                           textbooks      to    communication     technology.
                                                            Recognizing also USAID’s Global Development
Environment: SO13 activities are expected to                Alliance focus and USAID/Nigeria’s commitment
have no negative environmental consequences,                to pursue such partnerships through the strategy
and if successful should contribute to an                   period, SO 13 will work with the private sector
improved environment over time. Possibilities               much more closely over the coming five years.
will be pursued for modest work with PTAs,                  USAID will build on successful partnerships,
community-based planning and other local                    such as the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) with
groups to improve environmental sanitation                  Rotary International, UNICEF, WHO and CDC.
around schools, e.g. latrines, waste water
disposal, and drainage.                                     J. Linkages

Transparency:       The Mission has identified                  •   With other SOs
national and state legislatures as the key
governance      arena   in   which     democratic           SO11: Where appropriate, SO13 will work with
accountability can be strengthened. These fora              SO11 to develop pre- and in-service training and
represent major conduits for public input into the          other USAID-sponsored fora to include and
policy-making processes (e.g., from civil society)          advocate “culture of peace” concepts and
and constitute critical checks on the executive             methods, including promoting topic-specific
                                       3
branch in policy-making. The SO 1 Enabling                  dialogue and communication among disparate
Environment IR will target legislators to build             groups.      Legislative and policy advocacy
commitment, and transparent leadership, for                 directed at the executive, judiciary and
health and education activities. Principles of              legislature with respect to such issues as girl-


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                      USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

child education and child rights will provide              Education for All Fast Track Initiative (FTI): FTI
additional entry points for such linkages.                 is focused on a limited number of countries, 18
                                                           of which are full members with another 5
SO12: The SO13 team will consult with the                  considered “Analytical Fast Track”. Nigeria is
SO12 team to assure that the interaction of                one of the latter group, also known as the “Big
population and environment is incorporated into            Five”, as these countries are characterized by
its policy and advocacy work in pursuit of                 large populations of children who are out of
IR13.2.      SO13 and SO12 teams will also                 school. The support being provided will be used
collaborate to support implementation of the               to fill policy, capacity, and data gaps.
government’s Food and Nutrition Policy.        In
terms of the three dimensions of food security,            Presidential Initiative on HIV/AIDS, Malaria and
SO12 will address food access (by increasing               Tuberculosis: The Global Fund has approved
incomes to buy food through microenterprise)               $17,828,008 for Nigeria in the second round of
and availability (through agricultural production          approvals. The main objective of the program is
activities).  SO13’s comparative advantage is              to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by
addressing the third dimension of food security,           malaria by 30% by the year 2007 through the
biophysical utilization of food.                           following interventions: increase in access to
                                                           ITNs; improved prompt access to prepackaged
SO14: SOs 13 and 14 have been developed to                 drugs; and improved access to intermittent
assure maximum cross-fertilization of inputs and           preventive therapy for pregnant women.
results during implementation. The two SOs
share fve target states – Lagos, Kano, Bauchi,
        i                                                      •   With GON initiatives
Nasarawa and the FCT – and expect to obtain
particularly strong synergies in those states in           SO13 will be implemented in close collaboration
advocacy and improvement of the enabling                   with the GON and other development partners.
environment for social sector services overall.            USAID’s partnership with the GON in the social
Joint efforts in condom social marketing and               sectors is mature and is expected to remain
selected other FP/RH activities (STI prevention            productive under the new strategy.      USAID is
and treatment, PMTCT and ante-natal care,                  active in a number of collaborative fora in which
commodity logistics and management) are                    the government, NGOs, and the private sector
natural areas for collaboration. There is strong           participate. Specifically, USAID participates in
potential to mobilize more mature PTAs and                 the Inter-Agency Coordinating Committee (ICC)
communities engaged in CAPA to address                     for coordination of routine and supplemental
educational and other needs of OVC. In close               polio eradication activities, as well as the
consultation with Nigerian partners, the two               Nutrition Partners Coordinating Committee. It is
teams will also explore the feasibility of                 also one of the Roll Back Malaria Partners,
engaging community-based organizations to                  which work to improve malaria programs and
expand activities in HIV/AIDS awareness and                towards meeting the Abuja summit goals.
prevention, stigma reduction, and possibly in              USAID also participates in the GON committee
care and support of persons living with                    established to revitalize the Annual Education
HIV/AIDS.                                                  Census, which in 2002 succeeded in the first
                                                           systematic collection, analysis and reporting of
    •   With Agency/Presidential Initiatives and           education data since 1995.
        regional programs
                                                           The GON pioneered the Strategic Pathway to
Africa Education Initiative:   This initiative will        Reproductive     Health    Commodity    Security
address quality issues in basic education by               worldwide.      USAID has made significant
supporting improved pre-service and in-service             contributions to the field test of SPARCHS in
teacher training. The initiative also focuses on           Nigeria and remains one of two major donors
equitable access for girls and education for               that are supporting the global framework to
Islamic communities. USAID/Nigeria has already             ensure commodity security.       Under the new
undertaken the implementation of activities                strategy, USAID will continue to encourage the
under this initiative in its basic education               government to create and maintain the right
program.                                                   environment to support the commercial (for-
                                                           profit) sector in RH service delivery and be



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                     USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

included in key policy decision-making efforts           Across sectors it will be necessary to improve
related to reproductive health.                          the working environment for donor community
                                                         coordination of interventions. This will involve
    •   With other donors                                continued informal contacts among core groups
                                                         and consultations on programmatic and
USAID is currently the largest bilateral donor in        implementation levels of service delivery.
terms of technical leadership. USAID occupies
a prominent position on the coordinating body
for the National Program on Immunization, and
on the Core Technical Committee of that body.
USAID works with WHO, UNICEF, Rotary
International Polio Plus, the Red Cross, the EU,
DfID, JICA, CIDA and Medecins sans Frontieres
(MSF, Doctors without Borders) in polio
eradication. All partners are equally involved in
rejuvenating the routine immunization system. In
nutrition, the key players in Nigeria include
WHO, UNICEF, USAID, NPC and FMOH are the
key players, working with Helen Keller
International, National Primary Health Care
Development Agency, Standards Organization
of Nigeria, National Agency for Food and Drug
Administration and Control, and the Federal
Ministry of Information and National Orientation.
The Roll Back Malaria Partners Forum,
comprising USAID, WHO, UNICEF, MOH, DfID,
UNDP, JICA, and CIDA have met regularly over
the past three years.

USAID, UNFPA and DfID are the primary
population, family planning and reproductive
health donors. USAID and DfID have partnered
to support a hugely successful contraceptive
social marketing program and will continue to
strengthen     the    partnership.    The     RH
Development       Partners    Forum,  comprising
USAID, WHO, UNFPA, DfID, FMOH, Packard
Foundation, International Project Assistance
Services and the Society of Obstetricians and
Gynecologists of Nigeria have met regularly
since the year 2001 and had significant input
into the National Reproductive Health Policy and
the Strategic Framework.

In education, USAID/Nigeria co-chairs the
Donors        Coordinating    Committee       and
programmatically works in close collaboration
with the donors active in the education sector,
including: the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO,
DfID and JICA. The work UNICEF has done in
Northern Nigeria with Islamic schools (in
particular in curriculum development for literacy
and life skills training) has both informed
USAID’s current program and opened the door
for future activities.



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                                                 USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

K. Results Framework




                                                                   SO13 Results Framework



                                                                                                          Illustrative Indicators for SO13:
                                                                      SO13: Increased Use
                                                                        of Social Sector                  •Children 12-23 months receiving three doses of DPT
                                                                                                          before their first birthday in target LGAs;
                                                                            Services                      •Primary school retention, by sex, in target schools;
                                                                                                          •Contraceptive prevalence rate (modern methods)
                                                                                                          among women 15-49 years




                                                          IR13.2                                        IR13.3                                          IR13.4
              IR13.1                              Strengthened enabling                          Expanded demand for                             Increased access to
     Improved quality of social                        environment                               improved social sector                       services, commodities and
          sector services                                                                              services                                        materials


     Illustrative Indicators:                  Illustrative Indicators:                       Illustrative Indicators:                        Illustrative indicators:

     •Teachers'/providers' compliance          •Targeted policies modified/enacted at         •Clients seen by health providers, by           •Facilities offering Family Planning/
     with basic quality standards in target    the national level (index);                    sex and age, in target LGAs;                    Reproductive Health services;
     LGAs;                                     •Key enabling legislation/ regulations/        •Condoms and other contraceptives               •Primary Gender Parity Index in target LGAs;
     •Client/customer/pupil/parent             procedures aligned with policies;              sold, nationally;                               •Classrooms equipped with basic
     satisfaction with services used;          •New resources leveraged by private            •Schools implementing girl friendly             instructional materials;
     •Increased English literacy and           sector alliances (communities, NGOs,           approaches;                                     •Facilities offering routine immunization in
     numeracy scores of students in target     Global Development Alliance - GDA).            •PPDs and ITNs sold, nationally.                target LGAs;
     LGAs;                                                                                                                                    •Vitamin A sold/distributed, nationally.
     •Public and private facilities meeting
     national service standards for priority
     interventions in target LGAs.




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                  USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


L. Venn Diagram




                                                                 NO JOINT
                                                                 ACTIVITY                FAMILY PLANNING/
                  BASIC EDUCATION                                                      REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
                  LITERACY/NUMERACY
                  GIRLS ENROLLMENT/RETENTION                                          CONTRACEPTIVE SOCIAL MARKETING/CLINICAL
                                                                                                    METHODS
                  TEACHER TRAINING
                                                                                              POST ABORTION CARE
                                                             USE OF PTAs/CAPAs AS
                                                                                               SAFE MOTHERHOOD
                                                             COMMUNITY PARTNERS
                                                             FOR ALL 3 SPHERES:
                                                             1. INFORMATION
                                                             DISSEMINATION
                                                             2. DEVELOPMENT OF
                                                             POLICY AGENDAS AND
                                                             ADVOCACY
                                                             3. IMPLEMENTATION
                                                             OF CS AND F/RH
                                                             ACTIVITIES


                                                                                EG: BREASTFEEDING
                                      EG: MICRONUTRIANTS
                                                                                AS PART OF CS
                                      IN SCHOOL SETTING,
                                                                                ACTIVITY, BIRTH
                                      AS PART OFCS
                                                                                SPACING AND FOCUS
                                      ACTIVITY
                                                                                ON HEALTH IMPACT OF
                                                                                FP/RH




                                                           CHILD SURVIVAL
                                                           NUTRITION
                                                           IMMUNIZATIONS
                                                           MALARIA




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                      USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

VIII.   SO14: Reduced Impact of                           already shortages of teachers, farmers, and
        HIV/AIDS in Selected States                       health and other essential professionals due to
                                                          HIV/AIDS, and it is likely that this trend will
A. Statement of the Strategic Objective                   increase in the years to come. The threat to
                                                          security in the country and the region as a whole
USAID/Nigeria’s new Strategic Objective for               is enormous.      The U.S. Central Intelligence
HIV/AIDS is SO 14: Reduced Impact of                      Agency recently postulated that HIV/AIDS is a
HIV/AIDS in Selected States.       Through the            greater threat to world stability than terrorism,
provision of a comprehensive range of services            and Nigeria has been identified as one of five
concentrated in focal states, this SO aims to             “next wave” countries that will double or triple
prevent HIV transmission and alleviate the                HIV prevalence worldwide over the next
                                                                  97
suffering caused by HIV/AIDS. Prevalence will             decade.
be stabilized among the general population and
reduced among the most at-risk populations,               USAID/Nigeria’s SO14 will address this growing
and impact will be measured by reductions in              threat in selected Nigerian states through three
HIV prevalence. A Sub-SO, Increased Use of                intermediate results: increased demand for
HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis Services and                    services and interventions, increased access
Practices in Selected States, supports the SO             to quality services, and strengthened public,
by promoting risk reduction and health seeking            private      and      community        enabling
behaviors that are necessary prerequisites to             environments.       The SO is designed to
changes in prevalence.                                    contribute to the resolution of key constraints
                                                          and barriers to the kinds of behavior change at
Nigeria’s first confirmed case of HIV infection           all levels that is necessary to reducing the
was recorded in 1986. The emergence of the                impact of the epidemic in Nigeria, and also
epidemic over the next 13 years coincided with            expanding     the   availability of   prevention,
an extended period of military dictatorship in the        treatment, care and support programs. SO14
country, which provided a negative environment            supports one Agency goal, The World’s
for the development of a coordinated, proactive           Population Stabilized and Human Health
response to the HIV/AIDS threat. Denial and               Protected.
stigma were characteristic of the military era and
the epidemic was essentially allowed to grow              B. Statement of the Development Problem
unchecked. When democracy was restored to
Nigeria in 1999 the new government was                    HIV and Tuberculosis prevalence: Over the past
confronted with a national seroprevalence rate of         twelve years, HIV seroprevalence in Nigeria has
5.4 percent among adults, or close to three               more than tripled from 1.8 percent in 1991 to 5.8
                                                                           98
million infections. These estimates have since            percent in 2001.      The Federal Government of
risen to 5.8 percent prevalence and four million          Nigeria (GON) currently reports that 4 million
Nigerian men and women living with HIV/AIDS.              Nigerians live with HIV/AIDS and that 900,000
Close to one million children have been                   children have been orphaned by AIDS, though
orphaned by HIV/AIDS and millions of others               much higher estimates of the extent and impact
have been socially, economically and/or                   of the disease have been made.            Factors
psychologically impacted by the disease.                  contributing to the rapid spread of the disease
                                                          include high levels of untreated sexually-
While the democratic transition has seen a                transmitted infections (STIs), low condom use,
strengthened national response to the epidemic,           poverty, low literacy, poor health status, low
in the near term the outlook is devastating.              status of women, stigmatization, and denial of
Predictions are that there will be an exponential         HIV infection among vulnerable groups.
increase in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS; in the
number of people living with AIDS who will suffer         Although HIV prevalence in Nigeria is lower than
opportunistic    infections     (OI),   especially        in neighboring African countries, the prevalence
tuberculosis, and will need treatment; in the             rate should be considered in the context of the
number of women who will transmit HIV to their            country’s population of approximately 135 million
babies; in the number of orphans who will                 and the quality of current surveillance efforts.
require care and support; and in the number of            Seroprevalence data, which are collected from
children under age five who will succumb to the           women seeking antenatal care, need to be
illness. Some experts believe that there are              interpreted with caution because only 65 percent


                                                     67
                      USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

of women seek care at antenatal clinics, and this         TB needs to be seen in the context of HIV,
                              99
varies by geopolitical zone.       It is also not         which contributes significantly to increasing TB
certain to what extent the sentinel population in         rates. Thus, the strategy is also designed to
general and pregnant women in particular are              minimize the impact of HIV on TB.
representative of the national population.
Behavioral surveillance of certain high risk              The current state of the art points to DOTS as
groups has been initiated recently; a 2001                the most cost-effective prevention and treatment
survey of prostitutes found that whereas nearly           intervention for TB. Because TB is more easily
100 percent of commercial sex workers had                 transmitted than HIV, the best way to prevent TB
heard of HIV/AIDS and 80 percent knew that                transmission is to identify and then cure those
HIV is transmitted through sex, less than 40              with active infections. Government commitment
percent knew that failure to use condoms                  is the cornerstone of any sustained TB control
increases risk, while only 24 percent knew that a         program.
                                              100
healthy looking person could be HIV-positive.
                                                          Geographic areas: There is wide variation in
While the exact number of HIV positive                    HIV prevalence among the six geopolitical zones
Nigerians may not be known, experts agree that            in Nigeria.    The South-South zone has the
the country has the highest number of HIV                 highest seroprevalence (7.7 percent) and the
infected adults and AIDS orphans in West                  North West the lowest (3.3 percent). According
Africa, that it accounts for nearly 10 percent of         to a recent USAID assessment of northern
                                                                   102
AIDS cases worldwide and that the potential               Nigeria,     zonal medians often mask state
impact of the disease represents the number               differences.     Additionally there are many
one security issue both for the country and the           “hotspots”, locations such as junction towns
region as a whole. Along with Ethiopia, China,            where the probability of HIV transmission is
India and Russia, Nigeria is projected to be one          high, that are not necessarily limited by state
of the five “next wave” countries that will double        boundaries. TB may be especially prevalent in
or triple the number of global HIV cases by               the North where providers have difficulty
2010.      This potential for explosive growth is         accessing TB medications.
fueled by the high proportion of young Nigerians
and the early age of first sexual intercourse.            Age profile: Based on sentinel surveillance data
                                      P
People living with HIV and AIDS ( LWHA) are               of women seeking antenatal care, HIV
routinely stigmatized and denied basic rights,            prevalence is highest in young adults aged
driving the disease underground and making it             15-29, at 6 percent in 2001, and is a shocking
difficult to address.                                     1.7 percent among young women less than
                                                          15 years old. Some 44 percent of Nigerians are
Nigeria also has the fourth largest tuberculosis          under 15 years of age and have an early age of
(TB) burden in the world with some 300,000                sexual debut. More than 25 percent of women
cases, but only 10-15 percent of active cases             have sex by age 15 and 50 percent by age
                                                              103
are detected. This is well below the target of 70         18.
percent in directly-observed therapy (DOTS)
designated areas.         The DOTS treatment              HIV Transmission modes and most-at-risk
success rate was 79 percent in 2000; however,             populations (MARPs): Seroprevalence data on
a high default rate of 11 percent keeps the               subpopulations other than women at antenatal
treatment success rate below the global target of         clinics are not routinely collected on a national
            101
85 percent.          u
                 Of f rther concern is the rise in        basis. Up to 15 percent of HIV transmission in
HIV-TB co-infection. HIV prevalence among TB              Nigeria is thought to occur through blood
patients has increased from 2.2 percent in 1991           transfusions;       and        women       during
to 19 percent in 2000.        Approximately one           pregnancy/childbirth and young children receive
                                                                                              104
million Nigerians are infected with both HIV and          at least 70 percent of transfusions.
TB and another 50,000 will be added each year.
                                                          Very little has been done to identify, let alone
TB needs to be seen in two ways. First, it is a           assess the impact of at-risk populations on HIV
disease in and of itself. The strategy is also            transmission.    Approximately 80 percent of
designed to contain and then reduce TB                    Nigeria’s HIV infection is transmitted through
prevalence    by   increasing   detection   and           heterosexual contact.      Three MARPs are
successful treatment of the disease. Second,              thought to account for most of this transmission.


                                                     68
                     USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

These are prostitutes, long-distance truck               local NGOs (half of which are faith-based) and
drivers and members of the uniformed services.           support to projects for PLWHA as well as people
However, there are no recent seroprevalence              affected by HIV/AIDS (PABA). USAID initiated
surveys among prostitutes and no published               Nigeria’s first two community based orphans and
surveys for their primary clients.     Clients of        vulnerable children projects, and was also the
prostitutes are thought to be important “bridge”         first donor to support groups specifically for HIV
populations for the spread of HIV from at-risk           positive women.          Since 2000, USAID has
populations to the general population.                   supported      Nigeria’s    uniformed  forces    to
                                                         strengthen their HIV/AIDS activities, reaching a
The most recent data indicate that HIV                   population of 600,000 service people with 2.5
prevalence rose from 2 percent in 1988–89                million dependents.
among prostitutes in Lagos to 12 percent in
1990–91. By 1995–96, up to 70 percent of                 Transition strategy programming also initiated a
                             105
prostitutes tested positive.     A recent study          change in implementation style from targeting
carried out among a small sample of injecting            individual FBOs and NGOs to one that targets
drug users found that HIV prevalence was 8.9             “multiplier” organizations. These organizations
percent, and among non-injecting drug users it           are national-level agencies that have many
was 10 percent. Prevalence among female drug             chapters or branches, such that a policy adopted
users was 10 times higher than among men (44             at the national level is disseminated to the many
                                    106
percent compared with 4.2 percent).     Although         local chapters. Initial work with organizations
the size of these populations is believed to be          such as the Catholic Church (18 million
small, these high rates suggest that these               congregants) and the Nigerian Labour Congress
groups may be significant transmitters of the            (6 million members) has demonstrated that
disease. Two behavioral surveillance surveys             targeting such institutions is an effective way of
were conducted in 1999 and 2001 of limited               going to scale and of extending reach from the
samples of prostitutes and some other                    national to the grassroots level.
presumed at-risk populations.      The findings
indicate little knowledge of primary modes of            The program also supports national efforts in
transmission, inconsistent condom use and low            policy development, advocacy and, through the
                             107
perceptions of personal risk.                            largest social marketing project in Africa, co-
                                                         funded     with   DfID,   a  behavior    change
C. USAID Achievements and Comparative                    communication campaign promoting Abstinence,
Advantage                                                Being faithful, correct and consistent Condom
                                                         use (ABC) and condom social marketing. In the
With the installation of a democratically elected        past three years, condom sales have nearly
president in 1999, USAID increased its support           tripled and with USAID assistance, a committee
to Nigeria and renewed its ties with government.         has been formed to create a unified national
Priority was given to HIV/AIDS in the four-year          BCC strategy.        Other major achievements
transition strategy and funding has increased            include assistance to the Catholic Church's
considerably over the past four years, from a            national HIV/AIDS policy, and ongoing care and
total of $5.5 million focused mainly on                  support for over 6,000 PLWHA and OVC.
prevention from 1992-98 to an expanded
program of $36 million from 1999 to 2002. In             The Transition Strategy also began integrating
FY 20002, USAID became the country’s largest             HIV/AIDS across the portfolio. HIV prevention
HIV/AIDS donor and in FY 2003, the HIV/AIDS              messages and counseling are integrated into
budget reached nearly $25 million, of which over         family planning services and the White Ribbon
$5 million is designated for prevention of mother        symbolizing     safe    motherhood has been
to child transmission (PMTCT) programs.                  combined with the HIV/AIDS red ribbon to
                                                         become the Red and White Ribbon symbol of
Transition strategy programming has focused              PMTCT.        OVC and PLWHA programs have
primarily on increasing access to such                   included pilot efforts to mitigate the pandemic’s
comprehensive services as community-based                impact, including microfinance and income
care and support, voluntary counseling and               generating activities.    HIV/AIDS funding has
testing     (VCT)    and      behavior    change         supported efforts to build capacity at the
interventions. USAID has been recognized for             National Assembly by focusing on sector related
its support of capacity building efforts with 110        legislation and issues. Working closely with the


                                                    69
                      USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

Embassy, the Mission was instrumental in the               multisectoral, multifaceted approach led by key
creation of the Nigerian Business HIV/AIDS                 national, state and local institutions from both
Coalition and also worked closely with CDC to              the public and private sectors. The meetings
develop the nation’s most comprehensive                    also confirmed the willingness and interest of
PMTCT activity to date.                                    key actors to work with USAID, such as the
                                                           petroleum sector which welcomes USAID
Since 1999, the GON has shown greater                      assistance in its work in the Delta.
commitment to fighting the AIDS epidemic, as
evidenced        by     President       Obasanjo’s         Among the topics addressed were the
internationally recognized leadership role, the            formulation of the development hypothesis;
establishment of AIDS Action Committees at all             creative approaches to achieve synergy with SO
levels of government, and its commitment of                13 and cross-cutting themes (gender, conflict
financial and other resources, including the               mitigation, transparency and accountability, food
creation of the largest anti-retroviral (ARV)              security,     and      environmental   protection);
program in Africa. USAID has responded by                  illustrative activities; geographic focus; target
providing assistance to develop the HIV/AIDS               populations; culturally appropriate behavior
Emergency Action Plan (HEAP) that guides the               change strategies; commodities and supplies;
multisectoral national effort, and to draft the new        monitoring and evaluation; and the respective
national HIV/AIDS policy. The Mission has also             roles of USAID, the GON, and other partners.
provided intensive support to the National Action
Committee on AIDS (NACA), including support                To provide greater depth to the consultative
for legislation to legalize its status, to hire            process and an empirical basis against which to
critically needed key staff, and for a mapping of          assess strategic choices, USAID conducted a
the sector’s government and donor supported                series of assessments and studies during 2002-
activities.                                                2003 (see Annex 2 for a comprehensive list). In
                                                           addition to structured consultative meetings and
The current program is being implemented                   formal assessments, USAID conducted formal
through several implementing partners (IPs).               and informal meetings with a variety of
These IPs work through 110 local agencies                  stakeholders, including PLWHA. The Mission
towards the common objective: “Increased Use               conducted a number of consultations with NACA
of    Family   Planning/MCH/STD    and    HIV              and the SACAs in Anambra, Lagos, Taraba and
Preventive Measures within a supportive Policy             Kano states to register their needs and priorities.
Environment.”     The Mission undertook a                  In collaboration with the U.S. Embassy, USAID
consolidation process toward the end of the                created a U.S. Business Forum on HIV/AIDS
transition phase that concentrated most                    that provided critical data on the needs of this
HIV/AIDS activities in four states: Anambra,               sector and led to President Obasanjo’s creation
Lagos, Taraba and Kano.                                    of a Nigerian Business Coalition against
                                                           HIV/AIDS.       USAID has also participated in
D. Consultative Process                                    recent national FBO meetings and has used
                                                           these fora to explore further collaboration
In developing SO 14 the Mission consulted with             between USAID’s HIV/AIDS strategy and FBOs
a broad range of government agencies at the                at both national and state levels.
national, state and local levels, international
donors,     faith-based     and    community-level         The SO 14 design incorporates the views and
organizations, academics, and representatives              priorities of these stakeholders as well as
of the business and commercial sectors,                    lessons learned from prior experience in Nigeria,
including petrochemical companies.          These          other African countries and developing countries
exchanges provided the Mission with critical               worldwide. In particular the Mission has drawn
input from a large cross section of key actors in          on elements of African HIV/AIDS success
the public and private sectors across a wide               stories, adapting ABC and VCT approaches
range of topics.        Most importantly, these            from Uganda, and targeted intervention models
consultations helped validate the selection of             for MARP from Senegal.
strategies that are likely to achieve the greatest
impact in Nigeria while optimizing USAID’s
comparative advantage.         For instance, the
consultations confirmed the need for a

                                                      70
                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

                                                            and the geographic areas where they converge.
E. Development Hypothesis and Strategic                     In this regard, the strategy prioritizes HIV/AIDS
Objective                                                   target groups according to their potential to
                                                            infect others. Despite the absence of adequate
SO14’s primary focus is to prevent further HIV              surveillance data,    three distinct groups stand
transmission, with reduced transmission of TB               out as the principal carriers of HIV. These are
                                                                         108
as an ancillary focus.          The development             prostitutes,     and long-distance truck drivers
                                                                                       109
hypothesis follows a logical chain of anticipated           and uniformed personnel        who patronize the
results. The rate of infection can be stemmed if            prostitutes.      These groups have multiple
individuals who are most at risk of infecting               partners, practice unprotected sex with their
others or being infected reduce or eliminate risky          spouses and other non-paying partners, and are
behavior.    This requires them to adopt key                highly mobile. PLWHA are also a target group,
attitudes, to acquire a set of skills, and to be            not only because of their need for treatment and
given access to appropriate services and                    care, but because they are sources of infection.
interventions. By increasing the participation of           Within the PLWHA group, the strategy
public, private and community organizations                 distinguishes between male PLWHA who infect
demand for and access to treatment, care,                   their spouses and other males and HIV-positive
support and prevention will increase. Finally, a            pregnant women who can transmit the virus to
supportive environment will address stigma, fear            their infants.
and discrimination at the community level, and
effect legal and policy reform at the national              Recognizing that these four groups are not the
level.                                                      only ones responsible for the transmission of the
                                                            disease, USAID will monitor the emergence of
The hypothesis postulates that achievement of               new groups, including youth and men who have
the demand, access and enabling environment                 sex with men (MSM), through continued
IRs will result in significant changes in behavior          mapping of hotspots, increased behavioral
that will lead to decreases in HIV/AIDS and TB              surveillance and strategic linkages with networks
prevalence, and will mitigate the impact of these           and unions that can provide access to these
diseases        on       vulnerable     individuals,        groups.     USAID will also fund studies by
communities, and healthcare structures. Under               Nigerian social scientists familiar with the drug,
the null hypothesis, there would be no change in            prison, and long distance women trader milieus
behavior or HIV and TB prevalence.                          to determine entry points and strategies for
                                                                                                      110
                                                            working with these high risk populations.
SO 14 is designed to           contribute to the
achievement of Nigeria’s HIV/AIDS and TB                    For TB, the primary targets are both HIV
goals. It also conforms to USAID guidelines,                uninfected and HIV infected individuals with
and the Mission’s overall strategic objectives              active disease, and TB infected PLWHA who are
and budget, and the Presidential initiatives on             at risk of developing active disease. Infected
HIV/AIDS. Finally, it reflects collaboration with           individuals can infect others merely by being in
other donors, the private sector, NGOs and                  close contact with them, and PLWHA are
others that currently contribute to the national            especially susceptible to co-infection because of
effort, or have plans to do so. Within those                their weakened immune systems.
broad parameters, the SO strategy is based
on the following principles: the need to                    At the treatment, care and support level the chief
contain and then reduce HIV and TB                          target groups will be PLWHA, and orphans and
prevalence; the importance of targeting the                 vulnerable children (OVC). A secondary target
most at-risk populations (MARPs); the need                  will be families of those affected by HIV/AIDS
to enlist the support and involvement of all                with a focus on support to family members who
sectors of society; the importance of a                     take on the role of head of household.
comprehensive approach – prevention plus
treatment, care and support; and the                        Indicators:
requirement to show impact from increased
investments.
                                                            Nigeria is considered a “high prevalence”
                                                            country and is classified as a “Priority Intensive
Target groups: A critical element of the strategy
                                                            Focus Country” under the Agency’s Expanded
is the identification of the highest risk groups


                                                       71
                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

Response program.          Such countries are                The Sub-SO reflects improvements in behavior
expected to meet the following targets by 2008:              (use of services as well as adoption of healthy
                                                             practices). It will be measured by a number of
    •    Reduce HIV prevalence rates among                   coverage (performance) indicators in the target
         those 15-24 years of age by 50 percent;             states. The Mission will also report behavior
    •    Ensure at least 25 percent of HIV/AIDS-             change     among      the   general   population
         infected pregnant women receive a                   nationwide.
         complete     course    of     antiretroviral
         prophylaxis to reduce the risk of                   Coverage level indicators in target states:
         mother-to-child transmission;
    •    Enable local institutions to provide                    •       HIV+ pregnant women receiving
         basic care and psychological support                            complete course of ARV prophylaxis;
         services to at least 25 percent of HIV-                 •        HIV+ clients receiving home-based
         infected persons;                                               care;
    •    Provide community support services to                   •       Active TB cases detected;
         at least 25 percent of children affected                •       Active TB cases successfully treated.
         by AIDS.
                                                             Behavioral level indicators:
USAID will monitor progress by closely tracking
two indicators:                                                      •    Percentage of sexually active
                                                                          population with multiple partners;
    •   HIV seroprevalence among men and                             •    Condom use last risky sex;
        women aged 15-24 years;                                      •    Median age at first sex among young
    •   HIV seroprevalence among MARPs.                                   men and women.

F. Critical Assumptions                                      IR 14.1: Increased Demand for HIV/AIDS and
                                                             TB Services and Practices, Especially
The strategy is based on several critical                    Among Selected Target Groups
assumptions that must remain true during the
projected    period      to    ensure      optimum
                                                             Demand is a precondition or antecedent to such
performance:
                                                             key disease control behaviors as taking
    • The government of Nigeria, NACA and                    preventive actions or utilizing treatment and
        the FMOH will sustain and build on their             support services. Demand is an intention to
        current interventions;                               adopt a behavior (abstinence, delayed sexual
    • NACA will mobilize a multisectoral                     debut, condom use, seeking VCT, etc.) and
        response to HIV/AIDS;                                requires the generation of adequate knowledge,
    • The State Action Committees on AIDS                    skills and social reinforcement to be realized.
        (SACA) in target states will make                    Demand generation here is also conceptualized
        commitments to state level AIDS                      as creating desire for new community norms and
        responses;                                           thus, alternatives to such behaviors as multiple
    • The Global Fund awards will be                         partners, sexual violence and discrimination
        disbursed and managed efficiently;                   arising from stigma.      BCC/demand creation
    • The GON, with support from the Global                  strategies will be aimed at creating demand for
        Fund, will ensure availability of ARVs;              HIV/AIDS preventive actions, products and
    • CDC/GAP participation will continue at                 services for HIV/AIDS treatment, care and
        current or increased levels.                         support services and for detection and treatment
    • There will be stability and continued                  of active TB cases.
        commitment of petroleum companies in
        the Niger Delta.                                     Illustrative Indicators:

G. Intermediate Results                                          •       Number of clients seen at VCT centers;
                                                                 •       Demand for access to DOTS treatment;
Sub-SO14: Increased use of HIV/AIDS and                          •       Number of PLWHA and OVC requesting
TB Services and Practices in Selected States                             access to care and support services;
                                                                 •       Number of pregnant women accepting


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                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

        testing for HIV.                                  Illustrative Activities:

Illustrative Activities:                                      •   Expand      voluntary    counseling and
                                                                  testing, especially for MARP;
    •   Increase BCC/demand creation among                    •   Expand treatment and care for PLWHA;
        most at-risk populations, including                   •   Expand support for OVC and PLWHA.
        PLWHA, for adoption of risk-reduction
        behaviors and use of VCT;                         IR14.3: Strengthened Public, Private and
    •   Increase BCC/demand creation among                Community Enabling Environments
        PLWHA and OVC for quality services;
    •   Increase BCC/demand creation among                HIV/AIDS is a socially and culturally sensitive
        the general population about DOTS;                issue in Nigeria.      Yet an effective national
    •   Increase BCC/demand creation for                  response requires dialogue and open discussion
        pregnant women in high-risk situations            of the development impact and challenges
        to utilize PMTCT and MTCT plus                    posed by the epidemic. It requires transparent
        services.                                         political leadership committed to constructing an
                                                          enabling environment for sustainable policy,
IR 14.2: Increased Access to Quality                      legal and community responses at all levels. In
HIV/AIDS and TB Services, Practices and                                                      h
                                                          collaboration with other donors, t is component
Products in Selected States                               of the strategy will strengthen political
                                                          commitment and capacity at the national, state
As the previous IR takes steps to increase                and local levels.      The objectives will be to
demand for services and products, this IR takes           increase national political and financial support
complementary steps to expand access so that              for HIV/AIDS interventions; to strengthen state
demand can be filled. Services and products               and local government capacity to plan, monitor
will include P MTCT, VCT, secondary prevention            and evaluate interventions; to strengthen the
of STIs and condom social marketing. Those                health systems needed to provide adequate
who are infected with HIV will have access to TB          services; to increase community involvement; to
services to ensure that active TB cases are               broaden multisectoral collaboration with other
treated appropriately and prevention programs             sectors and partners; to promote public-private
are instituted where needed. The joint USG                partnerships; and to improve the surveillance,
PMTCT initiative, USAID collaboration with                monitoring and evaluation systems.
FMOH and the Global Fund treatment programs,
and its leadership in support of PLWHA groups             Illustrative Indicators:
will form the basis for the expansion of treatment
and care activities.     Under the banner of the              •   Number of multiplier organizations
White and Red Ribbon social mobilization                          receiving capacity building;
campaign, the PMTCT activity will provide the                 •   Number of public-private and private-
natural platform from which to provide new                        private partnerships;
mothers, their partners, and their infected                   •   Development of legislation favorable to
children with ARVS and other services.                            HIV programming and PLWHA;
                                                              •   Regular availability of reliable MARP
Illustrative Indicators:                                          data.

    •   Number     of    USAID-supported    VCT           Illustrative Activities:
        centers;
    •   USAID-assisted       ARV       treatment              •   Strengthen      multiplier    organizations
        programs;                                                 nationally and in target states;
    •   USAID-supported       community      and              •   Strengthen private sector involvement
        home-based care and support services;                     and support public-private and private-
    •   Clients receiving services from USAID-                    private partnerships;
        supported programs.                                   •   Build capacity of national and state
                                                                  legislatures to establish policy, legal and
                                                                  regulatory frameworks;
                                                              •   Strengthen      and     expand      second-


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                          USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

        generation HIV surveillance, especially              million population and 420,000 HIV cases. HIV
        among most at-risk populations.                      prevalence ranges from 3.5 to 10.2, which
                                                             provides opportunities for different strategies to
H. Geographic Focus                                          maintain relatively low prevalence in some areas
                                                             while addressing the impact of high prevalence
Target areas and hotspots. Nigeria is one of the             in others. These states will receive the highest
world’s most populous countries and as such                  level of resources to maximize impact on HIV
USAID/Nigeria has been given the option to limit             prevalence. All key interventions, including TB
its assistance to one or several states. Criteria            detection and treatment, will be phased into
for geographic selection are outlined in the                                      o
                                                             these four states t cover the entire state with
adjoining box. But it must be noted that working             demand creation, expansion of access to
in all six geopolitical zones is a political                 services and development of a supportive
imperative for the Mission. Ethnic and regional              enabling environment. All priority target groups
rivalries are such that that Mission cannot be               proposed previously will be included, as will all
perceived as favoring one zone of the country                of the various implementing organizations (i.e.,
over another. In a recent meeting with the new               multiplier organizations, NGOs, SACAs, LACAs,
Minister of Health, USAID was commended for                  FBOs, labor unions, and CBOs). Emphasis will
its geopolitical diversity, i.e. specifically for not        be placed on the Presidential Initiative priorities
showing preference for one zone over another.                for reducing HIV prevalence and increasing
                                                             treatment, care and support.
Box 7: Target State Selection Criteria
                                                             These states all have PMTCT programs
      Critical need                                          supported by USAID, CDC, FMOH and UNICEF.
      Opportunities for synergy with other SOs
      Opportunity to address cross cutting issues            USAID and CDC will undertake a major effort to
      Presence of other donors                               expand PMTCT services to all secondary and
      Ability to build on past investments                   primary MCH center staff in these four states,
      U. S. national interest                                and under the banner of the White and Red
      Potential to achieve results and impact
      Population coverage                                    Ribbon, will implement state-wide social
      USAID comparative advantage                            mobilization campaigns in support of PMTCT.
      Opportunity for scaling-up, replicability and          Later, depending on funding levels and agreed-
      sustainability                                         upon GON, USAID and CDC priorities, services
                                                             could be extended to other USAID focus states.
                                                             The joint USAID/CDC centers of excellence
The states selected represent 25 percent of the              have the potential for implementing integrated
national population and at least 23 percent of               HIV/TB programs.
the national HIV burden. Accordingly, the SO
strategy concentrates its efforts in seven priority          Outreach interventions will be expanded to all
areas (six states and the FCT) that reflect the              hotspots in at least two of these states to
diversity of the nation (and the epidemic) and               achieve maximum impact on HIV prevalence.
also offer USAID the opportunity to exploit its              Complementary coverage will be expanded
comparative advantages for achieving impact.                 through FBOs to increase treatment, care and
One state has been selected from each of                     support services for HIV and CAA target groups.
Nigeria’s six geopolitical zones plus the Federal            Finally, USAID will support a safe blood pilot
Capital Territory of Abuja. These are Lagos                  initiative in FCT.
(SW), Kano (NW), Anambra (SE), Bauchi
(NE), Nasarawa (NC), Rivers (SS) and the                     FBO multiplier states: Nasarawa and Bauchi:
Federal Capital Territory (FCT). Within each                 HIV prevalence is high in both of these states, at
target state, interventions will focus on high risk          8.1 and 6.8 respectively. The total population is
areas, or “hot spots” where MARP converge.                   5.3 million with 190,000 HIV cases. Financial
Some activities, such as social marketing,                   support and technical assistance will be
technical assistance to the uniformed forces,                provided to FBOs in these two states to expand
surveillance, and high level policy and advocacy             key prevention, treatment, care and support
efforts will be conducted on a national scale.               services to at-risk populations, with a focus on
                                                             reducing HIV prevalence among MARPs and
Saturation states: Lagos, Kano, FCT and                      increasing care and treatment for PLWHA and
Anambra. These four states account for 19.5                  OVC, as well as TB detection and treatment.


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                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

USAID will provide technical assistance and                 have difficulty acknowledging their limited
funding to get priority activities going, but the           knowledge about RH and HIV/AIDS.         These
FBOs will be expected to learn to work with the             factors   help     drive  virus   transmission.
State AIDS Coordinating Agencies, other NGOs,               Consequently, the strategy places emphasis on
community leaders and others to strengthen the              male behavior change interventions, both to
enabling environment in the state, create                   increase awareness and demand and to
demand and improve access to services. This                 increase use of preventive services and
will be a pilot effort that, if successful, could be        adoption of risk-reduction practices.      The
replicated in other states where faith-based                strategy also emphasizes changing the
multiplier organizations are strong.                        community norms to those that allow both men
                                                            and women to adopt positive behaviors and then
GDA State - Rivers: HIV prevalence is high in               sustain behavior change.
Rivers at 7.7 percent with 169,000 HIV cases in
a relatively large population of 4.2 million.               SO 14 will strengthen and expand the capacity
USAID intends to broker partnerships between                of multiplier organizations, especially women’s
petroleum       companies      and    implementing          networks, to generate demand and promote
partners who can deliver technical assistance for           access to services and education by women. It
the provision of key HIV/AIDS and TB services               will strengthen their capacity to provide care and
to their employees, their families and                      support to HIV positive clients and their families,
communities.       The petroleum companies will             including impact mitigation through micro-
use their own resources to finance the activities.          enterprise and food production activities. The
USAID will encourage the companies to form                  multiplier organizations will also be taught how
private-public and private-private partnerships to          to assist women to develop the needed skills to
expand their interventions beyond their own                 negotiate safer sex practices.         SO 14 will
doors.     Rivers will also serve as a critical             support     advocacy     networks     to   mobilize
launching pad into the other oil rich Delta states          constituencies for changes in laws and policies
for replication of successful partnership models.           to protect the legal and human rights of women
                                                            as well as PLWHA and OVC. Building from the
I. Cross Cutting and Converging Themes                      community, to the state, to the national level, the
                                                            USAID-supported “100 Women’s Group” model
Gender:      Gender inequalities and gender                 will be applied to advocate for changes in legal
violence breed vulnerability, dis-empowerment,              and cultural practices that affect women
oppression and isolation. In practical terms,               negatively.
these inequalities inhibit demand and constrain
access to HIV/AIDS and TB information and                   Gender analysis will be systematically applied to
services for both men and women.               The          the design of targeted interventions for MARP to
disproportionate risks and impact of HIV/AIDS               take into account the specific needs and
on women are well recognized. In the Nigerian               constraints faced by men and women in their
context, a complex interplay of social, cultural            various occupations or situation in society. For
and economic factors relegate women to lower                instance, USAID will support increased access
status thereby increasing their vulnerability both          to risk-reduction products such as STI treatment
to HIV and TB infection and decreasing their                kits, female condoms and lubricants.         The
access to resources and services. In the North,             promotion of culturally appropriate, gender-
for instance, seclusion is a major constraint to            sensitive behavior change approaches with all
women’s access to services and in the South,                target groups will be mandatory.
female genital cutting and denial of property
inheritance magnify infection risks.       Another          Conflict:   Pockets of ethnic tensions and
factor is the reality of ethnic tensions and                violence persist throughout the country. In the
violence that make women vulnerable to rape                 South, mutual distrust between civil society and
and thus HIV infection.                                     petrochemical companies continues to fuel a
                                                            history of conflict in the region.      There is
Cultural norms that condone or encourage men                evidence that conflict and violence increase the
to adopt risky sexual behaviors also inhibit male           risk and impact of HIV and AIDS by disrupting
demand for and access to HIV/AIDS services.                 families and internally displacing people from
In Nigeria’s cultural setting men exert absolute            communities of origin, by exposing civilian
advantage in sexual relations and many men                  women and youth to sexual violence and


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                      USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

exploitation.      Further, care and support               Environment:         Large-scale      environmental
programs must be anchored in a rights-based                impacts are not likely under SO 14 as
approach to protect the fundamental rights and             development of physical infrastructure will be
dignity of the individuals and groups addressed            limited. However, clinical interventions such as
by the interventions.                                      blood screening and treatment of PHWLA will
                                                           result in the generation of medical and bio-
SO14 will support programs for women, youth,               hazardous      waste,     and      safe     disposal
PLWHAs, OVCs and others affected by conflict               mechanisms will need to be put in place.
to become spokespersons to promote legal and               Training of clinical and laboratory personnel in
human rights, reduce stigma, strengthen care               universal precautions will include safe disposal
and treatment and make prevention messages                 of medical waste products. SO 14 will ensure
more relevant. SO14 activities will as a matter            that all drugs procured, distributed and marketed
of course incorporate inclusive, participatory             are of an acceptable quality standard as
processes that foster collaborative engagement             recommended       by    the Food and Drug
of all stakeholders, promote human rights and              Administration (FDA) and/or WHO and the
support an enabling environment. Under the                 Nigeria Food and Drugs Agency.
GDA initiative, relations between civil society
and     multinational   companies     will   be            Transparency:        The     SO     14   Enabling
strengthened through the development of social             Environment IR will target legislators to build
responsibility and workplace-based HIV/AIDS                commitment and transparent leadership for
programs.                                                  HIV/AIDS activities. Principles of transparency
                                                           and accountability will be central to sensitization
Food Security: The burden of AIDS on PLWHA                 and     training   efforts    on     constitutional
and their families goes beyond health and                  responsibility,     oversight       of       policy
includes economic hardship and psychosocial                implementation, and budget formulation and
distress. The economic consequences of the                 reporting.
disease are quickly felt when the main income
earner can no longer work to feed his/her family,          Civil society’s role will continue to be
and stigma and discrimination restrict access to           strengthened to ensure a productive partnership
outside   assistance.      Further,     treatment          with the public sector based on transparency
outcomes of PLWHA are limited in the absence               and accountability.           Advocacy activities
of proper nutrition.    The most critical need             conducted by media, PLWHA, NGOs and FBOs
becomes food security to s  ustain the health of           can continue to push for increased transparency
PLWHA and to help feed their families.                     and accountability in HIV/AIDS programs at the
                                                           national, state and local levels.
As noted above, SO 14 will work with multiplier
organizations, especially FBOs, the PLWHA                  Public-Private Partnerships:     USAID’s Africa
network and women’s networks, to enable their              Bureau, Office of Sustainable Development and
members to provide care and support to HIV                 the Mission worked with a former Coca-Cola
positive clients and their families, including             executive to design and test a model for private-
impact mitigation through micro-enterprise and             public partnership to address HIV/AIDS. The
food production activities.      FBOs especially,          aim of this partnership was to bring the private
whose mission includes acts of charity and                 and public sectors together and to help the
mercy, are perfectly placed to provide                     private sector engage in and take ownership of
sustainable services in these areas. FBOs will             the national HIV/AIDS strategy. The involvement
also be encouraged to address the duration and             of key high-level stakeholders (US ambassador,
expenses related to funerals in order to protect           the President of Nigeria and the USAID mission
the resource base and thus food security.                  director) has led to the formation of National
Support to the PLWHA network will also include             Business HIV/AIDS Coalition. The Coalition is
nutritional training that enable members to                led by President Obasanjo and two of the most
identify the highest nutrient/lowest cost available        influential business leaders in the country and
foods.      PMTCT activities will include full             serves as the strategic meeting point where all
information on breast-feeding and weaning                  partners can use their core competencies
practices.                                                 synergistically to combat HIV/AIDS.




                                                      76
                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

This partnership is still evolving, growing and           life education into upper primary school in a
changing.      For the first time, leading US             manner consistent with the communities’ cultural
corporations doing business in Nigeria have               and religious values. A planned study of the
joined forces with the Nigerian business                  impact of HIV/AIDS on basic education should
community and the public sector to fight AIDS.            identify additional areas of intervention.
This public-private partnership is allowing the
private sector to apply its core competencies to              •   With Agency/Presidential Initiatives and
each aspect of Nigeria's AIDS program; in policy                  regional programs
formulation, project design and implementation.
The Business Coalition will continue to be a              Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: Due to the
major activity under SO 14.                               gravity of its HIV/AIDS situation, Nigeria is
                                                          classified by USAID as one of the priority
J. Linkages                                               countries for HIV/AIDS assistance and by the
                                                          White House for support under the
    •   To other SOs                                      Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
                                                          (PEPFAR).        Along with an increase in
SO11: HIV/AIDS funding has supported D&G                  funding, the initiative will bring greater
efforts to build capacity at the National Assembly        accountability and reporting requirements
by focusing on legislation to legalize NACA’s             for     USAID-supported     programs      and
status and to provide support to the parliament’s         activities.   The Bush Administration has
HIV/AIDS committee. Under SO 14, additional               directed USAID to strive for “speed, scale
efforts might include working with the National           and results” that are directly attributable to
Assembly to leverage greater HIV/AIDS                     the increase d investments.
resources and to address legislative issues
around stigma and discrimination and gender.              Nigeria is likely to receive significant amounts of
As conflict creates an environment that                   funding over the next few years to combat – and
increases risk of HIV transmission, SO 11 efforts         conquer – the HIV/AIDS threat. Strings are
at mitigation is another potential area of                attached. Nigeria will be expected to perform,
integration (e.g. with SO 14’s program with the           by reducing HIV prevalence and the effects of
military).                                                AIDS on its population, economy and social
                                                          structure. This is a serious commitment with
SO12: Past work in OVC and PLWHA                          serious expectations for solving this problem.
programming has included initial attempts to              USAID/Nigeria has taken these additional funds
integrate   micro-credit and other income                 and expectations into account in developing its
generation activities and the PMTCT. Lessons              strategy. The Mission will use these increased
learned from these experiences will inform future         resources to introduce ARV and Opportunistic
efforts to integrate PLWHA, OVC, and their                Infections treatment and PMTCT, and to expand
caregivers into SO 12 programming (e.g. the SO            significantly its OVC and PLWHA care and
12 micro credit program). The Mission’s                   support programs.
pioneering work in establishing the National
Business HIV/AIDS Coalition provides an ideal             WARP: USAID/WARP (West Africa Regional
platform from which to launch additional                  Program) is a five-year effort to build regional
ventures with SO 12 and it will investigate other         capacity in key HIV/AIDS prevention and care
legitimate uses of HIV/AIDS funding to mitigate           areas and to reinforce policies, norms and
the economic impact of AIDS on families.                  procedures in the sub-region through increased
                                                          advocacy and policy development. The West
SO13: SO 14 is designed to expand current                 African Health Organization (WAHO) will receive
HIV/AIDS activities in FP/RH and CS programs.             long-term technical assistance to enable it to
HIV prevention messages and counseling are                play a leadership and coordination role.         A
already integrated into FP services and the               service delivery component will fund and
White Ribbon symbolizing Safe Motherhood has              disseminate best practices and promote the
been combined with the HIV/AIDS red ribbon to             extension of cross-border activities along West
become the Red and White Ribbon symbol of                 Africa’s major transport corridors.       WARP’s
PMTCT. By including SO13’s PTAs and other                 investment to date has generated proven
community groups, SO 14 will expand the work              strategies and tools for reaching high-risk mobile
done with the teachers’ union to integrate family         populations that can be replicated and adapted


                                                     77
                      USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

across the region. A co-funding scheme similar             business councils. Lessons learned both from
to the successful one in Southern Africa is being          USAID and CDC work with SACA and LACA
developed to fund the Douala-Lagos-Lome                    suggest that these structures need resources
transport corridor.      SO 14 will support                such as computers and training (e.g. in
implementation of this activity in Nigeria to reach        advocacy) to function effectively and to promote
highly mobile MARP such as prostitutes, long               coordination and collaboration among donors
distance truckers, and uniformed personnel.                and the various other actors in their jurisdictions.
                                                           SO 14 is designed to build upon and expand all
    •   With GON programs and initiatives                  these efforts.

GON Initiatives: The Mission will continue as a                •   With other donors
major supporter of all major GON initiatives.
The design of SO 14 is based on the HIV/AIDS               Under the Transition Strategy, the Mission has
Emergency Action Plan (HEAP), which in                     worked assiduously to strengthen relationships
President Obasanjo’s words, is Nigeria's "Battle           with other major donors such as DfID, CIDA, the
Plan" in the fight against HIV/AIDS.”     USAID            World Bank, the UN Community, and other USG
and CDC are two of the GON’s four major                    agencies. A major component of SO 14 will be
partners in its PMTCT program and this support             the PMTCT Initiative jointly supported with CDC,
will intensify under SO 14. USAID and CDC are              UNICEF, and AIDS Prevention Initiative Nigeria
also among the main partners in the GON’s                  (APIN).and USAID will also work with CDC and
ANC and high risk prevalence surveys. Finally,             WHO to support the ANC and MARP prevalence
under SO 14, USAID will play a major role in the           surveys.      The Mission will also continue
GON’s ARV program, the largest in Africa.                  collaboration with the military programs of the
                                                           Department of Defense and Labor and with the
Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and                    DOL’s SMARTWork Project. USAID, the State
Malaria: GFATM or GF was established in 2002               Department, and DOL have worked closely
to increase available resources to fight three of          together in build the National Business
the world’s most devastating diseases. It is               HIV/AIDS Coalition. Other major donor related
intended to complement existing assistance                 partnership activities that will continue or be
programs     by    attracting,  managing      and          expanded under SO14 are joint DfID/USAID
disbursing additional resources.     Nigeria has           funding of the largest social marketing program
been awarded funds in Round 1 for ARV,                     in West Africa, support to the national BCC
PMTCT and NGO capacity development.             In         committee, and support to UN Theme Group
Round 2 funds were awarded for TB and malaria              committees and the Country Coordinating
with a minimal amount for HIV/AIDS. Nigeria                Mechanism of the Global Fund. The World
submitted requests in Round 3 for youth                    Bank IDA Credit Program, APIN, and USAID are
programs (with UNICEF), programs for orphans               currently developing a pilot effort to write joint
and vulnerable children (OVC) and programs                 action plans in three states (Plateau, Lagos, and
through faith-based organizations.     No funds            Benue) in which at least two of the donors work.
have been distributed as yet but USAID sits on             Using lessons learned, this effort will then be
the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM)                   applied to other joint focus states.
and along with NACA, UNAIDS, the World Bank,
and DfiD is very involved in ensuring that these
funds complement and will create synergies with
those of other donors.

NACA, SACA and LACA: SO 14 IR involving
Strengthening the Enabling Environment will in
large part involve building the capacity of NACA,
the seven target SACAs and their respective
LACAs to improve their performance and to
achieve demonstrable results. The Mission has
established a highly productive relationship with
NACA that includes the provision of critically
needed key staff and support for national
“platform” efforts such as the interfaith and


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                                                  USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

K. Results Framework


                                                            SO14 Results Framework


                                                                  SO 14: Reduced
                  Illustrative Indicators:
                                                                impact of HIV/AIDS in
                  •HIV prevalence in men and women aged 15-24     Selected States
                  •HIV seroprevalence among MARPs.




                                                                                                                                      :
                                                                                              Coverage level indicators in target states

                                                                                              •HIV+ pregnant women receiving complete course of ARV prophylaxis;
                                                             Sub-SO 14: Increased use     •HIV+ clients receiving home-based care;
                                                                                          •active TB cases detected;
                                                            of HIV/AIDS & TB services & •active TB cases successfully treated.
                                                             practices in selected states
                                                                                                                       :
                                                                                              Behavioral level indicators

                                                                                              •percentage of sexually active population with multiple partners;
                                                                                              •Condom use last risky sex;
                                                                                              •Median age at first sex among young men and women.




               IR 14.1                                                                                                          IR 14.3
                                                                       IR 14.2                                        Strengthened public, private
    Increased demand for HIV/                                Increased access to quality
       AIDS & TB services &                                                                                             and community enabling
                                                            HIV/AIDS & TB services, and                                      environments
      interventions, especially                            interventions in selected states
   among selected target groups

  Illustrative Indicators:                               Illustrative Indicators:                                   Illustrative Indicators:

  •Number of clients seen at VCT centers;                •USAID-supported VCT centers                               •Number of multiplier organizations receiving capacity building;
  •Demand for access to DOTS treatment;                  •USAID-assisted ARV treatment programs                     •Number of public-private and private-private partnerships;
  •Number of PLWHA and OVC requesting                    •USAID-supported community and home-based                  •Development of legislation favorable to HIV programming and
  access to care and support services;                   care and support services                                  PLWHA;
  •Number of pregnant women accepting testing            •Clients receiving services from USAID-                    •Regular availability of reliable MARP data.
  for HIV.                                               supported programs.




                                                                                     79
                      USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

IX.     Performance Management
                                                           Analytic Agenda: Nigeria is a notoriously data-
Introduction                                               poor country. Over the past year the Mission
                                                           has endeavored to fill some of the gaps by
USAID/Nigeria is moving from a Transition Plan             conducting an exhaustive inventory of analyses
that required very rapid scaling-up of the                 and assessments. These are detailed in Annex
program, to a full five-year sustainable                   2. As additional data needs are identified as the
development strategy. The CSP is marked by a               new strategy is implemented, the Mission
high degree of integration within and between              intends to continue its efforts to improve the
Strategic Objectives, and a strong focus on                empirical grounding of its programs. Each SO
managing for results and attaining broad-based             team will update its analytic agenda annually
impact. Program integration will allow us to               and share it with Mission colleagues as part of
build effectively on existing synergies and                the Annual Portfolio Review process.            Each
collaborative activities between sectors to a              team will thus benefit from broad-based
much greater extent than was possible during               interaction and dialogue and can develop plans
the transition phase. The Mission anticipates              for collaborative analytic efforts that will address
being able to develop new, innovative cross-               needs across strategic objectives.
sectoral programs that will contribute to the
achievement of results under more than one SO.             Personnel and Training: In 2001 the Mission
Such an integrated program will require new                hired a full-time USPSC Performance Monitoring
approaches to and significant investments in               Specialist, who is housed in the office of
performance monitoring and management.                     Program and Project Development, and who
                                                           provides technical support services to all of the
In 2001 the Mission finalized a performance                SO teams. The Mission has already provided
monitoring plan for the Transition Strategy. This          PAL training to 30 staff from SO teams and
provides a framework on which to build the PMP             support offices.       Recognizing the need for
for the new strategy. Some of the indicators               further training and enhanced skills at the team
used to measure performance under the                      level, the Mission intends to implement
Transition Strategy will be retained moving                performance management training in Abuja,
forward into the CSP, while others will be                 again to a broad cross-section of technical and
discarded or revised to reflect the new directions         support staff, in order to institutionalize these
being taken in the new integrated program.                 skills within offices and teams.
USAID/Nigeria also recognizes that some of the
performance measures and targets presented in              Monitoring and Evaluation Contract: USAID/
the existing PMP were too ambitious and did not            Nigeria intends to put into place a performance
take into account the realities of the Nigerian            monitoring and measurement contract that will
environment, while others were not ambitious               provide core services and technical assistance
enough.       In some sub-sectors the Transition           to all of the SO teams and their implementing
Strategy overestimated the capacity of Nigerian            partners in indicator definition, data collection,
institutions in both the public and private sectors        data quality assessment, design of baseline
and created very high expectations which could             studies, and data requirements for annual
not always be realized. On the o     ther hand, the        reporting purposes.     The contractor will also
Mission adopted a cautious approach vis-à-vis              provide additional services and conduct special
those sectors in which it had not historically             studies on a buy-in basis, thus providing the
been engaged prior to the democratic elections             Mission with both strength and flexibility in
of 1999, and proposed many indicators that did             meeting performance management needs and
not adequately reflect program achievements                requirements.      USAID will also institute a
and impact.         The provisional performance            requirement that all implementing partners
measurement plan submitted with this CSP                   submit performance monitoring plans for review
attempts to strike an appropriate balance                  and approval.      The Performance Monitoring
between the need to demonstrate impact and                 Specialist and dedicated team M&E points of
the uncertain capacity of many of the institutions         contact will work with CTOs and activity
with whom we must partner.                                 managers in each team to ensure that these
                                                           PMPs conform to ADS requirements. This will
                                                           ensure that all IPs are able to provide the
Cross-cutting Missi on Approaches

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                      USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

Mission with timely data that directly supports            the 2003 DHS is ongoing through August 2003,
the Mission’s own PMP.                                     in collaboration with Macro International,
                                                           Measure DHS, and the Nigerian Federal Office
SO level Approaches                                        of Statistics, and preliminary results are
                                                           expected in September/October 2003.             To
SO11: The SO11 team is the most resource                   complement earlier supply-side assessments of
constrained of the SOs in the new strategy and             education carried out with the Ministry of
was also seriously hampered from reaching its              Education, for the first time ever the Nigeria
objectives under the Transition Strategy                   DHS will also include the education data or
because of the very low capacity of the                    EdData module which will provide unique
institutions with which the team worked – the              information on the demand side of the education
National Assembly, the Independent National                sector. These results will be available (when).
Electoral Commission, and civil society                    These surveys will be repeated in 2007/2008
organizations. As an initial step in the new               and will be a leading source of data for reporting
activities designed to support the CSP, SO11               impact at the SO level at the end of the planning
has built needs assessments into the new                   period.
procurements so that technical assistance can
be more specifically tailored to the requirements          SO14: As an expanded response country and
of each organization, and has also placed                  recipient of funds under the Presidential
greater      emphasis     on     assisting   their         Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the PMTCT
implementing partners to build their performance           Initiative,   USAID/Nigeria     has      significant
management capacity. This SO also anticipates              mandatory      reporting   responsibilities     and
receiving resources from other SOs to                      performance targets in the HIV/AIDS sector.
implement cross-sectoral programs and will                 The Nigerian Ministry of Health conducts
collaborate closely with their partners in the             sentinel surveillance surveys at antenatal clinics
Mission to track and report on the results                 in alternate years that are the basis for
achieved by these investments.                             seroprevelance data.      There is concern that
                                                           these surveys are flawed, both because only
SO12:        In agriculture, environment and               two-thirds of Nigerian women use these services
economic growth, the SO12 team has forged a                and because the rigor with which they are
partnership between the International Food                 conducted is questionable. The SO14 team will
Policy    Research      Institute   (IFPRI),   the         collaborate closely with CDC, which has unique
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture            strengths and capabilities in institutionalizing
(IITA), and the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, to          sentinel surveillance systems, to upgrade the
provide     analytical  services    and    develop         quality of data emanating from these surveys.
analytical tools for the team. The initial reports         The DHS is also an important tool for providing
from this partnership guided the design of the             SO14 with data to address mandatory reporting
SO and preliminary investment decisions. O      ver        requirements.
the course of the CSP this partnership will
provide high-quality, reliable and timely data for         USAID/Nigeria     has     made      a    substantial
planning, refining the policy agenda, guiding              commitment to performance management both
investment choices, and measuring results. As              in terms of personnel and in financial resources.
part of the process of selecting the draft                 We estimate that at minimum 5 percent of
performance indicators that will be used to                annual program resources, or at least $3 million
measure the achievement of the SO and the                  per year, will be directly or indirectly expended
intermediate results, the SO team also                     on the Mission’s performance management
developed a scope of work for a community-                 responsibilities.
based survey that will provide baseline data for
the PMP.                                                   The following tables present prospective
                                                           indicators, definitions, and data collection
SO 13: The social services SO will be the                  responsibilities. Over the next year the Mission
primary client of planned Demographic and                  will work to finalize these tables and complete
Health Surveys that are intended to provide                the performance management “package” of
much of the information needed for performance             indicator data template, performance indicator
management. Previous surveys were conducted                table, and data quality assessment for each
in Nigeria in 1991 and 1999. Data collection for           Strategic Objective and Intermediate Result.


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                                                             USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

        Performance Management Plan for SO 11: Strengthened Foundations for Democratic Governance
                                                                                                                          METHOD/             DATA ACQUISITION BY       ANALYSIS, USE AND
 PERFORMANCE INDICATOR                                                                                                  APPROACH OF                 MISSION                REPORTING
                                           INDICATOR DEFINITION AND UNIT OF                       DATA SOURCE              DATA
                                                   MEASUREMENT                                                         COLLECTION OR        SCHEDULE     BY WHOM     SCHEDULE/    BY WHOM
                                                                                                                        CALCULATION                      (PERSON/                 (PERSON/
                                                                                                                                                           TEAM)                    TEAM)
SO 11: Strengthened Foundations for Democratic Governance

1. Level of public confidence    Definition: Measures public satisfaction with elections/         Annual Afro-        Survey                Annually    Contractor
in democratic institutions       elections institutions, legislature, and political parties       barometer or        questionnaire
increased                        particularly the extent to which citizens see that their Civil   Nigerbus survey
                                 liberties are being guaranteed

                                 Unit of Measurement: Percent, sex-disaggregated
2. Client satisfaction with      Definition: This is a survey index that measures citizen’s       Mission M&E         Survey                Annually    Contractor
selected government services     satisfaction of targeted government service providers.           Contractor

                                 Unit of Measure: Percent
IR 11.1: Increased Civic Awareness, Advocacy, and Empowerment
1. Civil society input reflected Definition Inputs defined as concerns, interests or              Official            Content Analysis      Annually    DG Team      Annually
in targeted policies             positions articulated by CS and accepted by targeted             documents of
                                 public institutions. This indicator would measure both           selected govt.
                                 supply (responsiveness of government to people’s                 institutions and
                                 interest) and demand side (participation in public               Partners annual
                                 processes) of DG assistance. This will also capture the          reports
                                 result of the mission’s social sector advocacy.

                                 Unit of Measurement: Number and percent
2. Civil society advocacy        Definition: This indicator is a count of the efforts of          Quarterly           Count                 Quarterly   DG Team
capacity improved                target CSOs that achieved set objectives as a ratio of           performance
                                 their overall advocacy efforts                                   report

                                 Unit of Measurement: Numerical index
3. Organizations advancing       Definition: This is a count o f groups supported by                                                                    DG Team
human rights issues              USAID that promote human rights issues (esp. women’s             Partners            Content analysis of   Quarterly
                                 rights).                                                         Quarterly and       quarterly reports
                                                                                                  Annual reports
                                 Unit of Measurement: Number
4. Individuals trained to        Definition: This is a measure of efforts to promote              Quarterly/bi-       Quarterly reports     Quarterly   DG Team
become self reliant              economic independence, especially among women.                   annual reports      validated by CTO      reports
                                                                                                                      site visits
                             Unit of Measurement: Number, sex-disaggregated
IR 11.2: Increased Accountability of Key Institutions
1. Number of corrupt public  Definition: This is measure of increased capacity of
officials prosecuted         government institutions to implement anti-corruption                 Partners            Content Analysis      Quarterly   DG Team
                             policies.                                                            performance         of reports
                                                                                                  quarterly reports
                                 Unit of Measurement: Number


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                                                             USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

                                                                                                                       METHOD/              DATA ACQUISITION BY      ANALYSIS, USE AND
 PERFORMANCE INDICATOR                                                                                               APPROACH OF                  MISSION               REPORTING
                                            INDICATOR DEFINITION AND UNIT OF                   DATA SOURCE              DATA
                                                    MEASUREMENT                                                     COLLECTION OR         SCHEDULE     BY WHOM     SCHEDULE/   BY WHOM
                                                                                                                     CALCULATION                       (PERSON/                (PERSON/
                                                                                                                                                         TEAM)                   TEAM)
2. Citizens’ awareness of         Definition: This indicator measures citizen’s awareness
public official’s roles and       of public officer’s roles and responsibilities, and the      Annual Afro-        Survey                 Annually    Contractor
responsibilities                  extent to which they can be held accountable for their       barometer or        questionnaire
                                  actions                                                      Nigerbus survey

                                  Unit of Measurement: Percent
3. Budgetary allocations in       Definition: This is a measure of the responsiveness of
targeted sectors increased        government institutions to citizen’s well-being in target    Related public      Sectoral Budget        Annually    DG Team
                                  sectors - health, HIV/AIDS, agriculture and education        official document   trend analysis

                               Unit of Measurement: Percent
IR 11.3: Enhanced Credibility of Electoral process
1. Voters correctly registered Definition: This indicator demonstrates the capacity of
                               electoral institutions to proactively manage the voter          INEC voter          Voter’s registration               DG Team
                               registration process                                            register            trend analysis

                                  Unit of Measurement: Number and/or percentage
2. Reported election              Definition: This is a measure of the increasing capacity     International and   Content analysis of                DG Team
irregularities                    of electoral institutions to conduct elections               domestic            reports
                                                                                               election
                                                                                               observation
                                   Unit of Measurement: number                                 reports
IR 11.4: Strengthened Capacity for Conflict Management
1. Number of assisted CSOs         Definition: Groups that have received training or           Partners            Content analysis of
taking action to mitigate conflict resource support who have taken specific action either to   Quarterly report    reports                            DG Team
                                   mitigate or to manage a conflict                            and Activity
                                                                                               Manager’s field
                                  Unit of Measurement: Number                                  report
2. Civil Society organizations    Definition: Measures increased capacity of civil society                         Quarterly and sight                DG Team
with improved conflict            to manage conflict in the course of advocating for policy    Count of            visit reports
management skills                 change                                                       organizations       analysis

                                  Unit of Measurement: Number
3. Conflict interventions         Definition: This indicator demonstrates increasing           Quarterly reports   quarterly and sight
implemented by IPCR               conflict management interventions by IPCR taking place.                          visit reports                      DG Team
                                                                                                                   analysis
                                  Unit of Measurement: Number




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                                                   USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

Performance Management Plan for SO12: Improved Livelihoods in Selected Areas
                                                                                                   METHOD/                 DATA ACQUISITION BY           ANALYSIS, USE AND
                                                                                                 APPROACH OF                     MISSION                    REPORTING
   PERFORMANCE                  INDICATOR DEFINITION AND UNIT OF                   DATA        DATA COLLECTION
     INDICATOR                           MEASUREMENT                              SOURCE       OR CALCULATION           SCHEDULE/         BY WHOM     SCHEDULE/       BY WHOM
                                                                                                                       FREQUENCY          (PERSON/   FREQUENCY        (PERSON/
                                                                                                                                            TEAM)                       TEAM)
Strategic Objective 12: “Improved Livelihoods in Selected Areas”
1. Volume of selected    Definition: Selected commodities/products             Survey          Annual survey of       Annual survey       SO12                       SO12
commodities/ products    defined annually by SO Team within target states.     conducted by    farmers/producers in
                         Cassava and cowpeas are initial commodities and       IP.             selected areas by
                         potential products include honey, other non-timber                    commodity/ product.
                         forest products, and value added.                                     Baseline taken for
                                                                                               each commodity/
                          Unit of Measurement: MT for commodities and                          product.
                          units as appropriate for each product,
                          disaggregated by state and sex.
2. Value of selected      Definition: Value is the sum of sales data           Survey          Annual survey of       Annual survey       SO12                       SO12
commodities/ products     collected in Naira converted to dollars. Selected    conducted by    farmers/producers in
                          commodities/products are as defined in Indicator     IP              selected areas by
                          1 above.                                                             commodity/ product.

                          Unit of Measurement: Dollars disaggregated by
                          commodity/product and state.
3. Increased income       Definition: Increases in cash Income generated       Survey          Annual customer        Annual              SO12       Annual in “Y”   SO12
from selected             from sales of selected agricultural and natural      conducted by    survey, etc., as in                       Person?     month for       Person?
commodities and           resource commodities and products                    IP              Indicators 1 and 2                                    Annual Report
products                                                                                       above.
                        Unit of Measurement: percentage over
                        baseline by commodity/product.
IR 12.1: Increased productivity of selected commodities and products
1. Yield of selected    Definition: Yield is volume/HA for commodities Survey                  Annual survey of       Annual survey in    SO12       Annual in “Y”   SO12
commodities/ products   and volume/unit for products. Selected         conducted by            farmers/producers in   “X” month by       Person?     month for       Person?
                        commodities/products defined by SO Team within IP                      selected areas by      selected                       Annual Report
                        selected states.                                                       commodity/ product.    commodity
                                                                                                                      product
                          Unit of Measurement: MT for commodities and
                          volume/unit as appropriate for each product,
                          disaggregated by item, state and sex.
2. Area under             Definition: Sum of area in hectares farmed           Surveys and     Survey results,        Annual survey in    SO12       Annual in “Y”   SO12
sustainable               using at least one sustainable practice (e.g.,       Implementing    Quarterly Reports      “X” month by       Person?     month for       Person?
management                intercropping, crop rotation, strip farming, etc.)   partner (IP)                           selected                       Annual Report
                          and areas in protected status.                       field reports                          commodity
                                                                                                                      product
                          Unit of Measurement: Hectares.




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                                                  USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

                                                                                                  METHOD/                DATA ACQUISITION BY        ANALYSIS, USE AND
                                                                                                APPROACH OF                    MISSION                 REPORTING
   PERFORMANCE                 INDICATOR DEFINITION AND UNIT OF                   DATA        DATA COLLECTION
     INDICATOR                          MEASUREMENT                              SOURCE       OR CALCULATION           SCHEDULE/      BY WHOM     SCHEDULE/    BY WHOM
                                                                                                                      FREQUENCY       (PERSON/   FREQUENCY     (PERSON/
                                                                                                                                        TEAM)                    TEAM)
IR12.2: Increased value -added of selected commodities and products
1. Number of new         Definition: New means a new start or restart of Implementing         Field observation by   Quarterly       SO12                     SO12
value-added              an enterprise after at least 3 months of no sales. partner (IP)      IPs translated into
commodities and          A value added enterprise is a business that        field reports     field reports and
products                 performs an operation on inputs to sell outputs at                   Quarterly Reports.
                         a greater value than the sum cost of inputs.

                         Unit of Measurement: Number. Data
                         disaggregated by sex, and state.
2. Range of value        Definition: Range means the number of                Implementing    Field observation by   Quarterly       SO12                     SO12
added products           different output products represented by             partner (IP)    IPs translated into
                         enterprises assisted.                                field reports   field reports and
                                                                                              Quarterly Reports.
                         Unit of Measurement: Number, disaggregated
                         commodity/product.
3. Change in capacity    Definition: Capacity index TBD. Potential            Implementing    Index score card       Quarterly       SO12                     SO12
index of value-added     elements are: revenue, employees, diversification,   partner (IP)    establishes baseline
enterprises assisted     capital base, private investment, competitiveness.                   at customer intake
                                                                                              and subsequent
                       Unit of Measurement: Average numerical score.                          annual measures.
                       Data disaggregated by enterprise and sex.
IR12.3: Increased commercialization of selected commodities and products
1. Percent of          Definition: Production volume is the actual        Survey              Annual client survey   Annual survey   SO12                     SO12
production volume sold measure of the current year for Indicator 1 of the conducted by
                       SO. Sold means cash received in exchange           IP
                       and/or produce stored for future sale.

                         Unit of Measurement: Percent, disaggregated
                         by commodity/product, sex, and state.
2. # farmers/producers   Definition: Producers who report annual sales        Survey          Annual customer        Annual survey   SO12                     SO12
selling                  of selected commodities/products at a minimum        conducted by    survey, etc., as in
                         floor of $X or more, (“X” defined for each           IP              Indicator 1 above
                         product.

                         Unit of Measurement: Number, disaggregated
                         by sex, product and state
3. # sustainable         Definition: Sustainable means a score of 80% or      Implementing    Field observation by   Quarterly       SO12                     SO12
producer associations    higher on an organizational capacity index.          partner (IP)    IPs translated into
                         Producer associations are membership                 field reports   field reports and
                         organizations that provide services to members.                      Quarterly Reports.

                         Unit of Measurement: Number. Data
                         disaggregated by commodity/product and State.




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                                                 USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

                                                                                              METHOD/                 DATA ACQUISITION BY       ANALYSIS, USE AND
                                                                                            APPROACH OF                     MISSION                REPORTING
   PERFORMANCE                INDICATOR DEFINITION AND UNIT OF                DATA        DATA COLLECTION
     INDICATOR                         MEASUREMENT                           SOURCE       OR CALCULATION            SCHEDULE/     BY WHOM     SCHEDULE/    BY WHOM
                                                                                                                   FREQUENCY      (PERSON/   FREQUENCY     (PERSON/
                                                                                                                                    TEAM)                    TEAM)
4. % farmers/producers   Definition: Number farmer/producers surveyed     Implementing    Field observation by   Quarterly,      SO12                     SO12
who are members of       who report membership compared to total number   partner (IP)    IP and survey.         annually.
marketing associations   surveyed.                                        field reports
                                                                          and survey
                         Unit of Measurement: Percent, disaggregated by
                         commodity/product, sex, and state.


IR12.4: Improved policy environment
1. # milestones of      Definition: Policy agenda menu instrument TBD.    IP              IPs document           Quarterly       SO12                     SO12
policy agenda menu      Agenda menu defined annually by the Mission.      observations,   “matter of record”
achieved                Milestones defined by SO12 Team.                  field and       triggers for
                                                                          Quarterly       milestones achieved
                         Unit of Measurement: Cumulative Number           Reports
                         (milestones achieved). Disaggregated by policy
                         objective.




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                                                             USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

         Performance Management Plan for SO13: Increased Use of Social Sector Services
                                                                                                            METHOD/               DATA ACQUISITION BY        ANALYSIS, USE AND
                                                                                                          APPROACH OF                   MISSION                 REPORTING
   PERFORMANCE                   INDICATOR DEFINITION AND UNIT OF                  DATA SOURCE          DATA COLLECTION
     INDICATOR                            MEASUREMENT                                                   OR CALCULATION          SCHEDULE/     BY WHOM     SCHEDULE/     BY WHOM
                                                                                                                               FREQUENCY      (PERSON/   FREQUENCY      (PERSON/
                                                                                                                                                TEAM)                     TEAM)
Strategic Objective : Increased Use of Social Sector Services
1. DPT 3 Coverage       Definition: Proportion of children aged 12-23             National Population   NDHS                   5 Years      SO 13 Team                SO 13 Team
                        months in 20 USAID-funded Local Government                Commission
                        Areas (LGAs) who received three doses of DPT              Implementing
                        before their first birthday.                              Partner
                        Children are considered to have received 3 doses of
                        DPT only if their health card shows that they received
                        3 doses of DPT before their first birthday

                         Unit of Measurement: Percentage
2. CPR                   Definition: Proportion of all women (15-49 years)        National Population   NDHS                   5 Years      SO 13 Team                SO 13 Team
                         who report that they are currently using a modern        Commission
                         method of contraception at the time of the survey        Implementing
                                                                                  Partner
                         Unit of Measurement: Percentage
3. Student Retention     Definition: The survival rate of primary school          Implementing          Baseline and Annual    Annual       SO 13 Team                SO 13 Team
                         students in target LGAs by cohort (grade by grade,       Partners              Surveys
                         the completion of one grade and transition to the next
                         grade)

                       Unit of Measurement: Percentage
IR 13.1 Improved Quality of Social Sector Services
1. Teachers’ and       Definition: Trained teachers and providers in target       Implementing          Baseline Survey        Annual       SO13 Team    Annual       SO13 Team
providers’ compliance  LGAs who implement and abide by standards of               Partners              HMIS
with basic quality     practice                                                   MOE                   Teacher Observations
standards in target                                                               MOH                   Other Surveys
LGAs                   Unit of Measurement: Percentage
2. Client, customer,   Definition: Quality of services and their provision as     Implementing          Surveys                Annual       SO13 Team    Annual       SO13 Team
pupil and parent that  perceived by the client, customer, pupil and parent        Partners              FGDs
are satisfied with                                                                                      Exit Interviews
services                                                                                                Mystery clients
                                                                                                        Participant
                                                                                                        Observation
                         Unit of Measurement: Percentage                                                PTAs records and
                                                                                                        discussions
3. Increased English     Definition: Recorded change in English language          Implementing          Baseline and Yearly    Annual       SO13 Team    Annual       SO13
literacy and numeracy    and Mathematics achievement as measured by               Partners              Student Achievement                                           Team
scores of students in    standardized testing.                                                          Testing
targeted schools
                         Unit of Measure: Mean score, sex-disaggregated




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                                                               USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

                                                                                                             METHOD/                 DATA ACQUISITION BY       ANALYSIS, USE AND
                                                                                                           APPROACH OF                     MISSION                REPORTING
   PERFORMANCE                    INDICATOR DEFINITION AND UNIT OF                   DATA SOURCE         DATA COLLECTION
     INDICATOR                             MEASUREMENT                                                   OR CALCULATION            SCHEDULE/    BY WHOM     SCHEDULE/    BY WHOM
                                                                                                                                  FREQUENCY     (PERSON/   FREQUENCY      (PERSON/
                                                                                                                                                  TEAM)                     TEAM)
4. Public and private     Definition: Proportion of public and private facilities   Implementing        Baseline Facility         Annual       SO13 Team   Annual       SO13
facilities meeting        in target LGAs observed to be providing a minimum         Partners            Survey                                                          Team
national service          of three modern contraceptive methods with at least                           Annual Survey
standards for priority    one trained provider available to administer each
interventions in target   and/or maintaining standard immunization registers.
LGA
                      Unit of Measurement: Percentage
IR 13.2 Strengthened enabling environment
1. Targeted policies  Definition: Cumulative total of reproductive health,          MOE                 Govt Gazette              Annual       SO13 Team   Annual       SO13 Team
modified/enacted at   child health and primary education policies, plans and        MOH                 Publication of policies
the national level    guidelines modified/enacted at the national level that        Implementing        (MOE, MOH)
                      support the implementation of reproductive health,            Partners            Quarterly Reports
                      child health services, and education.

                          Unit of Measurement: Number
2.Key enabling            Definition: Number of targeted enabling                   SMOE/SPEB/LGE       Quarterly reports         Annual       SO13 Team   Annual       SO13 Team
legislations/             legislations/regulations/procedures                       A                   Special studies
regulations/              enacted/developed at State and Local levels that are      SMOH
procedures aligned        in support of policies                                    Implementing
with policies                                                                       Partners
                         Unit of Measurement: Number
3. New resources         Definition: Value of additional resources leveraged        Implementing        Quarterly reports         Annual       SO13 Team   Annual       SO13 Team
leveraged by private     through alliances formed with private sector and           Partners
sector alliances         other partners.
(communities, NGOs,
GDA)                     Unit of Measurement: Dollar value
IR 13.3 Expanded demand for improved social sector services
1. Clients seen by       Definition: Number of clients seen by health               Implementing        Quarterly reports         Annual       SO13 Team   Annual       SO13 Team
health providers, by sex providers in target LGAs                                   Partners
and age, in target LGAs
                         Unit of Measurement: Number, disaggregated by
                         sex and age
2. Condoms and other     Definition: Quantity of condoms and other                  Implementing        Sales records             Annual       SO13 Team   Annual       SO13 Team
contraceptives sold,     contraceptives sold through the Social Marketing           Partner
nationally               Program from wholesale distributors nationwide to
                         retailers during the fiscal year

                          Unit of Measurement: Number
3. Schools                Definition: Proportion of schools that promote            Implementing        Survey of target          Annual       SO13 Team   Annual       SO13 Team
implementing girl-        gender equality in enrollment and girl-friendly           Partners            schools
friendly approaches       facilities, curricula, textbooks, and teaching-learning
                          processes

                          Unit of Measurement: Number and percent


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                                                              USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

                                                                                                            METHOD/          DATA ACQUISITION BY        ANALYSIS, USE AND
                                                                                                          APPROACH OF              MISSION                 REPORTING
   PERFORMANCE                   INDICATOR DEFINITION AND UNIT OF                    DATA SOURCE        DATA COLLECTION
     INDICATOR                            MEASUREMENT                                                   OR CALCULATION     SCHEDULE/     BY WHOM     SCHEDULE/     BY WHOM
                                                                                                                          FREQUENCY      (PERSON/   FREQUENCY      (PERSON/
                                                                                                                                           TEAM)                     TEAM)

4. PPDs and ITNs sold     Definition: Number of ITNs and PPDs sold through          Implementing                          Annual       SO13         Annual       SO13
nationally                Social Marketing and Commercial Sector nationally         Partners            Sales records                  Team                      Team

                          Unit of Measurement: Number

IR 13.4 Increased access to services, commodities and materials
1. Facilities offering  Definition: Health facilities in target LGAs that offer     Implementing        Survey            Annual       SO13 Team    Annual       SO13 Team
family planning/ and    family planning/reproductive health services                Partners
reproductive health
services in target LGAs
                        Unit of Measurement: Number and percent
2. Primary Gender       Definition: Proportion of girls, as compared with           Implementing        Survey            Annual       SO13 Team    Annual       SO13 Team
Parity Index in target  boys, enrolled in primary schools in target LGAs            Partners
LGAs
                        Unit of Measurement: Percentage
3. Classrooms           Definition: Proportion of classrooms in target LGAs         Implementing        Survey            Survey       Annual       SO13 Team    Annual
equipped with basic     that have essential teaching and learning equipment         Partners
instructional materials and materials (for example, blackboards, desks,
                        textbooks, chalk)

                          Unit of Measurement: Percentage
4. Facilities offering    Definition: Health facilities in target LGAs that offer   Implementing        Survey            Annual       SO13 Team    Annual       SO13 Team
routine immunization in   routine immunization services                             Partners
target LGAs
                          Unit of Measurement: Number and percent
5. Vitamin A              Definition: Quantity of Vitamin A capsules                Implementing        Sales record      Annual       SO13 Team    Annual       SO13 Team
sold/distributed ,        sold/distributed through the Social Marketing             Partner
nationally                Program nationwide during the fiscal year

                          Unit of Measurement: Number




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                                                     USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

Performance Management Plan for SO 14: Reduced Impact of HIV/AIDS in Selected States
                                                                                                     METHOD/               DATA ACQUISITION BY            ANALYSIS, USE AND
                                                                                                   APPROACH OF                   MISSION                     REPORTING
   PERFORMANCE                   INDICATOR DEFINITION AND UNIT OF                       DATA     DATA COLLECTION
     INDICATOR                            MEASUREMENT                                  SOURCE    OR CALCULATION          SCHEDULE/       BY WHOM      SCHEDULE/       BY WHOM
                                                                                                                        FREQUENCY        (PERSON/    FREQUENCY        (PERSON/
                                                                                                                                           TEAM)                        TEAM)
Strategic Objective 14: Reduced Impact of HIV and AIDS in Selected States (Health impact indicators)
1. HIV prevalence in    Definition: blood samples taken from women           NACA    Second generation                Annual starting   SO 14 Team   Annual          NACA, CDC,
men and women aged      aged 15-24 that test HIV positive during routine             surveillance system              2004                           starting 2004   SO 14 Team
15-24                   sentinel surveillance at selected antenatal clinics.
                        These data also used to estimate seroprevalence
                        in men.

                           Unit of Measure: Percent (disaggregated to 15-19
                           and 20-24 age groups)
2. HIV seroprevalence      Definition: blood samples taken from prostiutes,      NACA           Second generation     Annual starting   SO 14 Team   Annual          NACA, CDC,
among MARPs                MSM, IDUs, other MARPs that test positive for                        surveillance system   2004                           starting 2004   SO 14 Team
                           HIV during screening at selected VCT and STD
                           clinics.

                      Unit of Measure: percent (disaggregated by sex)
Sub-SO 14: Increased Use of HIV and AIDS Services and Practices in Selected States (Behavior indicators)
1. HIV+ pregnant      Definition: HIV -positive pregnant women who    IPs           Service statistics   Quarterly                      SO 14 Team   Annual          SO 14
women receiving       receive a complete course of ARV prophylaxis to
therapy for PMTCT     reduce risk of mother to child transmission

                           Unit of Measure: Number and percent
2. HIV+ clients            Definition: HIV+ clients reached by community         IPs            Service statistics    Quarterly         SO 14 Team   Annual          SO14
receiving home based       and home-based care programs annually
care
                           Unit of Measure: Number and percent
3. Active TB cases         Definition: Tuberculosis cases confirmed through      IPs            Service statistics    Quarterly         SO 14 Team   Annual          SO 14 Team
detected                   sputum examination

                           Unit of Measure: Number
4. Active TB cases         Definition: Diagnosed tuberculosis cases              IPs            Service statistics    Quarterly         SO14         Annual          SO14
successfully treated       undergoing a complete regime of DOTS therapy

                           Unit of Measure: Number and percent
5. Sexually-active         Definition: Sexually-active adults with more than     DHS,           Population-based      3-5 years,        SO14         3-5 years,      SO14
population with multiple   one sexual partner in past 12 months                  behavioral     survey                annual                         annual
partners                                                                         survey
                           Unit of Measure: Number and percent
6. Condom use with         Definition: Individuals correctly using a condom at   DHS,           Population-based      3-5 years,        SO14         3-5 years,      SO14
non-regular partners       last sex with non-regular partner                     behavioral     survey                annual                         annual
                                                                                 survey
                           Unit of Measure: Number and percent




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                                                     USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

                                                                                                    METHOD/              DATA ACQUISITION BY         ANALYSIS, USE AND
                                                                                                  APPROACH OF                  MISSION                  REPORTING
    PERFORMANCE                  INDICATOR DEFINITION AND UNIT OF                  DATA         DATA COLLECTION
      INDICATOR                           MEASUREMENT                             SOURCE        OR CALCULATION         SCHEDULE/     BY WHOM     SCHEDULE/     BY WHOM
                                                                                                                      FREQUENCY      (PERSON/   FREQUENCY      (PERSON/
                                                                                                                                       TEAM)                     TEAM)
 7. Sexual debut           Definition: Median age at first sex among young      DHS,           Population-based     3-5 years,      SO14        3-5 years,    SO14
                           men and women                                        behavioral     survey               annual                      annual
                                                                                survey
                        Unit of Measure: Age in years
 IR 14.1: Increased demand for HIV and AIDS and TB services and practices, especially among selected target groups
1. Clients seen at VCT Definition: Clients attending VCT centers who IP records      Service statistics  Quarterly                  SO14        Annual        SO14
centers                voluntarily seek and HIV test and receive the
                       results

                          Unit of Measure: Number
  2. Demand for DOTS      Definition: Clients with confirmed active             IP records     Service statistics   Quarterly       SO14        Annual        SO14
treatment                 tuberculosis requested DOTS treatment

                          Unit of Measure: Number and percent
 3. PLWHA and OVC         Definition: PLWHA and OVC who seek care and           IP records     Service statistics   Quarterly       SO14        Annual        SO14
requesting care and       support services from USAID partners.
support services
                          Unit of Measure: Number and percent
 4. Pregnant women        Definition: Pregnant women seen at antenatal          IP records     Service statistics   Quarterly       SO14        Annual        SO14
accepting HIV testing     clinics who are counseled and received an HIV test

                        Unit of Measure: Number and percent
 IR 14.2: Increased access to quality HIV and AIDS and TB services and interventions in selected states (Coverage indicators)
 1. USAID-supported      Definition: VCT centers providing voluntary and IP and        Service statistics   Quarterly         SO14              Annual        SO 14
 VCT centers             confidential services to clients with USAID     Mission
                         assistance.                                     records

                           Unit of Measure: Number
 2. USAID-assisted         Definition: Programs correctly providing ARVs to     IP and         Service statistics   Quarterly       SO14        Annually      SO14
 ARV treatment             people with advanced HIV infection.                  Mission
 programs                                                                       records
                           Unit of Measure: Number
 3. USAID-supported        Definition: Community based and home based           IP and         Service statistics   Quarterly       SO14        Annual        SO14
 community and home-       care and support programs implemented with           Mission
 based care and support    USAID assistance                                     records
 services
                           Unit of Measure: Number
 4. Clients receiving      Definition: Individuals receiving treatment, care,   IP and         Service statistics   Quarterly       SO14        Annual        SO14
 services from USAID-      support and prevention services through USAID        Mission
 supported programs        partners.                                            records

                           Unit of Measure: Number, disaggregated by
                           service



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                                                       USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009

                                                                                                    METHOD/                DATA ACQUISITION BY         ANALYSIS, USE AND
                                                                                                  APPROACH OF                    MISSION                  REPORTING
   PERFORMANCE                    INDICATOR DEFINITION AND UNIT OF                  DATA        DATA COLLECTION
     INDICATOR                             MEASUREMENT                             SOURCE       OR CALCULATION           SCHEDULE/      BY WHOM     SCHEDULE/     BY WHOM
                                                                                                                        FREQUENCY       (PERSON/   FREQUENCY      (PERSON/
                                                                                                                                          TEAM)                     TEAM)




IR 14.3: Strengthened public, private and community enabling environments
1. Multiplier           Definition: National-level agencies with multiple NACA, SACA,           Quarterly and annual   Annual         SO14         Annually     SO14
organizations receiving chapters and branches receiving USAID technical NGOs, IPs               reports
capacity building       assistance

                           Unit of Measure: Number
2. Public-private and      Definition: Partnerships between USAID and            NACA, SACA,    Quarterly and annual   Annual         SO14         Annually     SO14
private-private            public, private, NGO and/or foundation entities       NGOs, IPs      reports
partnerships               that leverage resources for HIV/AIDS

                           Unit of Measure: Number and value
3. Legislation favorable   Definition: Legislation passed by the National        National and   Quarterly and annual   Annual         SO14         Annually     SO14
to HIV programming         Assembly and State Houses of Assembly in target       State          reports
and PLWHA                  states that positively affects selected issues such   Assemblies,
                           as budget allocations for HIV/AIDS, sanctions         SO11
                           against stigma and discrimination, others TBD.

                           Unit of Measure: Number
4. Improved MARP           Definition: Index demonstrating increased             NACA, SACA,    Quarterly and annual   Annual         SO14         Annually     SO14
database                   reliability and regular availability of data for      NGOs, IPs ,    reports
                           planning and decision-making on MARPs.

                           Unit of Measure: Index score




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                              USAID/Nigeria Country Strategic Plan 2004-2009


X.        Endnotes
                                                         67
                                                            IBM
                                                         68
                                                            Futures/Roadmap
                                                         69
1
                                                            MIGA
  Pew Global Attitudes Survey                            70
                                                            UNDP
2
  AIAE                                                   71
                                                            Chemonics
3
  IBM                                                    72
                                                            Chemonics
4
  FOS                                                    73
                                                            WARDA
5
  FOS                                                    74
                                                            ARD
6
  NFCNS                                                  75
                                                            World Bank
7
  UNICEF                                                 76
                                                            Economist Intelligence Unit
8
  UNICEF                                                 77
                                                            NDHS , MICS
9
  AIAE                                                   78
                                                            UNICEF
10
   NDHS                                                  79
                                                            CBN
11
   World Bank                                            80
                                                            NDHS
12
   AIAE, UN World Urbanization Prospects                 81
                                                            UNICEF, NDHS
13
   CBN                                                   82
                                                            Pediatric Association of Nigeria
14
   IBM                                                   83
                                                            Roll Back Malaria Movement
15
   CBN                                                   84
                                                             Nigerbus
16
   IBM                                                   85
                                                            NDHS
17
   FOS                                                   86
                                                            NFCNS
18
   AIAE                                                  87
                                                             Integrated Child Health Survey
19
   AIAE , IBM                                            88
                                                            NDHS
20
   Casals                                                89
                                                            NDHS
21
   World Bank                                            90
                                                            UNICEF
22
   UNICEF                                                91
                                                            POPTECH
23
   FIAS                                                  92
                                                            UNICEF
24
   WARDA                                                 93
                                                            UNICEF
25
   Chemonics, CBN                                        94
                                                            UNICEF
26
   Chemonics                                             95
                                                            Boyle
27
   ARD                                                   96
                                                            UNDP HDR
28
   Participatory poverty assessments                     97
                                                            NIC
29
   Nigerbus                                              98
                                                            POLICY
30
   UNICEF                                                99
                                                            NDHS
31
   Netmark                                               100
                                                              FMOH
32
   NDHS                                                  101
                                                              TB assessment
33
   NFCNS                                                 102
                                                              Walker et al.
34
   NDHS , UNICEF                                         103
                                                              POLICY, NDHS
35
   NIC, UNAIDS                                           104
                                                              FMOH
36
   UNICEF                                                105
                                                              FMOH
37
   FMOH                                                  106
                                                              FMOH
38
   NDHS                                                  107
                                                              NDHS
39
   UNICEF                                                108
                                                              USAID, Alary et al., UNAIDS
40
   UNICEF                                                109
                                                              Orubuloye et al., Ajuwon et al., Ayaoye et al., FHI
41
   MLA                                                   110
                                                              Within the next six months, OHA will undertake a study to
42
   AIAE                                                  help the mission estimate the size of MARP populations.
43
   NDHS
44
   NDHS
45
   UNICEF, NDHS
46
   Ayoola et al. , Okunmadewa
47
   UNICEF
48
   AIAE
49
   Afrobarometer, Nigerbus
50
   Nigerbus
51
   ARD
52
   International election observer reports
53
   Daily Times
54
   SCA
55
   IOM
56
   MSI
57
   Transparency International
58
   Casals
59
   NDHS
60
   AIAE
61
   World Bank
62
   NISER
63
   AIAE
64
   ANAP
65
   FIAS
66
   Transparency Index; see also Casals



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