Implications of Waist-to-Hip Ratio Measurement Going for the 3 by dbh92952

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									Implications of Waist-to-Hip Ratio
          Measurement
 Going for the 3 Increases: Increase in Health, Increase in
             Happiness & Increase in Energy


                             Strategies for
                             Success in Weight
                             Management
                             By: James J. Messina, Ph.D.
Waist – Hip Ratio

   Recent data indicate that the pattern of fat
    distribution throughout the body is an important
    predictor of the health risks of obesity
   Exercise scientists have classified where the
    fat is deposited on the body in two categories:
   male-pattern (or apples)
   female-pattern (or pears).
Waist – Hip Ratio

 Apples characteristically deposit high
  amounts of fat in the abdominal and trunk
  regions – Predominately male but
  females can have this body type
 Pears deposit high amounts of fat in the
  hip, buttocks, and thigh regions –
  Predominately female but males can
  have this body type
How to Calculate: Waist-to-Hip ratio
(WHR)

   Divide the waist circumference by the hip
    circumference
   Waist circumference is defined as the smallest
    circumference between the rib cage and
    bellybutton
   Hip circumference is defined as the largest
    circumference of the hip-buttocks region
Waist – Hip Ratio

Apples
 Men with WHR values exceeding 0.95
  Women with WHR values above 0.80
  Pears
 Men with WHR values less than 0.95
 Women with WHR values less than 0.80
APPLES

   Research has shown apples are at a greater
    risk for developing a number of health-related
    problems, the most prominent being
   hypertension (i.e., high blood pressure),
   type II diabetes (i.e., non-insulin dependent
    diabetes
   hyperlipidemia (i.e., elevated levels of fat in the
    blood).
APPLES’ Health Risk comes from 2
characteristics of abdominal fat cells

   Abdominal fat cells tend to be larger than those
    located in other regions of the body.
   Relatively large fat cells are associated with
    insulin resistance (i.e., reduced tissue
    responsiveness to insulin), which means body
    cells will take up less glucose (sugar) from the
    blood, causing the blood sugar level to rise &
    Full-blown diabetes (type II) can develop
   In response to the elevated blood sugar level,
    the pancreas secretes more and more insulin
    (hyperinsulinemia).
APPLES’ Health Risk comes from 2
characteristics of abdominal fat cells

   Hyperinsulinemia, by promoting sodium
    reabsorption by the kidneys and stimulating the
    sympathetic nervous system, can predispose
    an apple to hypertension
   Rates of enzyme-initiated chemical reactions
    are higher for abdominal fat cells & they are
    more metabolically active than fat cells located
    in other regions of the body & more
    metabolically active abdominal fat cells can be
    easily released into the blood stream resulting
    in hyperlipidemia.
Good News for APPLES

   Research has shown that weight reduction
    tends to be easier for them, as they benefit
    from the high turnover rate of abdominal fat.
   Apples are at a greater health risk but weight
    reduction, exercise training and a prudent diet
    can help to counteract many of the negative
    health consequences of obesity and result in a
    weight toss that can be maintained.
Bad-Good News for Pears

   For pears, however, weight loss is more
    difficult because fat cells in the hip, buttock,
    and thigh regions do not easily relinquish their
    fat.
   This tendency for pears to stubbornly hold onto
    their fat helps to ensure that nursing mothers
    maintain sufficient energy reserves.
   Weight reduction, exercise training and a
    prudent diet can help to counteract many of the
    negative health consequences of obesity and
    result in a weight toss that can be maintained.

								
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