Integration - What does it really mean by khn19658

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									Integration - What does it
      really mean?
          Richard Lewis
 Institute for European Studies
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel
 New York December 3rd 2008
                                  1
Ways of looking at Integration

•   Human
•   Philosophical
•   Legal
•   Practical



                                 2
               Human
• Sense of loss and mourning for the past
• Being cut off from friends, family and
  support
• Absence of familiar customs and life
  style
• More material wealth is not necessarily
  a substitute
• Fear for welfare and security
                                        3
              Philosophy
See Estanislao Arroyabe:
“Cultural Identities and Ethnic Minorities in
  Europe”

“Jumping beyond ones shadow”


                                            4
          Philosophy (2)

• Europe and North America - a mosaic of
  identities
• Being able to accept “The Other”
• Understanding the enrichment of
  migration


                                       5
          Philosophy (3)
Nation and Narration - how does a nation
  see itself through its history and its
  institutions?
• Example: Germany v. United States
• Ius soli v. ius sanguinis
• One out of many v.Many out of one


                                           6
           Philosophy (4)


Assimilation-Multi-culturalism-Federalism




                                            7
     Social Cohesion (Forrest and
             Kearns 2001)
•   Common Values and civic culture
•   Social Order and Social Control
•   Social Solidarity (reduce wealth disparities)
•   Social Networks and Social Capital
•   Place attachment and identity



                                                    8
  Bernard‟s typology of Social
           cohesion
• Economic -
   insertion/exclusion/equality/inequality
• Political -
  legitimacy/illegitimcy/participation/passivity
• Socio-cultural-
• Recognition/rejection/belonging/isolation


                                                   9
                  Law
• Need for a legal framework
• Complexity of immigration law
• Need for greater transparency
• Moving towards a common
  understanding on migration law
• Fair and consistent administration of the
  Geneva Convention

                                          10
    Common Basic Principles -
       Common Sense?
• Integration is a two way process and a mutual
  accommodation
• Integration implies respect for basic values
• Employment opportunities essential
• Basic knowledge of customs and language
• Education= advancement



                                             11
Common Basic Principles (2)
•   Access to public and private institutions
•   Interaction with citizens
•   Participation in the democratic process
•   Mainstreaming integration policies
•   Develop clear goals and measurements

These principles are only a framework on which
to hang practice.
                                                12
    Migration Integration Policy
          Index (MIPEX)
•   Labour Market Access
•   Family Reunion
•   Long Term Residence
•   Political Participation
•   Access to Nationality
•   Anti-discrimination

                                   13
                                 Other Integration
                                        Factors

Housing
Policing
Access to social services
Educational Opportunities
Social Mobility...............




                                             14
 The European Civic Citizenship                 2005

      and Inclusion Index
• Based on analysis of legislation and
  practice in EU Member States
• Measurements against a common
  normative framework: the policy
  conditions that are most favourable to
  immigrant inclusion

                                           15
        Other Instruments
• Benchmarking at local and regional
  levels
• Surveys and opinion (Eurobarometer)
• Open Method of Coordination
• Migrants‟ Integration Territorial Index
  (major metropolitan areas - index of
  absorptive capacity)

                                            16
• Central question: why do American Muslims seem to
  do better than Muslims living in Europe?
• Case study: Brussels - Detroit
• Why Brussels - Detroit?
    Significant Muslim populations in each city
        Muslims in Brussels: estimated 170 000; 17% (Torrekens,2006)
         [Muslims in Belgium: estimated 370 – 380 000; 3,6% (Buijs en Rath, 2002)]
        Muslims in Detroit: estimated 300 000 (Access, 2006)
         [Muslims in United States: estimations vary between 2 and 7 million
         (Chicago council on global affairs, 2007)]
    Similar pattern of spatial segregation


                                                                                17
                                     Methodology

• Exchange of experts: police, housing,
  culture, political affairs, education, anti-
  racism, social services
• Interviews, presentations and
  discussion
• Difficulties of measuring „integration‟
   What is integration?
• Exploratory research


                                                 18
                                  Brussels & Detroit

• Different mentality of „host population‟ towards
  immigrants in both cities
• the „American dream‟ vs. „guest worker‟
  philosophy in Europe
• Importance of religion in American society
• Higher level of education of Muslims in Detroit
• Greater solidarity amongst Muslims in Detroit
• Proximity of countries of origin in Brussels



                                                 19
                                       Fact sheet

• Muslims in Detroit: mainly Lebanese, Syrian
  and Iraqi vs. Muslims in Brussels: mainly
  Moroccan and Turkish
• Detroit: 33 mosques (including the largest in
  the US) vs. Brussels: 82 prayer rooms but
  only 1 recognizable mosque
• 47% of Muslims in US think of themselves as
  Muslim first against 75% in EU
• 63% of Muslims in US do not see conflict
  between being American and being a Muslim


                                                  20
                                                   Conclusions

• Muslims have specific needs but generally face the
  same problems as all immigrants
• Policy approach in Detroit cannot explain why Muslims
  are better integrated
• There are no set rules for the successful integration of
  any immigrant group, including Muslims
• Successful integration of Muslims in Detroit is mainly
  connected to:
    different attitude towards religion and cultural difference in
     US
    the will to and possibility of moving up in society for
     Muslims in US


                                                                21
             What can we learn from Detroit?

• Change of mentality is needed in Brussels,
  both on the side of the „host‟ and the
  Muslim population; integration is a two-
  way process
• There are no magic policy formula for
  integration but a number of practical
  measures need to be taken to promote
  mutual understanding in the long-term.



                                           22
                       Practical recommendations

• Act locally, working with and not for the community
• Intercultural training in schools and for teachers
  and social workers
• Make economic and cultural contributions of
  Muslims more visible
• Invest in multicultural realities
• Instill a sense of pride in neighbourhoods
• Invest in support programmes for newly-arriving
  immigrants
• Involve the private sector


                                                        23
           Take Home Messages
• Integration involves human beings )- it‟s
  not mechanical or theoretical
• Integration takes place in the streets,
  schools and sports clubs
• Political Courage



                                          24

								
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